India has developed its discourse on sexuality differently based on its distinct regions with their own unique cultures. According to R.P. Bhatia, a New Delhi psychoanalyst and psychotherapist, middle-class India's "very strong repressive attitude" has made it impossible for many married couples to function well sexually, or even to function at all.[1]


The seeming contradictions of Indian attitudes towards sex (more broadly – sexuality) can be best explained through the context of history. India played a role in shaping understandings of sexuality, and it could be argued that one of the first pieces of literature that treated "Kama" as science came from the Indian subcontinent.[2] It may be argued that historically, India pioneered the use of sexual education through various art forms like sculptures,[3] paintings, pieces of literature. As in all societies, there was a difference in sexual practices in India between common people and powerful rulers, with people in power often indulging in "self-gratification" lifestyles that were not representative of common moral attitudes. Moreover, there are distinct cultural differences seen through the course of history across India.

Ancient times

Khajuraho Hindu and Jain temple complex is famous for erotic arts.

The origins of the current Indian culture can be traced back to the Indus Valley civilisation, which was contemporaneous with the ancient Egyptian and Sumerian civilisations, around 2700 BCE. During this period, the first evidence of attitudes towards sex comes from the ancient texts of Hinduism. These ancient texts, the Rig Veda among few others, reveal moral perspectives on sexuality, marriage and fertility prayers. The epics of ancient India, the Ramayana and Mahabharata, which may have been first composed as early as 500 BCE, had a huge effect on the culture of Asia, influencing later Chinese, Japanese, Tibetan culture and South East Asian culture. These texts support the view that in ancient India, sex was considered a mutual duty between a married couple, where husband and wife pleasured each other equally, but where sex was considered a private affair, at least by followers of the aforementioned Indian religions. It seems that polygamy was allowed during ancient times. In practice, this seems to have only been practiced by rulers, with common people maintaining a monogamous marriage. It is common in many cultures for a ruling class to practice both polyandry and polygyny as a way of preserving dynastic succession.

Nudity in art was considered acceptable in southern India, as shown by the paintings at Ajanta and the sculptures of the time. It is likely that as in most countries with tropical climates, Indians from some regions did not need to wear clothes, and other than for fashion, there was no practical need to cover the upper half of the body. This is supported by historical evidence, which shows that men in many parts of ancient India mostly dressed only the lower half of their bodies with clothes and upper part of body was covered by gold and precious stones, jewellery, while women used to wear traditional sarees made of silk and expensive clothes as a symbol of their wealth.

As Indian civilisation further developed and the writing of the Upanishads around 500 BCE, it was somewhere between the 1st and 6th centuries that the Kama Sutra, originally known as Vatsyayana Kamasutram ('Vatsyayana's Aphorisms on Love'), was written.[citation needed] This philosophical work on kama shastra, or 'science of love', was intended as both an exploration of human desire, including infidelity, and a technical guide to pleasing a sexual partner within a marriage. This is not the only example of such a work in ancient India, but is the most widely known in modern times. It is probably during this period that the text spread to ancient China, along with Buddhist scriptures, where Chinese versions were written.

It is also during 10th century to 12th century that some of India's most famous ancient works of art were produced, often freely depicting romantic themes and situations. Examples of this include the depiction of Apsaras, roughly equivalent to nymphs or sirens in European and Arabic mythology, on some ancient temples. The best and most famous example of this can be seen at the Khajuraho complex in central India built around 9th to 12th century.


A Marriage guide published in Madras Presidency, in 1920s.

A number of movements were set up by prominent citizens, such as the Brahmo Samaj in Bengal and the Prarthana Samaj in Bombay Presidency, to work for the 'reform' of Indian private and public life. While this new consciousness led to the promotion of education for women and (eventually) a raise in the age of consent and reluctant acceptance of remarriage for widows, it also produced a puritanical attitude to sex even within marriage and the home.

Current issues

Conservative views of sexuality are now the norm in the modern republic of India, and South Asia in general. It is often argued that this is partly related to the effect of colonial influence, as well as to the puritanical elements of Islam in countries like Pakistan (e.g. the Islamic revivalist movements, which has influenced many Muslims in Pakistan and Bangladesh). However, such views were also prevalent in the pre-colonial era, especially since the advent of Islam in India which brought purdah as ideal for Muslim women. Before the gradual spread of Islam largely through the influence of Sufis, there seems to be evidence of liberal attitudes towards sexuality and nudity in art. However, scholars debate the degree to which Islam, as a mass and the varied phenomenon was responsible for this shift.

While during the 1960s and 1970s in the west, many people discovered the ancient culture of sexual liberalism in India as a source for western free love movements, and neo-Tantric philosophy, India itself is currently the more prudish culture, embodying Victorian sensibilities that were abandoned decades ago in their country of origin.[citation needed]

Modern India

Main article: Fundamental Rights, Directive Principles and Fundamental Duties of India

Modern issues that affect India, as part of the sexual revolution, have become points of argument between conservative and liberal forces, such as political parties and religious pressure groups. These issues are also matters of ethical importance in a nation where freedom and equality are guaranteed in the constitution.

Scholarship by Indian sociologist Jyoti Puri calls attention to the social control around middle-class women's bodies in urban India and how politics of gender and sexuality impact of nationalist and transnational discourses and the role of nation-state. Her third book Sexual States: Governance and the Struggle Against the Antisodomy Law in India’s Present, tracks the efforts to decriminalize homosexuality in India.

Sexuality in popular entertainment

Main article: Sex in Indian entertainment

The entertainment industry is an important part of modern India, and is expressive of Indian society in general. Historically, Indian television and film has lacked the frank depiction of sex; until recently, even kissing scenes were considered taboo. On the other hand, rape scenes or scenes showing sexual assault were shown. Currently, some Indian states show soft-core sexual scenes and nudity in films, whilst other areas do not. Mainstream films are still largely catered to the masses.

Some recent movies like Ek Ladki Ko Dekha Toh Aisa Laga, Shubh Mangal Zyada Saavdhan, Badhaai Do help bring the concepts of alternative sexualities and LGBT inclusion in the popular culture.


Main article: Pornography in India

The distribution and production of pornography are both illegal in India; however, accessing pornography in private is not. Regardless, softcore films have been common since the late 1970s, and many directors have produced them. Magazine publications like Debonair (magazine), Fantasy, Chastity, Royal Magazine, and Dafa 302 exist in India, and more than 50 million Indians are believed to see porn on a daily basis.

The Information Technology Act, Chapter XI Paragraph 67, the Government of India clearly considers the transmission of pornography through any electronic medium as a punishable offence. The CEO of the Indian subsidiary of eBay was charged with various criminal offences for allowing the trading of a CD on the website that contained pornography.[4]

Sex industry

Main article: Prostitution in India

While trade in sex was frowned upon in ancient India, it was tolerated and regulated so as to reduce the damage that it could do. However, the stigmatisation that has arisen in modern times has left the many poor sex workers with problems of exploitation and rampant infection, including AIDS, and worse, it has allowed a huge human-trafficking industry, like that of Eastern Europe, to take hold. Many poor, young women are kidnapped from villages and sold into sexual slavery.[5][6] There have been some recent efforts to regulate the Indian sex industry.[citation needed]

A supreme court order in May, 2022 upheld prostitution as a profession ruling that sex workers had the same human rights as any other citizen of India and thus they can not be discriminated or arrested for their profession.[7][8]

See also


  1. ^ Stevens, William K.; Times, Special To the New York (22 April 1983). "Sexual Repression in the Land of the Kama Sutra". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 21 November 2019.
  2. ^ Vātsyāyana, Richard F Burton, and ibn M. 'Umar. The Kama Sutra. New York: Diadem Books, 1984. Print.
  3. ^ Sahai, Surendra.1999. Khajuraho: The Art of Love, Prakash Book Depot
  4. ^ "Avnish Bajaj back in Safe Harbors". India Law and Tech Blog.
  5. ^ "Sex workers to combat trafficking, BBC News, 2001". 6 March 2001. Retrieved 21 March 2015.
  6. ^ "HIV fears over trafficked Nepal sex workers, BBC News, 2007". August 2007. Retrieved 21 March 2015.
  7. ^ Correspondent, Legal (26 May 2022). "Supreme Court wants full respect for sex workers: counsel". The Hindu. ISSN 0971-751X. Retrieved 23 August 2022.
  8. ^ "'Sex work legal', Supreme Court gives historic judgement on prostitution". Zee News. Retrieved 23 August 2022.

Further reading

  • Alain Daniélou. The Complete Kama Sutra: The First Unabridged Modern Translation of the Classic Indian Text. Inner Traditions,1993 ISBN 0-89281-525-6.
  • Doniger, Wendy. "The Mare's Trap, Nature and Culture in The Kama Sutra." Speaking Tiger, 2015. ISBN 978-93-85288-06-7.
  • The Continent of Circe by Nirad C. Chaudhuri – this has a chapter devoted to the topic.
  • CIOTTI, MANUELA. "'The Bourgeois Woman and the Half-Naked One': Or the Indian Nation's Contradictions Personified." Modern Asian Studies, vol. 44, no. 4, 2010, pp. 785–815. JSTOR 40664946.
  • Chanana, Karuna. "Hinduism and Female Sexuality: Social Control and Education of Girls in India." Sociological Bulletin, vol. 50, no. 1, Indian Sociological Society, 2001, pp. 37–63, JSTOR 23620149.
  • Crane, Ralph, and Radhika Mohanram. "The Missionary's Position: Love and Passion in Anglo-India." In Imperialism as Diaspora: Race, Sexuality, and History in Anglo-India, NED-New edition, 1, 1., 13:83–107. Liverpool University Press, 2013. JSTOR j.ctt18mbc75.8.
  • Rao, Vidya. "'Thumri' as Feminine Voice". Economic and Political Weekly, vol. 25, no. 17, 1990, pp. WS31–WS39. JSTOR 4396223.
  • Tripathi, Laxminarayan. "Me Hijra, Me Laxmi." Oxford University Press, 2015. ISBN 9780199458264. Translated from the Marathi original by R. Raj Rao and P. G. Joshi.
  • Revathi, A. "The Truth About Me, A Hijra Life Story." Penguin Books, India, 2010. ISBN 9780143068365. Translated from Tamil by V. Geetha.
  • Vanita, Ruth. "love's rite, Same-Sex marriage in India and The West." Palgrave Macmillan, 2005. ISBN 9781403981608.
  • Narrain, Arvind. "Queer." BOOKS for CHANGE, 2004. ISBN 81-87380-91-8.
  • Urban, Hugh B. "'From Sex To Superconsciousness': Sexuality, Tantra, and Liberation in 1970s India." Zorba the Buddha: Sex, Spirituality, and Capitalism in the Global Osho Movement, 1st ed., University of California Press, 2015, pp. 76–100, JSTOR j.ctt196322h.8.
  • Parkinson, R.B.. "A Little Gay History." The British Museum Press, 2013. ISBN 978-0-231-16663-8.
  • Edited by Sangari, Kumkum and Vaid, Sudesh. "Recasting Women, Essays in Colonial History." Zubaan Publishers Pvt. Ltd., 2003. ISBN 978-93-84757-73-1.
  • Edited by Dasgupta, Rohit and Gokulsing, K. Moti. "Masculinity and Its Challenges in India." Mcfarland & Company, Inc., Publishers. 2041. ISBN 978-0-7864-7224-6.
  • George, Annie. "Embodying Identity through Heterosexual Sexuality: Newly Married Adolescent Women in India". Culture, Health & Sexuality, vol. 4, no. 2, Taylor & Francis, Ltd., 2002, pp. 207–22, JSTOR 4005268.
  • Ahluwalia, Sanjam. "Demographic Rhetoric and Sexual Surveillance: Indian Middle-Class Advocates of Birth Control, 1877–1947". Reproductive Restraints: Birth Control in India, 1877–1947, University of Illinois Press, 2008, pp. 23–53, JSTOR 10.5406/j.ctt1xcmgw.5.
  • Dell, Heather S. "'Ordinary' Sex, Prostitutes, and Middle-Class Wives: Liberalization and National Identity in India". Sex in Development: Science, Sexuality, and Morality in Global Perspective, edited by VINCANNE ADAMS and STACY LEIGH PIGG, Duke University Press, 2005, pp. 187–206, doi:10.2307/j.ctv1220p6x.12.
  • Pechilis, Karen. Review of Progress toward an Open Discussion of Sexuality in India and Asia, by Moni Nag, Geetanjali Misra, and Radhika Chandiramani. The Journal of Sex Research 44, no. 4 (2007): 401–4. JSTOR 20620327.
  • Espinosa-Hernández G, Choukas-Bradley S, van de Bongardt D, Van Dulmen M. Romantic relationships and sexuality in diverse adolescent populations: Introduction to the special issue. J Adolesc. 2020 Aug;83:95–99. doi:10.1016/j.adolescence.2020.07.002. Epub 2020 Aug 4. PMID 32763620.
  • Govind N, Chowkhani K. Integrating concerns of gender, sexuality and marital status in the medical curriculum. Indian J Med Ethics. 2020 Apr-Jun; V(2):92–94. doi:10.20529/IJME.2020.039. PMID 32393449.
  • Sharma MK, Rao GN, Benegal V, Thennarasu K, Oommen D. Use of pornography in India: Need to explore its implications. Natl Med J India. 2019 Sep-Oct; 32(5):282–284. doi:10.4103/0970-258X.295968. PMID 32985442.
  • Gruskin S, Yadav V, Castellanos-Usigli A, Khizanishvili G, Kismödi E. Sexual health, sexual rights and sexual pleasure: meaningfully engaging the perfect triangle. Sex Reprod Health Matters. 2019 Dec; 27(1):1593787. doi:10.1080/26410397.2019.1593787. PMID 31533569; PMC 7887957.
  • Setia MS, Brassard P, Jerajani HR, Bharat S, Gogate A, Kumta S, Row-Kavi A, Anand V, Boivin JF. Men who have sex with men in India: a systematic review of the literature. J LGBT Health Res. 2008;4(2–3):51–70. doi:10.1080/15574090902913727. PMID 19856739.
  • Gupta C. Writing sex and sexuality: archives of colonial North India. J Womens Hist. 2011;23(4):12–35. doi:10.1353/jowh.2011.0050. PMID 22250308.
  • Vanita R. Lesbian studies and activism in India. J Lesbian Stud. 2007;11(3–4):243–53. doi:10.1300/j155v11n03_07. PMID 17954460.
  • Bowling J, Blekfeld-Sztraky D, Simmons M, Dodge B, Sundarraman V, Lakshmi B, Dharuman SD, Herbenick D. Definitions of sex and intimacy among gender and sexual minoritised groups in urban India. Cult Health Sex. 2020 May;22(5):520-534. doi:10.1080/13691058.2019.1614670. Epub 2019 May 30. PMID 31144604.
  • Bowling J, Dodge B, Bindra N, Dave B, Sharma R, Sundarraman V, Thirupathur Dharuman S, Herbenick D. Female condom acceptability in urban India: Examining the role of sexual pleasure. J Health Psychol. 2018 Feb; 23(2):218–228. doi:10.1177/1359105317745963. Epub 2017 Dec 18. PMID 29250996; PMC 5772445.
  • Banik S, Dodge B, Schmidt-Sane M, Sivasubramanian M, Bowling J, Rawat SM, Dange A, Anand V. Humanizing an Invisible Population in India: Voices from Bisexual Men Concerning Identity, Life Experiences, and Sexual Health. Arch Sex Behav. 2019 Jan; 48(1):305–316. doi:10.1007/s10508-018-1361-x. Epub 2018 Dec 3. PMID 30511146; PMC 6349550.
  • Sharma SK, Vishwakarma D. Transitions in adolescent boys and young Men's high-risk sexual behaviour in India. BMC Public Health. 2020 Jul 11; 20(1):1089. doi:10.1186/s12889-020-09191-6. PMID 32653036; PMC 7353811.
  • Siddiqui M, Kataria I, Watson K, Chandra-Mouli V. A systematic review of the evidence on peer education programmes for promoting the sexual and reproductive health of young people in India. Sex Reprod Health Matters. 2020 Dec; 28(1):1741494. doi:10.1080/26410397.2020.1741494. PMID 32372723; PMC 7887991.