|Indo-Tibetan Border Police|
|Motto||Shaurya – Dridhata – Karm Nishtha|
Valour – Steadfastness and Commitment
|Formed||24 October, 1962|
|Annual budget||₹6,567.17 crore (US$872.1 million) (2021-22)|
|Governing body||Ministry of Home Affairs (India)|
|Headquarters||New Delhi, India|
The Indo-Tibetan Border Police (ITBP) is India's primary border patrol organization for its border with Tibet Autonomous Region. It is one of the five Central Armed Police Forces of India, raised on 24 October 1962, under the CRPF Act, in the wake of the Sino-Indian War of 1962.
In September 1996, the Parliament of India enacted the "Indo-Tibetan Border Police Force Act, 1992" to "provide for the constitution and regulation" of the ITBP "for ensuring the security of the borders of India and for matters connected therewith". The first head of the ITBP, designated Inspector General, was Balbir Singh, a police officer previously belonging to the Intelligence Bureau. The ITBP, which started with 4 battalions, has, since restructuring in 1978, undergone expansion to a force of 60 Battalions with 15 Sectors and 05 Frontiers as of 2018 with a sanctioned strength of 89,432.
The ITBP is trained in the Civil Medical Camp, disaster management, and nuclear, biological and chemical disasters. ITBP personnel have been deployed abroad in UN peacekeeping missions in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Kosovo, Sierra Leone, Haiti, Western Sahara, Sudan, Afghanistan, and elsewhere. Two battalions of ITBP are deputed to National Disaster Response Force.
ITBP, for the first two decades since its raising in 1962, until 1983, was headed by Inspector Generals of Police (IGs), all drawn from the IPS. In this period (1963–83), IGs had stable tenures, for instance B Chatterjee, IG, was head of the force from 02 to 06–1964 to 31-08-1974, and R N Sheopory, as IG, was head from 03 to 09–1974 to 22-12-1980. In 1983, the Indira Gandhi led Congress Government, upgraded ITBP head to Director General (DG). Since then, there has exponentially expansion of higher ranks, accompanied by volatility in the tenures of the head of ITBP. Instead of one IG as in 1983, ITBP now has 16 DG/IGs, and over 40 DIGs. The average tenure of DGs is about a year plus, and in some cases barely a few weeks, for instance B.B. Nandy, IPS, was DG (10-01-1997 to 03-04-1997), for just 28 weeks. Going by the trend of short tenures of DGs, it would appear that the Government is not overly concerned about command control, or in maintaining command continuity in the ITBP. The post of DG was again upgraded by the Manmohan Singh led UPA Government in 2008.
More than a year after the central government sanctioned raising of two commands of ITBP, the commands are now operationalised. ITBP shall have two commands one each at Chandigarh and Guwahati head by a cadre officer of ADG rank. Manoj Rawat, presently IG with ITBP HQ has been entrusted with the responsibility of raising the ITBP's Western Command at Chandigarh.
|No.||Name||Rank||Took office||Left office||Time in office|
|1||Balbir Singh||IG||2 February 1963||2 June 1964||1 year, 121 days|
|2||B Chatarjee||IG||2 June 1964||31 August 1974||10 years, 90 days|
|3||R N Sheopory||DG||3 September 1974||22 December 1980||6 years, 110 days|
|4||K Ramamurti||DG||22 December 1980||31 January 1981||40 days|
|5||Shiv Raj Bahadur||DG||04 June 1981||31 December 1983||2 years, 210 days|
|6||Shiv Swaroop||DG||01 January 1984||19 March 1984||78 days|
|7||M C Mishra||DG||19 March 1984||28 March 1985||1 year, 9 days|
|8||O P Bhutani||DG||28 March 1985||28 February 1987||1 year, 337 days|
|9||J M Qureshi||DG||28 February 1987||2 March 1988||1 year, 3 days|
|10||G S Mander||DG||2 March 1988||8 July 1988||128 days|
|11||DVIN Rama Krishna||DG||8 July 1988||31 January 1992||3 years, 207 days|
|12||R K Wadehra||DG||31 January 1992||31 January 1993||1 year, 0 days|
|13||D K Arya||DG||3 February 1993||31 January 1994||362 days|
|14||S C Mehta||DG||31 January 1994||16 April 1994||75 days|
|15||R C Jha||DG||16 April 1994||31 March 1995||349 days|
|16||Jogender Singh||DG||31 January 1995||10 April 1996||1 year, 70 days|
|17||R K Sharma||DG||10 April 1996||10 January 1997||275 days|
|18||Bibhuti Bhusan Nandy||DG||10 January 1997||3 April 1997||83 days|
|19||Nikhil Kumar||DG||3 April 1997||3 December 1997||244 days|
|20||Gautam Kaul||DG||1 June 1998||31 March 2001||2 years, 303 days|
|21||S C Chaube||DG||31 March 2001||31 December 2002||1 year, 275 days|
|22||R C Agarwal||DG||31 December 2002||30 June 2004||1 year, 182 days|
|23||K J Singh||DG||01 July 2004||30 April 2005||303 days|
|24||S K Kain||DG||05 May 2005||31 October 2005||179 days|
|25||N C Joshi||DG||1 November 2005||31 December 2005||60 days|
|26||V K Joshi||DG||1 January 2006||2 May 2008||2 years, 122 days|
|27||Vikram Srivastava||DG||2 May 2008||31 January 2010||1 year, 274 days|
|28||R K Bhatia||DG||1 February 2010||31 August 2011||1 year, 211 days|
|29||Ranjit Sinha||DG||1 September 2011||19 December 2012||1 year, 109 days|
|30||Ajay Chadha||DG||19 December 2012||31 August 2013||255 days|
|31||Subhas Goswami||DG||11 November 2013||31 December 2014||1 year, 50 days|
|32||Shri Krishna Chaudhary||DG||31 December 2014||30 June 2017||2 years, 181 days|
|33||R K Pachnanda||DG||1 July 2017||31 October 2018||1 year, 122 days|
|34||Surjeet Singh Deswal||DG||31 October 2018||30 August 2021||3 years, 9 days|
|35||Sanjay Arora||DG||30 August 2021||Till Date|
ITBP is a multi-dimensional force which primarily has 5 functions:
Presently, battalions of ITBP are deployed on border guard duties from Karakoram Pass in Ladakh to Diphu La in Arunachal Pradesh, covering 3,488 km of the India-China border. Manned border posts are at altitudes as high as 21,000 feet (6,400 m) in the western, middle & eastern sector of the border. ITBP is a mountain trained force and most of the officers & men are professionally trained mountaineers and skiers. The force is under an expansion plan in order to provide relief to its troops from constant deployment in high altitude areas under the dynamic and professional leadership of Subhash Goswami, IPS.
ITBP's major training centre is located at Mussoorie, in Uttarakhand. The Training Academy has been established in 1976 and imparts training to Officers of the force. The training programme to Suboridnate Officers of the force are conducted at Central Training College Alwar and Basic Training College, Bhanu (Haryana). Specialised training programmes in rock craft, explosives handling etc. are also conducted here. Ace mountaineer and Padma Shri awardee, Harbhajan Singh, IG heads this institution. Keeping in view the evolving security scenario of the country, ITBP established a Counter Insurgency and Jungle Warfare School (CIJW) at an altitude of 6,000 feet in the heart of extremely tough Himalayan mountains, at Mahidanda in Uttarkashi district. The CIJW school provides training to ITBP's men and officers in anti-Naxal Operations. Jungle warfare, handling of explosives, rock craft, survival in adverse conditions, unarmed combat, and guerrilla warfare are some of the subjects trained here. On account of demands to realistic Anti naxal training the CIJW School of ITBP was shifted to Belgaum Karnataka
The training regime, formulated under the close supervision of Rajiv Mehta, IPS and executed on the ground by Sanjeev Raina, DIG is extremely demanding both mentally and physically, needing special preparation. The presence of the force along the Indo China border where it maintains vigil along the extremely difficult high altitude border area. The troops of the force keep a sharp eye on any violation of the border, trans-border smuggling, and affords a sense of security to the remotely located isolated settlements. The altitude where the troops are deployed range up to 18,800 feet and the temperature plummets to minus 30 degrees during winter with snowfall of more than ten feet.
The force is synonymous with adventure and dare-devilry and has undertaken numerous mountaineering expeditions. Its skiers have been national champions, who have competed winter Olympics. Its river rafters have created international history in rafting through the turbulent white waters of the mighty Brahmaputra, the Indus and the Ganges. The Force has created a milestone by becoming the first Central Para Military Force to grab up the Best Marching Contingent Trophy in the Republic Day parades in 1998, 1999, 2000 and 2011. It broke new ground in 1998 when it sent the first-ever police tableau of the country to participate in the Republic Day Parade. ITBP is at the forefront of a movement for the preservation of Himalayan environment and ecology. ITBP has taken up in a big way the task of greening the Himalayan regions especially in Inner Himalayas. Being the only human presence in areas close to China border, it has taken on itself the task of maintaining the delicate balance of flora and fauna.
ITBP being deployed in mountains has developed the expertise in rescue & relief operations in mountains, which entail different specialised skills of a very high standard. It is always first in extending rescue & relief in case of natural calamity. ITBP conducts a large number of civic action programmes in the remote border and terrorist affected areas to provide free and expert medical, health and hygiene care to the civilian population in remote villages.
As of June 2004, the Academy has trained 3,785 GOs, 7,776 SOs and 27,476 Other Ranks from ITBP and CPOs/ State Police Forces.
ITBP training centres develop amongst the trainees the qualities of: professional skills, esprit de corps and leadership. They are taught the values of integrity, impartiality and respect for all castes, creeds and religions. Maintaining the highest tradition of supreme sacrifice in the service of motherland the Himveers are also taught to function effectively while always keeping in mind human rights and the codes of war which always guide their conduct.
The Basic Training Centre at Bhanu, Haryana ITBP Academy at Mussourie, and the Mountaineering & Skiing Institute at Auli run the training programmes and conduct indoor and outdoor training activities, in pursuance of this mission.
ITBP has undergone a massive expansion plan to provide much needed relief to its troops who remain deployed in the tough high altitude terrain for most part of their service. 13 units were raised in the year 2006–07, followed by another 7 units the following year.
Personnel of veterinary wing of ITBP are trained in "Yak handling and Management", at ICAR-National Research Institute on Yak. Yaks are used by ITBP for transportation and logistics.
ITBP is building full fledge recreation and Training centre in Belgaum at Halbhavi, Belgaum provides the best climate for recreation and ITBP will relocate the personal and will have large family bases in Belgaum for its soldiers after high altitude stressful.
The motto of the ITBP, Shaurya, dridata, karm nishtha (Valour, determination, devotion to duty) has always inspired its men in accepting challenges to bring glory to the nation and honour to the force.
ITBP is the only Central Armed Police Force in India, which has combatised stress counsellors in its Field units, Formations Including the Ranks - Deputy Commandants ESC, Assistant Commandant-ESC, Inspector-ESC, Sub Inspector-ESC and Head Constable-ESC. These uniformed stress counsellors also play a major role in improving education for ITBP wards and the local children near ITBP Units. There are 21 ITBP Public Schools across the country run by ESC personnel of ITBPolice Force.
ITBP Schools are located at remote areas like Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Leh and Sonipat, Dwarka Delhi.
The ITBP organize an ice-hockey team which is considered one of the strongest in the country with many of its players also participating in the national team. The team have won the Indian Ice Hockey Championship on at least three occasions, most recently in 2019.
In the course of active duties, the force has earned a number of civil and service honours, and decorations like Padma Shree – 6, Kriti Chakra -2 Shaurya Chakra – 6, Sena Medal – 1, President's Police Medal for Gallantry – 19, Police Medal for Gallantry – 92, President's Police Medal for Distinguished Service – 101, Police Medal for Meritorious Service – 292 and the Prime Minister's Life Saving Medal – 86 .