Rajnath Singh
Singh in August 2022
29th Minister of Defence
Assumed office
30 May 2019
Prime MinisterNarendra Modi
Preceded byNirmala Sitharaman
30th Minister of Home Affairs
In office
26 May 2014 – 30 May 2019
Prime MinisterNarendra Modi
Preceded bySushilkumar Shinde
Succeeded byAmit Shah
28th Minister of Agriculture
In office
24 May 2003 – 22 May 2004
Prime MinisterAtal Bihari Vajpayee
Preceded byAjit Singh
Succeeded bySharad Pawar
34th Minister of Road Transport and Highways
In office
22 November 1999 – 27 October 2000
Prime MinisterAtal Bihari Vajpayee
Preceded byNitish Kumar
Succeeded byB.C. Khanduri
19th Chief Minister of Uttar Pradesh
In office
28 October 2000 – 8 March 2002
Preceded byRam Prakash Gupta
Succeeded byPresident's rule
Member of Parliament, Lok Sabha
Assumed office
16 May 2014
Preceded byLalji Tandon
ConstituencyLucknow, Uttar Pradesh
In office
16 May 2009 – 16 May 2014
Preceded byConstituency established
Succeeded byVijay Kumar Singh
ConstituencyGhaziabad, Uttar Pradesh
Member of Parliament, Rajya Sabha
In office
26 November 2002 – 25 November 2008
ConstituencyUttar Pradesh
In office
3 April 1994 – 19 April 2001
Succeeded byKalraj Mishra
ConstituencyUttar Pradesh
8th President of the Bharatiya Janata Party
In office
24 January 2013 – 8 July 2014
Preceded byNitin Jairam Gadkari
Succeeded byAmit Shah
In office
31 December 2005 – 19 December 2009
Preceded byL. K. Advani
Succeeded byNitin Gadkari
4th President of Bharatiya Janata Yuva Morcha
In office
Preceded byPramod Mahajan
Succeeded byJagat Prakash Nadda
Deputy Leader of the House, Lok Sabha
Assumed office
30 May 2019
Prime MinisterNarendra Modi
LeaderNarendra Modi
Preceded bySushma Swaraj
Personal details
Born (1951-07-10) 10 July 1951 (age 72)
Bhabhaura, Uttar Pradesh, India
Political partyBharatiya Janata Party
Other political
Bharatiya Jana Sangh (before 1977)
Savitri Singh
(m. 1971)
Children3 (including Pankaj Singh)
Alma materGorakhpur University (M.Sc. in Physics)
  • Politician
  • lecturer

Rajnath Singh (Hindi pronunciation: [ɾɑːd͡ʒnɑːt̪ʰ sɪŋɡʱ] ; born 10 July 1951) is an Indian politician and lecturer who is serving as the 29th Defence Minister of India since 2019. He is currently the deputy Leader of the House, Lok Sabha since 2014. He was the 8th President of Bharatiya Janata Party from 2005 to 2009 and again from 2013 to 2014. He is a veteran leader of the BJP who started his career as a RSS Swayamsevak.[1]

Singh has previously served as the 19th Chief Minister of Uttar Pradesh from 2000 to 2002 and a Cabinet Minister for Road Transport and Highways in the Vajpayee Government from 1999 to 2000 and the minister of Agriculture from 2003 to 2004. He was the 30th Home Minister in the First Modi Ministry from 2014 to 2019, and also was the first to serve in position born after the country's independence in 1947. [2] [3] He has also served the party in the Uttar Pradesh state from where he started his political career.[4] He was the President of Bharatiya Janata Yuva Morcha from 1988 to 1990.He was a member of Uttar Pradesh Legislative Assembly from Haidergarh (assembly constituency) twice, being Chief minister.[5] He was a member of Lok Sabha from Lucknow since 2014 and Ghaziabad from 2009 to 2014. He was also a member of Rajya Sabha from 2002 to 2008 and from 1994 to 2001.

Early life

Rajnath Singh was born in Bhabhaura village of Chandauli district, Uttar Pradesh to father Ram Badan Singh and mother Gujarati Devi.[6][7][8] He was born into a family of farmers. He received his primary education from a local school of his village and went on to secure a master's degree in physics, acquiring first division results from the Gorakhpur University.[9] From childhood he was inspired by the ideology of Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh.[10] He worked as a lecturer of Physics at K.B. Post-Graduate College Mirzapur, UP.[7] He also has a brother, Jaipal Singh.[11]

Early political career

Entry into politics

Singh had been associated with the Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh since 1964, at the age of 13 and remained connected with the organisation. He also became Shakha Karyavah (General Secretary) of Mirzapur in the year 1972.[7] After 2 years in the year 1974, he joined the politics.[12] Between 1969 and 1971 he was the organizational secretary of the Akhil Bharatiya Vidyarthi Parishad (the student wing of the RSS) in Gorakhpur. He became the general secretary of the RSS's Mirzapur branch in 1972.[13] In 1974, he was appointed secretary for the Mirzapur unit of the Bharatiya Jana Sangh, predecessor of Bharatiya Janata Party.[14] In 1975, aged 24, Singh was appointed District President of the Jana Sangh.

JP Movement and Emergency

In the 1970s, Singh was influenced by the JP Movement of Jayaprakash Narayan. He was also arrested in the year 1975 during the state of National Emergency for associating with JP Movement and was detained for a time period of 2 years.[15]

Entry into electoral politics

After being released from jail, Singh joined the Janata Party founded by Jayprakash Narayan and contested legislative assembly elections from Mirzapur in 1977. He successfully fought the election and was elected as a Member of Legislative Assembly from Mirzapur.

Rise within BJP

At that time he gained the popularity in State (politics) and then joined BJP in the year 1980 and was one of the initial members of the Party.[16] He became the State President of the BJP youth wing in 1984, the National general secretary in 1986 and the National President in 1988. He was also elected into the Uttar Pradesh Legislative Council.[14]

Early ministerial roles

Education Minister (1991–1992)

In 1991, when Bharatiya Janata Party formed its first government in Uttar Pradesh, he was appointed Education Minister. He held the education portfolio for a tenure of two years.[17] Major highlights of his tenure as Education Minister included Anti-Copying Act, 1992, which made copying a non-bailable offence,[18] modernising science texts and incorporating vedic mathematics into the syllabus.[5]

Anti-Copying Act, 1992

Main article: Anti-Copying Act, 1992

Singh helped push the controversial Anti-Copying Act in response to perceived widespread cheating in schools and colleges in Uttar Pradesh.[15][19][20] After the fall of Kalyan Singh government in the year 1992, when Mulayam Singh Yadav became the Chief Minister of Uttar Pradesh, heading Bahujan Samaj Party in the year 1993 he repealed the Act.[21][22]

Modernising the education system

In 1991, Singh led a partial rewrite of history textbooks used in government schools and introduced Vedic Mathematics into the curriculum.[5] Seen as loyal to the RSS, a Hindu culturalist organisation, Singh's changes to state education policy were widely perceived to have been motivated by his RSS affiliation and ideological kinship with the organisation's leadership.[23] As minister, he also focused on promoting the usage of Indian languages instead of English in an effort to promote instruction and learning in the mother tongue. At the same time, he stated his appreciation for knowledge of modern languages.[24]

Union Transport Minister (1999–2000)

In April 1994, he was elected into the Rajya Sabha (Upper House of the Parliament) and became involved with the Advisory Committee on Industry (1994–96), Consultative Committee for the Ministry of Agriculture, Business Advisory Committee, House Committee and the Committee on Human Resource Development.[25] On 25 March 1997, he became the President of the BJP's Uttar Pradesh unit and in 1999 became the Union Cabinet Minister for Surface Transport.[14]

Chief Minister of Uttar Pradesh (2000–02)

In 2000, he became Chief Minister of Uttar Pradesh and was twice elected as MLA from Haidergarh in 2001 and 2002.[18] He was preceded by Ram Prakash Gupta as the Chief Minister and succeeded the President rule, later after Mayawati became the Chief Minister of Uttar Pradesh.[26] At that time he was appointed as the Chief minister because from very long time he had made an image among people due to his ground level effect from long back the times of 1970's in the JP Movement and was also the Education Minister in Kalyan Singh ministry and was also active in the State Politics.[27][28] At that time there also many leaders in BJP from Uttar Pradesh, but very few had a strong support at the ground level.[29] He was at that time very much close to Atal Bihari Vajpayee and had a very clean image among the people of the State.[30] He also portrayed as a leader of Rajputs (Thakur) who are a powerful community in the state and were also an ardent votebank of the party[31][32] like Bhairon Singh Shekhawat. Even unlike, L. K. Advani and Kalyan Singh, he was not a leader of Firebrand Hindutva ideology and was a very soft-spoken person.[33]

Notable reforms as chief minister

While being the Chief Minister of Uttar Pradesh, had accused Samajwadi Party of providing jobs to a certain community only. Singh had said that discrimination in job opportunities should end in the state.[34] He tried to rationalise the reservation structure in government jobs by introducing the most Backward Classes among the OBC and SC, so that the benefit of reservation can reach the lowest status of Society.[35]

After being the Chief Minister of Uttar Pradesh in the year 2000, the first thing on which Singh focused was the Law and Order in the State.[36] At that time Uttar Pradesh was at the top of the list of States of India in Crime and the Law and Order lacked a lot in the State.[37] Whether he had done good work for the Law Reforms, but it was not applicable on Ground levels and after 2002 Gujarat riots a large portion of public lose faith on BJP.[38][39]

On 7 February 2001, Singh inaugurated the DND Flyway which connects Delhi to Noida.[40]


In the year 2002, he resigned from the position of Chief Minister of U.P. within the time of 2 years because at that time during the ground test, the BJP Government was at minority status. Because of the following reason there was imposition of President's rule in the State, then after that in the 14th Legislative Assembly, Mayawati became the Chief Minister for the 3rd time.[12]

Rise in national politics

Union Agriculture Minister (2003–04)

In 2003, Singh was appointed as the Minister of Agriculture and subsequently for Food Processing in the NDA Government led by Atal Bihari Vajpayee, and was faced with the difficult task of maintaining one of the most volatile areas of India's economy.[41] During this period he initiated a few epoch-making projects including the Kisan Call Centre and Farm Income Insurance Scheme.[42] He brought down interest rates on Agriculture loans and also established Farmer Commission and initiated Farms Income Insurance Scheme.[43]

National President of the BJP

First time (2005–2009)

Rajnath Singh in Washington at a summit.

After the BJP lost power in the 2004 general elections, it was forced to sit in the Opposition. After the resignation of prominent figure Lal Krishna Advani due to controversial statements over Muhammad Ali Jinnah,[44] and the murder of strategist Pramod Mahajan, Singh sought to rebuild the party by focusing on the most basic Hindutva ideologies.[45] He announced his position of "no compromise" in relation to the building of a Ram Temple in Ayodhya at any cost[45] and commended the rule of Vajpayee as Prime Minister, pointing towards all the developments the NDA made for the ordinary people of India.[46] He also criticised the role of the English language in India, claiming that most of Indian population is unable to participate in Indian economy and cultural discourse due to extreme preferences shown to English at the expense of native languages.[47] Singh also suspended Jaswant Singh from the party for praising Jinnah and disrespecting the policies of Jawaharlal Nehru, which also led to a wave of controversies as Jaswant Singh was a very senior leader of the party.[48] Singh had held many positions for the RSS and the BJP, including serving as the Chief Minister of Uttar Pradesh and the President of the BJP's youth wing. He advocated a return to a Hindutva platform. Singh resigned after the NDA lost the 2009 Indian general election.[49]

He became the BJP National President on 31 December 2005, a post he held till 19 December 2009. In May 2009, he was elected MP from Ghaziabad in Uttar Pradesh.[50]

A delegation of Rajnath Singh in Kerala with former Ministry of Defence of India, A. K. Antony and Alphons Kannanthanam.

Second time (2013–2014)

On 24 January 2013, following the resignation of Nitin Gadkari due to corruption charges, Singh was re-elected as the BJP's National President.[51]

Singh is on record shortly after the law Section 377 of the Indian Penal Code was re-instated in 2013, claiming that his party is "unambiguously" in favour of the law, also claiming that "We will state (at an all-party meeting if it is called) that we support Section 377 because we believe that homosexuality is an unnatural act and cannot be supported."[52] Singh was elected president for his second term after Gadkari stepped down in 2013. Singh played a large role in the BJP's campaign for the 2014 Indian general election, including declaring Narendra Modi the party's Prime Ministerial candidate despite opposition from within the BJP. After the party's landslide victory, Singh resigned the party presidency to assume the position of Home Minister.[53]

He contested the 2014 Lok Sabha elections from Lucknow constituency and was subsequently elected as a Member of the Parliament.[54]

Union Home Minister (2014–19)

Raj Nath Singh taking charge as the Union Minister for Home Affairs, in New Delhi on 29 May 2014.
Rajnath Singh holding a bilateral meeting with Russian delegation led by the Minister for Internal Affairs of the Russian Federation, Vladimir Kolokolstsev, in Moscow

He was appointed the Union Minister of Home Affairs in the Narendra Modi government and was sworn in on 26 May 2014.[55] At that time he was the former president of the party and was the one who named Narendra Modi as the Prime Minister Candidate for the party. After the win of the party in 2014 Lok Sabha Election he took over the position from Sushilkumar Shinde as the Minister of Home Affairs (India) from the year 2014–2019. And he is also the Current Deputy Leader of Lok Sabha from the year 2019.[56][23]

JNU incident

He triggered controversy amid the protests over the police action at Jawaharlal Nehru University (JNU), on 14 February 2016, claiming that the "JNU incident" was supported by Lashkar-e-Taiba chief Hafiz Saeed.[57] He gave the statement when there was an Anti-National speeches in the JNU Delhi over the anniversary of hanging of Kashmiri Separist Maqbool Bhat and Afzal Guru on 9 February 2016.[58] After the statement there was also a vast protest against Singh and after the arrests of Umar Khalid and Kanhaiya Kumar, he made meeting with many left leaders.[59][60] He also assured the citizens that what he said was right and he also people assurance of not tolerating the Anti-National Acts.[61] Singh at that time also appointed an SIT for the investigation of the matter.[62]

In May 2016, he claimed that infiltration from Pakistan declined by 52% in a period of two years.[63]

Bharat Ke Veer App

On 9 April 2017, he launched Bharat Ke Veer Web portal and Application with Bollywood actor Akshay Kumar. This was an initiative taken by him for the welfare of Martyrs' family.[64] Bharat Ke Veer is a fund-raising initiative by the Ministry of Home Affairs, Government of India on behalf of members of the Indian paramilitary Forces.[65] Singh himself praised the app and at that time was the first donor of the app.[66]

An official anthem was launched on 20 January 2018 for the cause 'Bharat Ke Veer' by him along with film star Akshay Kumar, and other ministers Kiren Rijiju, Hansraj Ahir.[67]

Doklam matter

Main article: 2017 India China border standoff

The Urban Development Minister of Nepal, Arjun Narsingh K.C. calling on the Rajnath Singh, in New Delhi

Doklam is a disputed territory between Bhutan and China since the 1950s and when China unilaterally claimed Doklam as its own territory by trying to build a road in the disputed area, the Indian army stepped-in on behalf of Bhutan which created tensions between the Indian Army and Liberation Army of China.[68] Over the matter Singh assured Public to solve the matter and he had talks with officials of the Chinese Communist Party over relations between the two countries. Though the matter was between the Bhutan and China, but when Bhutan sought help from India, then India also indulged in the matter. Singh and Prime Minister Narendra Modi also openely opposed the matter and came in the support of Bhutan.[69] Later, the tension solved at large extent.[70][71] The main reason was also that Singh also threatened China to stop its import and start of Trade War.[70] On 9 October 2017 China announced that it was ready to maintain peace at frontiers with India reacting to Indian Defence Minister Nirmala Sitharaman and Rajnath Singh visit to Nathu La.[72]

Commissioning of Bastariya Battalion

On 21 May 2018, he commissioned Bastariya Battalion. As Union Home Minister, Rajnath Singh attended the passing out parade of 241 Bastariya Battalion of CRPF in Ambikapur, Chhattisgarh on 21 May 2018.[73]

Union Defence Minister (2019–present)

Shri Rajnath Singh taking charge as the Union Minister for Defence, in the presence of Shri Shripad Naik, Minister of State for Defence, in New Delhi on 1 June 2019.

Singh became the Defence minister of India on 31 May 2019.[74] Singh was given Ministry of Defence (India) after Amit Shah was given the Ministry of Home Affairs (India). As Union Defence Minister now, Singh has indicated a subtle shift in India's strategic vision. Among the challenges that the Defence Minister is expected to address are the ever-increasing requirements of India's forces, including increased budgetary requirements, especially in the light of an unstable neighbourhood.[75]

Rajnath Singh, along with Prime Minister Modi inaugurates Asia's largest helicopter manufacturing sector (HAL) at Tumkur, in Karnataka in 2023.

After being Defence Minister he had focused mainly on increasing the defence budget of the nation and has focused on decreasing the import of weapons from other nations and making the nation an arms exporter with an arms industry.[76][77] He also stated that:

"India cannot put hand on hand in the issues of National Security. Now the time has come that India needs to emerge as major arms exporter."

— Economic Times, Rajnath Singh[77]

Rafale fighter plane

Main article: Rafale deal

Rajnath Singh with the French Minister of Armed Forces, Florence Parly

Dassault Rafale is a fighter plane of French origin whose deal was signed by then Minister of Defence (India), Manohar Parrikar in 2016 to increase the strength of the Indian Air Force.[78] The Government of India had signed to buy 126 fighter jets costing $30 billion.[79]

The planes were received during his tenure as the Defence Minister of India. Though that was also a very controversial issue, Singh received and completed the deal after becoming Minister of Defence of India and the Indian Air Force received its first Dassault Rafale on 8 October 2019, when he personally went to France to receive it.[80] The first fleet of 5 fighter jets landed at Ambala Air Force Station.[81]

India received the second fleet of Rafale jets on 29 July 2020. Singh said that "Those wanting to threaten India's territorial Integrity should be aware of India's new capability."[82]

Indo-China border tension

Main article: 2020 China–India skirmishes

Rajnath Singh on Galwan

China made transgression attempts on Line of Actual Control (LAC) in the western sector. This includes Kongka, Gogra, and the north bank of Pangong Lake. Our Army took necessary action against these attempts.


Rajnath Singh talk during 2020 standoff between Indian and Chinese officials.

Since May 2020, there has been tension between the Security forces of India and China over the border region of Ladakh.[84] This situation has seen tension increase as China has put pressure on India.[85][86][87] Singh met with officials of the Indian Army and also visited the Ladakh Range.[88] He also met with the Chief of the Defence Staff General Bipin Rawat, CNS Admiral Karambir Singh and COAS General Manoj Mukund Naravane to discuss about the situation.[89] After the martyrdom of 20 Indian soldiers during the 2020 China–India skirmishes in Galwan Valley, Singh met with the Indian soldiers.[90][91][92] He also said that he can not guarantee to what extent the tension would go.[93] Later the situation was handled.[94][95]

Then again from the date of 30 August 2020, People's Liberation Army started the controversy of Ladakh area by putting a large number of troops over the controversial area and over this Chinese Communist Party leader Yang Jiechi and People's Liberation Army General Wei stated that the matter was started by the Indian Armed Forces.[96] Chinese General Wei Fenghe and his Indian counterpart Singh held a talk, on 4 September in Moscow, on the sidelines of a Shanghai Cooperation Organisation meeting.[97] On 10 September, the foreign affairs ministers of China and India met in Moscow. Five points were agreed upon in a joint statement, including new CBMs between the two countries. On 21 September, the sixth commander-level meeting took place at Chushul-Moldo BPM.[98] The Indian delegation consisted of Lt Gen Harinder Singh, Lt Gen P G K Menon, two major generals, four brigadiers and other officers.[99] The chief of the Indo-Tibetan Border Police was also a part of the delegation. During this meeting, for the first time, a Ministry of External Affairs representative from the Indian side was also present. Following the 14–hour talks, a joint statement was released, which included both sides have agreed to "stop sending more troops to the frontlines.[100][101]

After the news of the situation became known, Singh assured citizens that the situation is under control and that there is nothing to be worried about. Singh also stated that fake news and rumours were being spread. He also admitted that the Chinese Army has tried to cross the LAC.[102]

Singh at the SCO defence ministers' meeting in New Delhi on 28 April 2023

On 28 April 2023, Chinese Defense Minister Li Shangfu met with Rajnath Singh as part of the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation defence ministers' meeting in New Delhi, making it the first visit to India by a Chinese Defence Minister since the 2020 border skirmishes between Indian and Chinese troops.[103]

Agnipath Scheme

Main article: Agnipath Scheme

The Defence Ministry introduced a revolutionary army recruitment scheme called Agnipath (Agneepatha), for recruitment of soldiers under the rank of commissioned officers. The recruitment was pursued for all the three forces, and the selected candidates were termed as "Agniveers". This plan is a four-year termed enroll to candidates ageing between 18 - 24 of age.[104] Various protests and oppositions were held, against the scheme, questioning about the future of the candidates, procedure and other standards. Railways were set on fire and suffered losses in Bihar, Telangana and West Bengal;[105] the opposition also called it as an RSS agenda based scheme. The Ministry called it a long pending reform, in the defence field to lower the average of the total military age.[106] Further the Delhi High Court also stated that it finds no reason to interfere in the process and the government has brought this "In national Interest" of the country.[107]

Military exercises

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He virtually inaugurated the four-day Indo-Pacific Military Health Exchange (IPMHE) conference.

International military exercises known as Vostok-2022 [ru] were launched in Russia's Far East in September 2022, with countries including Russia, India and China taking part in it.[108] On 28 April 2023, Singh met with Russian Minister of Defence Sergei Shoigu.[109]

Positions and offices

Offices held

S. No Office Constituency Year of elected
1. MLA in Uttar Pradesh Legislative Assembly Mirzapur 1977
2. Member of Legislative Council (MLC) Uttar Pradesh 1988
3. MP in Rajya Sabha Uttar Pradesh 1994
4. MP in Rajya Sabha Uttar Pradesh 2000
5. MLA in Uttar Pradesh Legislative Assembly Haidergarh (by-elections) 2001
6. MLA in Uttar Pradesh Legislative Assembly Haidergarh 2002
7. MP in Rajya Sabha Uttar Pradesh 2002
8. MP in 15th Lok Sabha Ghaziabad 2009
9. MP in 16th Lok Sabha Lucknow 2014
10. MP in 17th Lok Sabha Lucknow 2019

Positions held

S. No. Position Tenure Preceded by Succeeded by
1. President of BJP Youth Wing 1984–1986
2. General Secretary of State(Uttar Pradesh) BJP Youth Wing 1986–1988
3. National President of BJP Youth Wing 1988–1989 Pramod Mahajan J. P. Nadda
4. Education Minister of Uttar Pradesh 1991–1992
5. President of BJP Uttar Pradesh 1997–1998
6. Union Minister of Transportation. 1999–2000 Nitish Kumar B. C. Khanduri
7. Chief Minister of Uttar Pradesh 2000–2002 Ram Prakash Gupta President- rule

(then Mayawati succeeded the position)

8. Union Agriculture Minister 2003–2004 Ajit Singh Sharad Pawar
9. President of BJP 2005–2009 L. K. Advani Nitin Gadkari
10. President of BJP 2012–2014 Nitin Gadkari Amit Shah
11. Minister of Home Affairs of India 2014–2019 Sushilkumar Shinde Amit Shah
12. Minister of Defence of India 2019–Incumbent Nirmala Sitharaman Incumbent

Personal life

He married Savitri Singh on 5 June 1971, with whom he has two sons and a daughter.[110][17] His son Pankaj Singh is a politician and Member of the Legislative Assembly from Noida, Uttar Pradesh from BJP.[111] Singh is a devout Hindu and a religious man and is known for soft-spoken behaviour.[112]

See also



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  2. ^ "Shri Rajnath Singh | Ministry of Defence". www.mod.gov.in. Retrieved 18 February 2021.
  3. ^ "Rajnath Singh elected BJP president, vows to bring back party to power". www.indiatvnews.com. 23 January 2013. Archived from the original on 2 July 2018. Retrieved 18 February 2021.
  4. ^ Jain, B. M. (15 February 2021). The Geopsychology Theory of International Relations in the 21st Century: Escaping the Ignorance Trap. Rowman & Littlefield. pp. 86. ISBN 978-1-4985-7360-3.
  5. ^ a b c "Who is Rajnath Singh?". India Today. 23 January 2013. Retrieved 28 January 2013.
  6. ^ Kaushal, Pradeep (15 September 2009). "Jaswant is sacked without show-cause notice, but Vasundhara could defy directive to resign". Indian Express. Retrieved 21 September 2020.
  7. ^ a b c "Biography – Rajnath Singh". rajnathsingh.in. 7 July 2014. Retrieved 25 July 2020.
  8. ^ Singh, Ujjwal Kumar (11 January 2007). The State, Democracy and Anti-Terror Laws in India. SAGE Publications India. ISBN 978-81-7829-955-6.
  9. ^ "Rajnath Singh's biography tracing 5 decades in politics to hit stands in May". India Today. PTI. 10 April 2019. Retrieved 21 August 2020.
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  12. ^ a b "Rajnath Singh: Rajnath Singh BJP from LUCKNOW in Lok Sabha Elections | Rajnath Singh News, images and videos". The Economic Times. Retrieved 19 August 2020.
  13. ^ Chintamani 2019, pp. 17–18; Singh 2019, pp. 1–2.
  14. ^ a b c "Profile: Rajnath Singh". Zee News. Archived from the original on 30 September 2007.
  15. ^ a b "Did you know⁠? India's Defence Minister Rajnath Singh has a master's degree in physics⁠ — and other interesting facts about his life". Business Insider. Retrieved 22 August 2020.
  16. ^ Chintamani 2019, p. 35.
  17. ^ a b "Shri Rajnath Singh Hon'ble Raksha Mantri" (PDF). Retrieved 18 August 2020.
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  20. ^ "UP Govt to challenge order against Anti-copying Act". rediff.com. Retrieved 21 August 2020.
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  22. ^ "How students 'copying' in exams became an issue for the BJP in the early 90s". The News Minute. 23 March 2015. Retrieved 9 August 2022.
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  26. ^ List of chief ministers of Uttar Pradesh
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  29. ^ "The politics of Uttar Pradesh was like a Jungle trap"-The Betrayal of Indian Democracy.
  30. ^ ""A Man With No Enemies": Rajnath Singh Appointed Cabinet Minister Again". NDTV.com. Retrieved 22 August 2020.
  31. ^ "Modi accepts MLAs' choice Yogi Adityanath as U.P. CM". The Sunday Guardian Live. 19 March 2017. Retrieved 22 August 2020.
  32. ^ "The Deep Caste Symbolism In Yogi Adityanath's Appointment As Uttar Pradesh CM". Outlook India. Retrieved 22 August 2020.
  33. ^ "Yogi Adityanath a better Uttar Pradesh CM than I was: Rajnath Singh". The Times of India. 18 January 2021. Retrieved 17 February 2021.
  34. ^ "3 big reforms Rajnath Singh is capable of bringing in Uttar Pradesh if he's appointed the CM". The Financial Express. 16 March 2017. Retrieved 21 August 2020.
  35. ^ Gupta, Moushumi Das (8 June 2019). "Modi's one move showed Rajnath Singh's 44 years of politics can become ineffective in a day". ThePrint. Retrieved 17 February 2021.
  36. ^ "Tone up law and order, Home Minister Rajnath Singh tells UP government". The Economic Times. Retrieved 21 August 2020.
  37. ^ "Good improvement in law and order in UP: Rajnath". India.com. A. N. I. Feeds. 10 May 2018. Retrieved 21 August 2020.
  38. ^ M, Harsh (24 April 2019). "One thing was distinctly rotten about 2002 Gujarat riots: use of rape as a form of terror". ThePrint. Retrieved 21 August 2020.
  39. ^ "Why 2002 Gujarat riots still matter". Al Jazeera. Retrieved 21 August 2020.
  40. ^ "'Noida jinx' to keep Akhilesh Yadav away from PM event". The Economic Times. 29 December 2015. Retrieved 18 March 2020.
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  43. ^ "Achievements". rajnathsingh.in
  44. ^ "Rajnath Singh". India Today. Retrieved 22 August 2020.
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  46. ^ Rajnath Singh is new BJP President Archived 11 March 2014 at the Wayback Machine. indianewsdiary.com
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Political offices Preceded byRam Prakash Gupta Chief Minister of Uttar Pradesh 2000–2002 Succeeded byMayawati Preceded byAjit Singh Union Minister of Agriculture 2003–2004 Succeeded bySharad Pawar Preceded bySushilkumar Shinde Union Minister of Home Affairs 2014–2019 Succeeded byAmit Shah Preceded byNirmala Sitharaman Union Minister of Defence 2019–present Incumbent Party political offices Preceded byL. K. Advani National President of the Bharatiya Janata Party 2005–2009 Succeeded byNitin Gadkari Preceded byNitin Gadkari National President of the Bharatiya Janata Party 2013–2014 Succeeded byAmit Shah