The Sangh Parivar (translation: "Family of the RSS" or the "RSS family"[1][2][3]) refers, as an umbrella term, to the collection of Hindutva organisations spawned by the Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh (RSS), which remain affiliated to it. These include the political party Bharatiya Janata Party, religious organisation Vishva Hindu Parishad, students union Akhil Bharatiya Vidyarthi Parishad (ABVP), religious militant organisation Bajrang Dal[11] that forms the youth wing of the Vishva Hindu Parishad (VHP), and the worker's union Bharatiya Kisan Sangh. It is also often taken to include allied organisations such as the Shiv Sena, which share the ideology of the RSS.

The Sangh Parivar represents the Hindu nationalist movement of India.[12] Members of the Sangh Parivar or the supporters of its ideology are often referred to as Sanghis.[13]

History

In the 1960s, the volunteers of the RSS joined the different social and political movements in India, including the Bhoodan, a land reform movement led by prominent Gandhian Vinobha Bhave[14] and the Sarvodaya led by another Gandhian Jayaprakash Narayan.[15] RSS also supported the formation of a trade union, the Bharatiya Mazdoor Sangh and a student's organisation Akhil Bharatiya Vidyarthi Parishad and many other organisations like Seva Bharati, Lok Bharati and Deendayal Research Institute among others.

These organisations started and supported by the RSS volunteers came to be known collectively as the Sangh Parivar.[16] Next few decades have seen a steady growth in the influence of the Sangh Parivar in the social and political space of India.

Ideology

Economics

While the BJP governments have been progressively seen to be industry friendly,[17] the opinions and the views of the Sangh Parivar constituents like Bharatiya Mazdoor Sangh (BMS) find consonance with the known leftist stands on labour rights.[18] The Sangh Parivar, as a whole, even the BJP in its earlier days, has advocated 'Swadeshi' (Self Reliance). Sangh Parivar leaders have been very vocal in their criticism of globalization especially its impact on the poor and native people. They have been suspicious of the role of international agencies such as the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund.[19] Sangh constituents have advocated and promoted decentralized village centric economic growth with emphasis on ecological protection.[20]

Ecology

The constituents of the Sangh Parivar have been known for their demands for steps to "protect the environment, natural-ecology and agro-economy" and for establishment of a "self-reliant village-oriented economy".[21] They have been vocal in their demand against the use of chemical fertilizers and have supported preservation and development of organic farming in India.[22] Many of these views are seen to mirror the concerns of the Green party.[23]

The Bharatiya Janata Party, a constituent of Sangh Parivar included the concerns on global warming in its election manifesto for the National Elections of 2009.[24] The manifesto promised prioritising "combating climate change and global warming", "programmes to arrest the melting of Himalayan glaciers", "afforestation" and emphasis on "protecting India's biodiversity".[24][25]

Reception

The Sangh Parivar has been described with monikers spanning the spectrum from "patriotic Hindus"[26] and "Hindu nationalist".[12] Some have also labeled them "Hindu chauvinist".[27] While its constituent organisations present themselves as embedded in the traditional ethos of Hinduism, their ideological opponents have characterized them as the representatives of authoritarian, xenophobic and majoritarian religious nationalism in India,[28] These organisations have been accused being involved with Saffron terror.[29][30] Flemish Indologist and Hindutva supporter Koenraad Elst has challenged the critics, in his 2001 book The Saffron Swastika, he wrote "So far, the polemical arrows have all been shot from one side, replies from the other side being extremely rare or never more than piecemeal."[31]

Social impact

The activities of the Sangh Parivar have had considerable social and religious impact.[32] And considerable influence over country's educational, social and defense policies.[33]

Social reform

In 1979, the religious wing of the Sangh Parivar, the Vishwa Hindu Parishad got the Hindu saints and religious leaders to reaffirm that untouchability and caste discrimination had no religious sanction in the Hindu scriptures and texts.[34] The Vishwa Hindu Parishad is also spearheading efforts to ordain Dalits as priests in temples across India, positions that were earlier usually occupied only by people of "upper castes".[35] In 1983, RSS founded a Dalit organisation called Samajik Samrasta Manch.[36]

The leaders of the Sangh Parivar have also been involved in the campaigns against female fetocide and movements for the education.[citation needed] VHP founded a number of educational institutes such as Bharat Sevashram, Hindu Milan Mandir, Ekal Vidalayas and schools in tribal locations.[36]

Social and political empowerment

The service programs, over the years, have led to the empowerment of the economically and socially underprivileged sections of the society, mostly the tribal, who have long remained politically under-represented. Babulal Marandi belonging to the tribal community, who was the organizing secretary of Vishwa Hindu Parishad, became the first Chief Minister of the state of Jharkhand.[37] Other such leaders of Sangh Parivar who belong to the tribal community include Karia Munda, Jual Oram; both ministers in the Union Government led by Atal Bihari Vajpayee.

The emergence of the Sangh Parivar in Indian politics also brought many Dalits and representatives of the backward classes, who had been victims of social neglect, to prominent positions in the Government and Administration.[38] Suraj Bhan, a dalit, who had been a member of the RSS, became the Governor of Uttar Pradesh, the most populous state in India, in 1998.[39] Other leaders of the Sangh Parivar from the backward classes, who rose to prominence include Kalyan Singh, the former Chief Minister of UP, Uma Bharti, the former Chief Minister of MP, Narendra Modi, the incumbent Prime Minister of India, Gopinath Munde, the former Deputy Chief Minister of Maharashtra,[40] and Shivraj Singh Chouhan, the former Chief Minister of Madhya Pradesh.[41]

In many villages across India, Dharma Raksha Samitis (Duty/Religion Protection Committees) promote religious discourse and form an arena for bhajan performance. The Sangh sponsors calendars of Hindu deities and provides instruction on sanctioned methods of conducting Ganesh Chaturthi and Navaratri.[42]

Politics

The Bharatiya Janata Party, which represents the Sangh Parivar in national politics, has formed three governments in India, most recently being in power from May 2014 under the leadership of Prime minister Narendra Modi, reelected in May 2019.

Political opponents of the BJP allege that the party's moderate face merely serves to cover the Sangh Parivar's "hidden agenda" of undiluted Hindutva, detectable by the BJP's efforts to change the content of history textbooks and syllabi as well as other aspects of the education system.[43]

Such criticism of the BJP arises from the fact that BJP had only 2 seats in the parliament in 1984 and after the Babri Masjid demolition in 1992 the party gained national recognition, and only then it rose to power in 1998.[44][45][46][47][full citation needed][48][49]

Babri Mosque demolition

According to the report of the UPA instituted Liberhan Commission the Sangh Parivar organised the destruction of the Babri Masjid.[50][51] The Commission said- "The blame or the credit for the entire temple construction movement at Ayodhya must necessarily be attributed to the Sangh Parivar".[52]

It also noted that the Sangh Parivar is an "extensive and widespread organic body", which encompasses organisations, which address and bring together just about every type of social, professional and other demographic grouping of individuals.

Each time, a new demographic group has emerged, the Sangh Parivar has hived off some of its RSS inner-core leadership to harness that group and bring it within the fold, enhancing the voter base of the Parivar.[53]

List of Sangh Parivar organisations

The Sangh Parivar includes the following organisations (with membership figures in brackets). They are also categorized.

Political
Occupational and Professional
Economic
Social Services
Exclusively Women
Religious
Regional based
Educational organisations
Socio-Ethnic
News & Communication
Think Tanks
Overseas
Children
Others

See also

References

  1. ^ Jaffrelot 1996, p. 123.
  2. ^ Andersen & Damle 1987, p. 115.
  3. ^ Hansen, Thomas Blom (2014), "Controlled Emancipation: Women and Hindu Nationalism", in Bodil Folke Frederiksen; Fiona Wilson (eds.), Ethnicity, Gender and the Subversion of Nationalism, Routledge, p. 93, ISBN 978-1-135-20566-9, archived from the original on 7 February 2023, retrieved 26 May 2019: "The RSS usually calls its network of organisation the RSS family (Sangh Parivar), consciously evoking connotations of warmth, security and emotional attachment beyond ideology and reasoning. The family metaphor is central and highly operational as an instrument of recruitment and cohesion for the movement, which offers a sort of surrogate family to the activists. The family metaphor also refers to the authoritarian and paternalist authority structure which operates within the movement."
  4. ^ Parashar, Swati (5 March 2014). Women and Militant Wars: The politics of injury. Routledge. p. 27. ISBN 978-1-134-11606-5. Retrieved 13 February 2021 – via Google Books. The Sangh Parivar (literally known as the Sangh family) includes groups such as the Rashtriye Swayamsewak Sangh, the Bajrang Dal, Shiv Sena and the Vishwa Hindu Parishad. They articulate a militant Hindu nationalist politics, opposing the Muslim 'other'.
  5. ^ Eko, Lyombe (29 April 2016). "Regulation of Sex-Themed Visual Imagery in India". The Regulation of Sex-Themed Visual Imagery: From Clay Tablets to Tablet Computers. Palgrave Macmillan. pp. 77–86. doi:10.1057/9781137550989_6. ISBN 978-1-137-55098-9. Archived from the original on 14 January 2021. Retrieved 17 February 2021 – via ResearchGate. The Bajrang Dal (the Brigade of Hanuman, the Hindu monkey god) is a militant, Hindu nationalist organization in India. It is famous for its cow protection activities (i.e., saving cows, which are considered sacred in Hinduism, from slaughter).
  6. ^ Valiani, Arafaat A. (11 November 2011). Militant publics in India: Physical culture and violence in the making of a modern polity. New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan. p. 180. ISBN 978-0-230-37063-0. Archived from the original on 7 February 2023. Retrieved 17 February 2021 – via Google Books. In 2002, almost 2,000 Muslims were killed in carefully planned attacks by the VHP and the Bajrang Dal. The state was governed by the BJP in 2002, and some BJP representatives brazenly justified and abetted the violence.
  7. ^ Alter, Joseph S. (1994). "Somatic Nationalism: Indian Wrestling and Militant Hinduism". Modern Asian Studies. 28 (3): 557–588. doi:10.1017/S0026749X00011860. ISSN 0026-749X. JSTOR 313044. S2CID 146291615. Archived from the original on 7 February 2023. Retrieved 13 February 2021 – via JSTOR. It would be anathema for the leaders of such militant groups as the RSS, Shiva Sena, and Bajrang Dal, to let a Muslim 'voice' speak to the issue of what is lacking among Hindus, much less turn—even nominally—to an Islamic model of civility to define the terms of Hindu self development.
  8. ^ Anand, Dibyesh (May 2007). "Anxious Sexualities: Masculinity, Nationalism and Violence". British Journal of Politics and International Relations. 9 (2): 257–269. doi:10.1111/j.1467-856x.2007.00282.x. S2CID 143765766. Archived from the original on 9 April 2022. Retrieved 13 February 2021 – via Academia.edu. Amrish Ji, a leader of a militant organisation Bajrang Dal, in a public speech accused Muslims of treating 'Bharat Mata' ('Mother India') as a 'dayan' ('witch') (Amrish Ji 2005).
  9. ^ Jerryson, Michael (15 July 2020). Religious Violence Today: Faith and Conflict in the Modern World. ABC-CLIO. p. 275. ISBN 978-1-4408-5991-5. Archived from the original on 7 February 2023. Retrieved 13 February 2021 – via Google Books. The magazine Tehelka carried out a six-month undercover investigation in 2007 that resulted in video evidence that the riots were organized and supported by Gujarat police and Chief Minister Modi. The video also implicated several members of the Bajrang Dal (a militant Hindu nationalist group) and the BJP (one of India's main political parties).
  10. ^ Jaffrelot, Christophe (2010). Religion, Caste, and Politics in India. Primus Books. ISBN 9789380607047. Archived from the original on 7 February 2023. Retrieved 17 February 2021 – via Google Books. In May–June, the VHP provided itself with an organization, which assembled young Hindu militants, the Bajrang Dal. Its founder, Vinay Katiyar, had until then been a pracharak of the RSS. However, the Bajrang Dal proved to be less disciplined than the RSS and its violent utterances as well as actions were to precipitate many communal riots.
  11. ^ [4][5][6][7][8][9][10]
  12. ^ a b Saha 2004, p. 274
  13. ^ "Kangana Ranaut shares pics of Will Smith doing puja in India, says he's 'bidga hua Sanghi' like her". Hindustan Times. 29 March 2022. Archived from the original on 25 December 2022. Retrieved 25 December 2022.
  14. ^ Suresh Ramabhai, Vinoba and his mission, Published by Akhil Bharat Sarv Seva Sangh, 1954
  15. ^ Martha Craven Nussbaum, The Clash Within: Democracy, Religious Violence, and India's Future, Published by Harvard University Press, 2007 ISBN 0-674-02482-6, ISBN 978-0-674-02482-3
  16. ^ Smith, David James, Hinduism and Modernity P189, Blackwell Publishing ISBN 0-631-20862-3
  17. ^ "New Delhi News : BJP assures industrialists of good deal". The Hindu. Chennai, India. 20 July 2008. Archived from the original on 4 August 2008. Retrieved 4 September 2010.
  18. ^ "Economics: A Bharatiya View Point". 2002. Archived from the original on 21 February 2003.
  19. ^ Gupta, Sharad (14 November 2000). "BJP gears up to take on 'ideological ally'". The Indian Express. Archived from the original on 23 January 2003.
  20. ^ "Content". Organiser. Archived from the original on 30 December 2008. Retrieved 4 September 2010.
  21. ^ "Hindutva and Politics: The case of Vishwa Hindu Parishad". Sacw.net. Archived from the original on 13 June 2011. Retrieved 4 September 2010.
  22. ^ "Sangh Parivar". www.sanghparivar.org. Archived from the original on 28 July 2011. Retrieved 28 January 2009.
  23. ^ Hinduism and the Clash of Civilizations/David Frawley. New Delhi, Voice of India, 2001, xiv, 247 p., ISBN 81-85990-72-7.
  24. ^ a b "BJP promises measures to combat climate change". Archived from the original on 6 November 2012. Retrieved 6 April 2009.
  25. ^ Yasir Hussain (2008), Congress Voted to Power Why?, Readworthy, p. 213, BJP will pursue national growth objectives through an ecologically sustainable pathway
  26. ^ VHP mail: BJP is like 'secular' Cong Times of India – 1 July 2004
  27. ^ Breckenridge, Pollock, Bhabha, Chakravarty 2002:56
  28. ^ Bhatt 2001, p. 4
  29. ^ GITTINGER, JULI (2011). "Saffron Terror: Splinter or Symptom?". Economic and Political Weekly. 46 (37): 22–25. ISSN 0012-9976. JSTOR 23047273.
  30. ^ [1] Archived 30 March 2014 at the Wayback Machine Frontline – 22 Oct. - Nov. 04, 2011
  31. ^ Elst, Koenraad (2001), The Saffron Swastika, Voice of India, p. 9, ISBN 978-81-85990-69-9, archived from the original on 7 February 2023, retrieved 29 November 2019
  32. ^ Human Development and Social Power: Perspectives from South Asia, By Ananya Mukherjee Reed, Routledge, page 71
  33. ^ p. 8, Human Rights Watch, By Fédération internationale des droits de l'homme
  34. ^ "VHP website". Archived from the original on 30 May 2009.
  35. ^ "Rediff on the NeT: VHP has dalit ordained as priest in Kerala". Rediff.com. 19 February 1999. Archived from the original on 20 July 2008. Retrieved 4 September 2010.
  36. ^ a b Basu, Amrita (2015), Violent Conjunctures in Democratic India, Cambridge University Press, p. 190, ISBN 9781107089631, archived from the original on 7 February 2023, retrieved 4 December 2020
  37. ^ "Special: Profile of Babu Lal Marandi". Rediff.com. 14 November 2000. Archived from the original on 24 September 2015. Retrieved 4 September 2010.
  38. ^ Ilaiah, Kancha (2004), Buffalo Nationalism: A Critique of Spiritual Fascism, Popular Prakashan, p. 14, ISBN 9788185604695, archived from the original on 7 February 2023, retrieved 2 December 2017
  39. ^ "States: Uttar Pradesh, Family Face-Off". Archived from the original on 1 July 2007. Retrieved 24 January 2009.
  40. ^ Prakash Joshi, TNN, 22 Sep 2008, 05.05am IST (22 September 2008). "Cong-NCP casts OBC net to woo Marathas in state – Mumbai – City – The Times of India". Timesofindia.indiatimes.com. Archived from the original on 17 September 2015. Retrieved 4 September 2010.((cite news)): CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link) CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list (link)
  41. ^ "Other States / Madhya Pradesh News : Shivraj Singh Chouhan sworn in". The Hindu. Chennai, India. 13 December 2008. Archived from the original on 16 December 2008. Retrieved 4 September 2010.
  42. ^ de la Cadena & Starn 2007, p. 284
  43. ^ Thakurta & Raghuraman 2004, p. 64
  44. ^ BJP#History
  45. ^ "Babri Masjid demolition just an incident, says Supreme Court". Ndtv.com. 16 January 2012. Archived from the original on 3 October 2012. Retrieved 9 August 2014.
  46. ^ Matt. "Harvard Law School Human Rights Journal". Law.harvard.edu. Archived from the original on 16 April 2012. Retrieved 9 August 2014.
  47. ^ Book – Communalism and Secularism in Indian Politics : Study of the BJP
  48. ^ "India – The Bharatiya Janata Party and the Rise of Hindu Nationalism". Countrystudies.us. 7 October 1947. Archived from the original on 29 June 2011. Retrieved 31 March 2014.
  49. ^ "Ayodhya central to BJP's rise & fall at Centre, UP". The Times of India. 1 October 2010. Archived from the original on 4 October 2010. Retrieved 21 December 2010.
  50. ^ "Excerpts from the Liberhan Commission report". Hindustan Times. 25 November 2009. Archived from the original on 6 June 2011. Retrieved 26 January 2011.
  51. ^ "How the BJP, RSS mobilised kar sevaks". The Indian Express. 25 November 2009. Archived from the original on 19 December 2010. Retrieved 26 January 2011.
  52. ^ "Liberhan comes down heavily on Vajpayee, Advani – Rediff.com India News". News.rediff.com. 24 November 2009. Archived from the original on 24 February 2011. Retrieved 26 January 2011.
  53. ^ "Vajpayee, Advani severely indicted by Liberhan Commission – India – DNA". Dnaindia.com. 24 November 2009. Archived from the original on 21 January 2012. Retrieved 26 January 2011.
  54. ^ https://www.learnsanskrit.cc/translate?search=subjects&dir=au
  55. ^ Narendra Modi heaps praise on Amit Shah as BJP membership touches 10 crore Archived 8 April 2015 at the Wayback Machine, Times of India, 3 April 2015.
  56. ^ "In 10 charts: How BJP became world's largest political party in 4 decades". The Times of India. 6 April 2022.
  57. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Jelen 2002, p. 253.
  58. ^ a b Chitkara 2004, p. 168.
  59. ^ "Sanskar Bharti activist appointed CBFC member". 11 July 2015. Archived from the original on 3 June 2017. Retrieved 11 October 2016.
  60. ^ "RSS now wants street plays that will teach Indian culture". 10 October 2016. Archived from the original on 12 October 2016. Retrieved 11 October 2016.
  61. ^ Jaffrelot 2011, p. 204.
  62. ^ "Nepal earthquake: RSS rolls out relief". intoday.in. Archived from the original on 1 May 2015. Retrieved 15 May 2015.
  63. ^ Shoolin Design Pvt. Ltd. "Home". nmoindia.com. Archived from the original on 11 December 2021. Retrieved 15 May 2015.
  64. ^ a b c d e "ABPS session begins in Puttur RSS leaders to focus on Corruption". Mangalore Media Company. 12 March 2011. Archived from the original on 2 April 2015.
  65. ^ a b c d e "RSS top 3day Annual meet Akhil Bharatiya Pratinidhi Sabha (ABPS), to be held on March 7–9 at Bangalore". Vishwa Samvada Kendra. 3 March 2014. Archived from the original on 6 March 2014.
  66. ^ "About Us". Akhil Bharatiya Poorva Sainik Seva Parishad. Archived from the original on 2 February 2015.
  67. ^ Chitkara 2004, p. 169.
  68. ^ "Laghu Udyog Bharati" "Ministers, not group, to scan scams". The Telegraph. Calcutta, India. 1 October 2004. Archived from the original on 24 September 2015.
  69. ^ "Laghu Udyog Bharati" Jaffrelot. Christophe (1 December 2014). "Parivar's diversity in unity". The Indian Express. Archived from the original on 3 June 2015.
  70. ^ "Working for a Mission – physically, economically and morally strong India". bvpindia.com. Archived from the original on 23 April 2015. Retrieved 1 March 2015.
  71. ^ "Sabarimala Ayyappa Seva Samajam to move court". The New Indian Express. 4 October 2018. Archived from the original on 18 June 2019. Retrieved 18 June 2019.
  72. ^ "Bengaluru: SAKSHAMA celebrates Birth Centenary of Pandit Puttaraja Gawayi and Yadavarao Joshi". samvada.org. Archived from the original on 15 March 2015. Retrieved 8 March 2015.
  73. ^ "Hindu Seva Pratishthana -". hinduseva.org. Archived from the original on 11 May 2015. Retrieved 1 March 2015.
  74. ^ "Shiksha Bharati". shikshabharati.com. Archived from the original on 2 April 2015. Retrieved 1 March 2015.
  75. ^ a b c d "Ten most aggressive fringe elements of the Parivar". The Times of India. 26 May 2015. Archived from the original on 27 May 2015.
  76. ^ "Dharm Jagran – घर वापसी". Archived from the original on 17 December 2014. Retrieved 14 December 2014.
  77. ^ Nag, Udayan (12 December 2014). "RSS Body Dharam Jagran Samiti Sets Fixed Rates for Converting Muslims, Christians into Hindus". www.ibtimes.co.in. Archived from the original on 20 October 2022. Retrieved 4 November 2022.
  78. ^ Singh, Ravi S (23 October 2019). "RSS-linked Buddhist group backs temple construction". Tribune India. Archived from the original on 7 December 2022. Retrieved 7 December 2022.
  79. ^ Thomas, Shibu (29 March 2015). "Hate speech: Bombay high court denies bail to Hindu Sena chief". The Times of India. Archived from the original on 2 April 2015.
  80. ^ Thirumaavalavan (2003), Talisman, Extreme Emotions of Dalit Liberation, Popular Prakashan, pp. 55–, ISBN 978-81-85604-68-8
  81. ^ RSS to infuse young blood into Kerala BJP Archived 11 March 2020 at the Wayback Machine, The Hindu, 31 December 2015.
  82. ^ "RSS linked Assam tribal group holds protest against religious conversion". NDTV.
  83. ^ "Vijnana Bharati – The Largest Nation-Building Science Movement of India". vijnanabharati.org. Archived from the original on 4 April 2015. Retrieved 8 March 2015.
  84. ^ Hindutva at heart, Ambedkar on sleeve Archived 23 June 2022 at the Wayback Machine, The Hindu, 1 March 2010
  85. ^ Jaffrelot, Christophe (2011). Religion, Caste, and Politics in India.p 32, C Hurst & Co. ISBN 978-1849041386.
  86. ^ Pi, Rajeev (13 November 2015). "RSS mouthpiece article on 'live-in relationships' in Kerala sets off social media storm". The Hindu. Archived from the original on 24 September 2018. Retrieved 24 September 2018 – via www.thehindu.com.
  87. ^ "Best of times for the RSS, it aims for makeover at 90". Archived from the original on 11 October 2014.
  88. ^ "Welcome to Hindusthan Samachar". hindusthansamachar.com. Archived from the original on 14 February 2015. Retrieved 22 December 2014.
  89. ^ "Home". Hindustan Samachar. Archived from the original on 17 December 2014.
  90. ^ "About India Policy Foundation". India Policy Foundation. 5 July 2014. Archived from the original on 14 February 2015.
  91. ^ "Welcome to Bhartiya Shikshan Mandal". bsmbharat.org. Archived from the original on 7 April 2015. Retrieved 1 March 2015.
  92. ^ "Right wing groups woo world for their idea of India". hindustantimes.com/. Archived from the original on 6 January 2015.
  93. ^ Peri, Dinakar (31 January 2016). "VIF and SPMRF among top think tanks with political affiliation". The Hindu. Archived from the original on 31 January 2016. Retrieved 13 September 2016.
  94. ^ Sangeeta Barooah Pisharoty, In Search of Syama Prasad Mookerjee, the “True Patriot” Archived 12 September 2016 at the Wayback Machine, The Wire, 7 July 2016.
  95. ^ Jelen, Ted Gerard; Wilcox, Clyde (2002). Religion and Politics in Comparative Perspective: The One, The Few, and The Many. Cambridge University Press. p. 253. ISBN 978-0-521-65031-1. Archived from the original on 7 February 2023. Retrieved 10 March 2021.
  96. ^ DP Bhattacharya, ET Bureau (4 August 2014). "Communal skirmishes rising after Narendra Modi's departure from Gujarat - Economic Times". Articles.economictimes.indiatimes.com. Archived from the original on 14 August 2014. Retrieved 14 August 2014.
  97. ^ a b Nyland, Chris (2005), Davies, Gloria (ed.), Globalization in the Asian Region: Impacts and Consequences, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar, p. 207, ISBN 9781845422196, archived from the original on 7 February 2023, retrieved 9 May 2020
  98. ^ RSS-affiliated Samskrita Bharati backs Prof Feroze Khan’s appointment at BHU Archived 27 September 2021 at the Wayback Machine, Hindustan Times 25 November 2019.
  99. ^ "Central Hindu Military Education Society". Central Hindu Military Education Society. Archived from the original on 30 May 2016. Retrieved 1 August 2016.
  100. ^ "'Kreeda Bharati' Karnataka Unit inaugurated at Mangaluru". samvada.org. Archived from the original on 26 December 2014. Retrieved 8 March 2015.
  101. ^ 5 years of Bharat Tibbat Sahyog Manch, a mass movement for Tibet Archived 16 January 2023 at the Wayback Machine, Phayul, 25 May 2005.
  102. ^ Bharat Tibet Samanvay Sangh Celebrates Its Second Anniversary With Tibetan Shopkeepers Archived 16 January 2023 at the Wayback Machine, Tibet Rights Collective, 16 Januaryr 2023.

Bibliography