This article may be written in a style that is too abstract to be readily understandable by general audiences. Please improve it by defining technical terminology, and by adding examples. (August 2016)

Conservative liberalism, also referred to as right-liberalism,[1][2] is a variant of liberalism, combining liberal values and policies with conservative stances, or simply representing the right-wing of the liberal movement.[3] In the case of modern conservative liberalism, scholars sometimes see it as a more positive and less radical variant of classical liberalism; it is also referred to as an individual tradition that distinguishes it from classical liberalism and social liberalism.[4][5] Conservative liberal parties tend to combine economically liberal policies with more traditional stances and personal beliefs on social and ethical issues.[specify][6] Ordoliberalism is an influential component of conservative-liberal thought, particularly in its German, British, French, Italian, and American manifestations.[7]

In general, liberal conservatism and conservative liberalism have different philosophical roots. Historically, liberal conservatism refers mainly to the case where conservatives embrace the elements of classical liberalism, and conservative liberalism refers to classical liberals who support a laissez-faire economy as well as socially conservative principles (for instance, Christian family values). Since classical liberal institutions were gradually accepted by conservatives, there is very little to distinguish liberal conservatives from conservative liberals.[8] Neoconservatism has also been identified as an ideological relative or twin to conservative liberalism,[9] and some similarities exist also between conservative liberalism and national liberalism.[10][11]


Alexis de Tocqueville had a profound influence on modern conservative-liberal philosophy.

Conservative liberalism emerged in late 18th-century France and the United Kingdom, when the moderate bourgeoisie supported the monarchy within the liberal camp. Representatively, Doctrinaires, which existed during the Bourbon Restoration was a representative conservative-liberal party.[12] Radicalism, the leftward flank of liberalism during the late 18th and early 19th centuries that is referred to as classical radicalism, emerged as an opposition against the moderateness of these conservative liberals. Whiggism, or Whig liberalism, in the United Kingdom also forms early conservative liberalism and is distinguished from the Radicals (radical liberalism).[13]

Raymond Aron is known as Jean-Paul Sartre's "great intellectual opponent".[14]

According to Robert Kraynak, a professor at Colgate University, rather than "following progressive liberalism (i.e. social liberalism), conservative liberals draw upon pre-modern sources, such as classical philosophy (with its ideas of virtue, the common good, and natural rights), Christianity (with its ideas of natural law, the social nature of man, and original sin), and ancient institutions (such as common law, corporate bodies, and social hierarchies). This gives their liberalism a conservative foundation. It means following Plato, Aristotle, Socrates, St. Augustine, St. Thomas Aquinas, and Edmund Burke rather than Locke or Kant; it usually includes a deep sympathy for the politics of the Greek polis, the Roman Republic, and Christian monarchies. But, as realists, conservative liberals acknowledge that classical and medieval politics cannot be restored in the modern world. And, as moralists, they see that the modern experiment in liberty and self-government has the positive effect of enhancing human dignity as well as providing an opening (even in the midst of mass culture) for transcendent longings for eternity. At its practical best, conservative liberalism promotes ordered liberty under God and establishes constitutional safeguards against tyranny. It shows that a regime of liberty based on traditional morality and classical-Christian culture is an achievement we can be proud of, rather than merely defensive about, as trustees of Western civilization."[15]

In the European context, conservative liberalism should not be confused with liberal conservatism, which is a variant of conservatism combining conservative views with liberal policies in regards to the economy, social and ethical issues.[6] The roots of conservative liberalism are to be found at the beginning of the history of liberalism. Until the two world wars, the political class in most European countries from Germany to Italy was formed by conservative liberals. The events such as World War I occurring after 1917 brought the more radical version of classical liberalism to a more conservative (i.e. more moderate) type of liberalism.[16] Conservative liberal parties have tended to develop in those European countries where there was no strong secular conservative party and where the separation of church and state was less of an issue. In those countries, where the conservative parties were Christian democratic, this conservative brand of liberalism developed.[3]

Political stance

Wilhelm Röpke was representative of ordoliberalism and president of the Mont Pelerin Society from 1961 to 1962.

Conservative liberalism is generally a liberal ideology that contrasts with social liberalism.[17] Conservative liberalism, along with social liberalism and classical liberalism, is mentioned as the main liberal ideology of European politics.[5] While there are conservative liberals who are located on the right-wing political position, liberal conservatism is often used to describe liberalism close to the political centre to the centre-right of the political spectrum.[18][19]

Social, classical and conservative liberalism

Social liberalism is a combination of economic Keynesianism and cultural liberalism. Classical liberalism is economic liberalism that partially embraces cultural liberalism. Conservative liberalism is an ideology that highlights the conservative aspect of liberalism, so it can appear in a somewhat different form depending on the local reality. Conservative liberalism refers to ideologies that show relatively conservative tendencies within the liberal camp, so it has some relative meaning. In the United States, conservative liberals mean de facto classical liberals;[20] in Europe, Christian democrats and ordoliberals can also be included. Christian democracy is a mainstream European conservative ideology, so there are cases where it supports free markets, such as Röpke.[21]

By country

This section possibly contains synthesis of material which does not verifiably mention or relate to the main topic. Relevant discussion may be found on the talk page. (January 2022) (Learn how and when to remove this message)


Alexis de Tocqueville and Adolphe Thiers were representative French conservative liberals.[22][23] They were classified as centre-left liberals (progressive-Orléanists) during the July Monarchy alone;[24][25] after the French Revolution of 1848, the now French Second Republic entered and they were relegated to conservative liberals.[citation needed]


Prior to World War II, conservative liberalism or right-liberalism (German: Rechtsliberalismus) was often used in a similar sense to national-liberalism (German: Nationalliberalismus). National Liberal Party during the German Empire and German People's Party during the Weimar Republic are representative. "Right-liberalism" and "national liberalism" are used in similar meanings in Germany.[citation needed] According to the German Wikipedia, most of the national liberals during the Weimar Republic joined the CDU, a liberal-conservative party. For this reason, the terms "conservative liberalism" are not often used in Germany.[citation needed]

Ordoliberalism is more a variant of conservative liberalism than classical liberalism, which is economic liberalism that embraces cultural liberalism, or social liberalism, in principle because it is influenced by the notion of social justice based on traditional Catholic teachings. After the war, Germany pursued economic growth based on the social market economy, which is deeply related to ordoliberalism.[21]

United Kingdom

In the United Kingdom, David Hume, Adam Smith, and Edmund Burke have been identified as conservative liberals.[26]

United States

In the United States, liberal usually refers to a social liberal form. As such, those referred to as conservative liberals in Europe are often simply referred to as conservatives in the United States. Milton Friedman and Irving Kristol are mentioned as representative conservative liberal scholars.[20][27]

Harry S. Truman is considered a conservative-liberal or national-liberal, although he supported Keynesian economic policies. The former president Franklin D. Roosevelt supported the socially liberal agenda and was conciliatory to the Soviet Union, a member of the Allies of World War II. As the U.S. president in the aftermath of World War II and the start of the Cold War, Truman supported a more moderate social policy and was a strong anti-communist.[28]

Political scientists evaluate all politicians in the United States as liberals in the academic sense.[29] In general, rather than the Democratic Party, which is close to social liberalism, the Republican Party is evaluated as a conservative-liberal party.[30] In the case of the Democratic Party, the Blue Dog Coalition is evaluated as close to conservative-liberal in fiscal policy,[31] and as moderate to liberal on cultural issues.[32] Unlike classical liberals, conservative liberals in Europe, such as Finland's Centre Party, sometimes criticize cultural liberalism.[33]

American neoconservatives might be classified as conservative liberals according to Peter Lawler, a professor at Berry College, who argued:

[I]n America today, responsible liberals—who are usually called neoconservatives—see that liberalism depends on human beings who are somewhat child-centered, patriotic, and religious. These responsible liberals praise these non-individualistic human propensities in an effort to shore up liberalism. One of their slogans is "conservative sociology with liberal politics." The neoconservatives recognize that the politics of free and rational individuals depends upon a pre-political social world that is far from free and rational as a whole.[34]

Notable thinkers

List of conservative-liberal parties or parties with conservative-liberal factions

Current parties

Historical parties

See also


  1. ^ The LDP was described as a liberal or conservative-liberal party in the 1990s and prior to the 1990s, and was described as a liberal-conservative before the Second Abe Cabinet. Since 2012, the LDP has been controversial due to its relations to ultranationalism and neo-fascism. Major LDP members are linked to the far-right Nippon Kaigi.[67][68]


  1. ^ Keith L. Nelson, ed. (2019). The Making of Détente: Soviet-American Relations in the Shadow of Vietnam. JHU Press. ISBN 978-1421436210. ... and even today our political parties can most appropriately be described as "right liberal" (those who fear government) and "left liberal" (those who fear concentrated wealth).2 This does not mean, however, that individual American ...
  2. ^ Paul Orlowski, ed. (2011). Teaching About Hegemony: Race, Class and Democracy in the 21st Century. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 110. ISBN 978-9400714182. This pull-yourself-up-by-the-bootstraps idea is part of the conservative and right liberal ideologies.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l M. Gallagher, M. Laver and P. Mair, Representative Government in Europe, p. 221.
  4. ^ R.T. Allen, Beyond Liberalism, p. 2.
  5. ^ a b Emilie van Haute; Caroline Close, eds. (2019). Liberal Parties in Europe. Routledge. p. 326.
  6. ^ a b "Content". Parties and Elections in Europe. 2020. Retrieved 23 June 2023. Liberal conservatism: Liberal conservative parties combine conservative policies with more liberal stances on social and ethical issues.
  7. ^ Kenneth Dyson (2021). "Introduction". In Kenneth Dyson (ed.). Conservative Liberalism, Ordo-liberalism, and the State: Discipling Democracy and the Market. Oxford University Press. p. 5. ISBN 978-0-19-885428-9.
  8. ^ Johnston, Larry (2007). Politics: An Introduction to the Modern Democratic State (3rd ed.). Peterborough, Ont.: University of Toronto Press. pp. 154–155. ISBN 978-1442600409.
  9. ^ Roger Scruton. "Liberal Conservatism, Not Conservative Liberalism" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 21 October 2017. Retrieved 21 October 2017.
  10. ^ Telos. Telos Press. 1998. p. 72.
  11. ^ Shannan Lorraine Mattiace, ed. (1998). Peasant and Indian: Political Identity and Indian Autonomy in Chiapas, Mexico, 1970–1996. University of Texas at Austin.
  12. ^ Robert Tombs, ed. (2014). France 1814–1914. Routledge. ISBN 978-1317871439. ... The conservative liberal Doctrinaires argued that the classe moyenne (their preferred term) was the representative part of the nation, and could legitimately govern on behalf of all. All this placed the idea of class at the centre of ...
  13. ^ Efraim Podoksik, ed. (2013). In Defence of Modernity: Vision and Philosophy in Michael Oakeshott. Imprint Academic. p. 14. ISBN 9781845404680. ... For Whig liberalism is also known as 'conservative liberalism' ...
  14. ^ The New York Times Book Review. New York Times Company. 1986. p. 1. ISBN 978-1317755098. ... a friend and philosophical colleague of both Sartre and Sartre's great intellectual opponent, Raymond Aron. ...
  15. ^ Kraynak, Robert (December 2005). "Living with liberalism". The New Criterion. Archived from the original on 1 March 2021. Retrieved 23 June 2023.
  16. ^ R.T. Allen, Beyond Liberalism, p. 13.
  17. ^ Hans Slomp, ed. (2011). Europe, A Political Profile: An American Companion to European Politics, Volume 1. ABC-CLIO. p. 107. ISBN 978-0313391811. Although businesspeople are more inclined to conservative liberalism, professionals and intellectuals constitute the backbone of social liberalism.
  18. ^ Immanuel Wallerstein, ed. (2011). The Modern World-System IV: Centrist Liberalism Triumphant, 1789–1914. University of California Press.
  19. ^ a b c d Emilie van Haute; Caroline Close, eds. (2019). Liberal Parties in Europe. Routledge. pp. 338–339.
  20. ^ a b c David Cayla, ed. (2021). Populism and Neoliberalism. Routledge. p. 62. ISBN 978-1000366709. He demonstrates that the concept of "neoliberalism" did not emerge in the American context and that it was thereby not invented to distinguish Paul Krugman's left-wing liberalism from Milton Friedman's conservative liberalism.
  21. ^ a b c d e Kenneth Dyson, ed. (2021). Conservative Liberalism, Ordo-liberalism, and the State: Disciplining Democracy and the Market. Oxford University Press.
  22. ^ a b Martin Fitzpatrick; Peter Jones, eds. (2017). The Reception of Edmund Burke in Europe. Bloomsbury Publishing. ISBN 978-1350012554. ... If Burke is a liberal conservative, Tocqueville is a conservative liberal.49 Bénéton then silently excludes French liberalism from conservatism, and concentrates on a definition of a genuine conservatism proceeding from the ...
  23. ^ a b Andrew Cleveland Gould, ed. (1992). Politicians, Peasants and Priests: Conditions for the Emergence of Liberal Dominance in Western Europe, 1815–1914. University of California. p. 82. Conservative liberal Adolphe Thiers , advocate of peace and liberal opposition leader under ...
  24. ^ Jennings, Jeremy (2011). Revolution and the Republic: A History of Political Thought in France Since the Eighteenth Century. Oxford University Press. p. 188. ISBN 978-0198203131.
  25. ^ Agulhon, Maurice (1983). The Republican Experiment, 1848–1852. Cambridge University Press. p. 135.
  26. ^ a b c d Klein, Daniel B. (1 March 2021). "Conservative liberalism: Hume, Smith, and Burke as policy liberals and polity conservatives". Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization. 183: 861–873. doi:10.1016/j.jebo.2020.11.021. ISSN 0167-2681. S2CID 233880111.
  27. ^ a b Otis L. Graham Jr., ed. (1976). Toward a Planned Society: From Roosevelt to Nixon. Oxford University Press. p. 1911. ISBN 978-0199923212. The journal The Public Interest in recent years has published notable essays by the skeptics of the planning and Planning impulse, by conservative liberal writers like Aaron Wildavsky, James O. Wilson, and Irving Kristol.
  28. ^ a b Howard Brick; Christopher Phelps, eds. (2015). Radicals in America: The U.S. Left since the Second World War. Cambridge University Press. p. 20. ISBN 9780521515603. By 1948 several different third-party movements arose to challenge Truman's conservative liberalism, each ending in ...
  29. ^ Adams, Ian (2001). Political Ideology Today (reprinted, revised ed.). Manchester: Manchester University Press. ISBN 978-0719060205.
  30. ^ Slomp 2011, p. 107.
  31. ^ Educating for Social Justice: Field Notes from Rural Communities. Brill. 2020. p. 93. ISBN 978-9004432864. It is entirely feasible that a Liberal, for example, might hold Conservative views when it comes to financial policy (a fiscally conservative liberal—or "blue dog Democrat").
  32. ^ "Centrist Democrats are back. But these are not your father's Blue Dogs". Christian Science Monitor. 4 June 2019. Retrieved 3 January 2021. Progressives like Mr. Lawson disagree; he says many Blue Dogs today use socially liberal views to win support from Democratic voters, despite the fact that on economic matters they represent corporate interests.
  33. ^ "Väyrynen ryöpyttää keskustan liberaaleja". Archived from the original on 1 October 2011. Retrieved 24 February 2015.
  34. ^ Peter Lawler, Liberal Conservatism, Not Conservative Liberalism, The Intercollegiate Review, Fall 2003/Spring 2004
  35. ^ Kansas State College of Pittsburg, ed. (1945). The Educational Leader. Kansas State College. p. 67. The greatest leader of the English Liberal Party in the last century, William E. Gladstone, was in principle and practice a conservative liberal. As leader of the party from 1868 to 1894, he was directly ...
  36. ^ Paul Kelly, ed. (2005). Liberalism. Polity. p. 71. ISBN 978-0745632902. Conservative liberal critics of social justice, such as Friedrich Hayek, have sought to reject precisely this distinction.
  37. ^ In Defense of Decadent Europe. Transaction Publishers. 1996. p. XI. ISBN 978-1412826044. ... Aron was a conservative liberal who appreciated that a true affirmation of political liberty required the ...
  38. ^ Phillip Darby, ed. (1997). At the Edge of International Relations: Postcolonialism, Gender, and Dependency. Pinter. p. 62. ... Instead, in the late twentieth century a conservative liberal, Francis Fukuyama, comfortably pronounces the victory of ...
  39. ^ Pion-Berlin, David (1997), Through Corridors of Power: Institutions and Civil-military Relations in Argentina, Pennsylvania State University Press, p. 66
  40. ^ "Quién es quién. Los partidos políticos argentinos" (PDF). Corbière, Emilio J. (in Spanish). August 1983. Archived from the original (PDF) on 6 July 2010. Retrieved 20 October 2016.
  41. ^ "Documento Final del Congreso Ideológico Nacional del PDC". Partido Demócrata Cristiano (in Spanish). 6 July 2014. Archived from the original on 1 October 2015. Retrieved 24 October 2016.
  42. ^ a b c Peter Starke; Alexandra Kaasch; Franca Van Hooren (2013). The Welfare State as Crisis Manager: Explaining the Diversity of Policy Responses to Economic Crisis. Palgrave Macmillan. pp. 191–192. ISBN 978-1137314840.
  43. ^ a b Slomp 2011, p. 465.
  44. ^ a b c d e f g h i j "Parties and Elections in Europe".
  45. ^ Barbara Happe (2003). "Brazil". In Dirk Berg-Schlosser; Norbert Kersting (eds.). Poverty and Democracy: Self-Help and Political Participation in Third World Cities. Zed Books. p. 24. ISBN 978-1842772058.
  46. ^ a b c d e f g Caroline Close (2019). "The liberal family ideology: Distinct, but diverse". In Emilie van Haute; Caroline Close (eds.). Liberal Parties in Europe. Taylor & Francis. p. 344. ISBN 978-1351245494.
  47. ^ NSD, European Election Database, Czech Republic
  48. ^ Rudolf Andorka (1999). A Society Transformed: Hungary in Time-space Perspective. Central European University Press. p. 163. ISBN 978-9639116498.
  49. ^ Krisztina Arató; Petr Kaniok (2009). Euroscepticism and European Integration. CPI/PSRC. p. 191. ISBN 978-9537022204.
  50. ^ a b Vít Hloušek; Lubomír Kopecek (2013). Origin, Ideology and Transformation of Political Parties: East-Central and Western Europe Compared. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd. p. 177. ISBN 978-1409499770.
  51. ^ Emil J. Kirchner (1988). Liberal Parties in Western Europe. Cambridge University Press. p. 280. ISBN 978-0521323949.
  52. ^ Alari Purju (2003). "Economic Performance and Market Reforms". In Marat Terterov; Jonathan Reuvid (eds.). Doing Business with Estonia. GMB Publishing Ltd. p. 20. ISBN 978-1905050567.
  53. ^ Tom Lansford (2014). Political Handbook of the World 2014. Sage Publications. p. 392. ISBN 978-1483333274.
  54. ^ Slomp 2011, p. 446.
  55. ^ a b Hans Slomp (2000). European Politics Into the Twenty-first Century: Integration and Division. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 55. ISBN 978-0275968007.
  56. ^ Stephen George (1991). Politics and Policy in the European Community (Comparative European Politics). University Press. p. 71. ISBN 978-0198780557.
  57. ^ Jörg Arnold (2006). "Criminal Law as a Reaction to System Crime: Policy for Dealing with the Past in European Transitions". In Jerzy W. Borejsza; Klaus Ziemer (eds.). Totalitarian and Authoritarian Regimes in Europe: Legacies and Lessons from the Twentieth Century. Berghahn Books. p. 410. ISBN 1571816410.
  58. ^ Slomp 2011, p. 680.
  59. ^ "Wahl auf der grünen Insel | DW | 20.05.2002". Deutsche Welle.
  60. ^ Hilo Glazer, How Likud's Youngest MK Went From the Peace Camp to the Right, Haaretz, Sep 29, 2015
  61. ^ Anshel Pfeffer, How the Likud Primaries Could Backfire on Netanyahu, Haaretz, Nov 25, 2012
  62. ^ "Der Rivale macht Ernst". 10 December 2020.
  63. ^ a b Agnes Blome (2016). The Politics of Work-Family Policy Reforms in Germany and Italy. Taylor & Francis. p. 142. ISBN 978-1317554363.
  64. ^ Tetsuya Kobayashi (1976). Society, Schools, and Progress in Japan. Elsevier Science. p. 68. ISBN 978-1483136226.
  65. ^ Japan Almanac. Mainichi Newspapers. 1975. p. 43. In the House of Representatives, the Liberal-Democratic Party, guided by conservative liberalism, is the No.1 party holding a total of 279 seats or 56.8 per cent of the House quorum of 491.
  66. ^ Paul Kevenhörster; Werner Pascha; Karen Shire (2003). Japan: Wirtschaft - Gesellschaft - Politik. VS Verlag. p. 302. ISBN 978-3-32-299566-7.
  67. ^ "Beautiful Harmony: Political Project Behind Japan's New Era Name – Analysis". eurasia review. 16 July 2019. The shifting dynamics around the new era name (gengō 元号) offers an opportunity to understand how the domestic politics of the LDP's project of ultranationalism is shaping a new Japan and a new form of nationalism.
  68. ^ "Shinzo Abe and the long history of Japanese political violence". The Spectator. 9 July 2022. Retrieved 3 March 2023. As the French judge at the trial, Henri Bernard, noted, Japan's wartime atrocities 'had a principal author [Hirohito] who escaped all prosecution and of whom in any case the present defendants could only be considered accomplices.' The result was that whereas ultranationalism became toxic in post-war Germany, in Japan neo-fascism—centred around the figure of the emperor—retained its allure and became mainstream albeit sotto voce within Japan's ruling Liberal Democratic Party.
  69. ^ European Forum for Democracy and Solidarity Archived 2015-04-05 at the Wayback Machine
  70. ^ Andeweg, R. and G. Irwin Politics and Governance in the Netherlands, Basingstoke (Palgrave) p. 49
  71. ^ "NSD, European Election Database, Netherlands". Archived from the original on 24 July 2011. Retrieved 26 August 2011.
  72. ^ Rudy W Andeweg; Lieven De Winter; Patrick Dumont (2011). Government Formation. Taylor & Francis. p. 147. ISBN 978-1134239726. Retrieved 17 August 2012.
  73. ^ Jochen Clasen; Daniel Clegg (2011). Regulating the Risk of Unemployment: National Adaptations to Post-Industrial Labour Markets in Europe. Oxford University Press. p. 76. ISBN 978-0199592296. Retrieved 17 August 2012.
  74. ^ Slomp 2011, p. 459.
  75. ^ David Hanley (1998). Christian Democracy in Europe. Continuum International Publishing Group. p. 67. ISBN 978-1855673823. Retrieved 17 August 2012.
  76. ^ Ricky Van Oers; Eva Ersbøll; Dora Kostakopoulou; Theodora Kostakopoulou (2010). A Re-Definition of Belonging?: Language and Integration Tests in Europe. Brill. p. 60. ISBN 978-9004175068. Retrieved 17 August 2012.
  77. ^ "Eerdmans en Nanninga doen met 'JA21' mee aan verkiezingen". NOS (in Dutch). 18 December 2020. Retrieved 20 December 2020.
  78. ^ Boersema, Wendelmoet (15 March 2021). "Waarom de strijd op rechts nooit een volledig rechts kabinet oplevert".
  79. ^ "NSD – European Election Database, Norway". Archived from the original on 5 January 2013. Retrieved 11 February 2014.
  80. ^ Mart Laar (2010). The Power of Freedom – Central and Eastern Europe after 1945. Unitas Foundation. p. 229. ISBN 978-9949214792.
  81. ^ Joanna A. Gorska (2012). Dealing with a Juggernaut: Analyzing Poland's Policy toward Russia, 1989-2009. Lexington Books. p. 104. ISBN 978-0739145340.
  82. ^ Bartek Pytlas (2016). Radical Right Parties in Central and Eastern Europe: Mainstream Party Competition and Electoral Fortune. Routledge. p. 30. ISBN 978-1317495864.
  83. ^ Diamantino P. Machado (1991). The Structure of Portuguese Society: The Failure of Fascism. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 192. ISBN 978-0275937843.
  84. ^ Slomp 2011, p. 561.
  85. ^ Pather, Raeesa (24 October 2019). "Will the DA survive Mmusi Maimane's resignation?". Al Jazeera English. Retrieved 14 July 2021. seen as representing a conservative-liberal grouping within the DA.
  86. ^ "중도보수' 표방 새정치연합, '세모녀 법'등 민생정치도 '흔들'". 참세상. 31 March 2014. Retrieved 26 April 2014.
  87. ^ 새정치민주연합 "성찰적 진보와 합리적 보수 아우를 것". 한겨레. (March 16, 2014)
  88. ^ "'더불어민주당 2중대'로서 정의당" [The Justice Party, which became the "second party of the Democratic Party of Korea".]. 매일노동뉴스. 4 November 2021. Retrieved 4 November 2021. ... 집값은 오르고 불로소득은 넘쳐 나고 빈부격차도 심해졌다. 노동 개혁도 엉망진창이다. 코로나19라는 악재가 있으나, 보수적 자유주의 정당인 더불어민주당의 성격을 고려할 때 정권 출범부터 예견됐던 일이다. [... Housing prices rose, unearned income overflowed, and the gap between the rich and the poor widened. Labor reform is also a mess. Although there is a negative factor called COVID-19, it has been predicted since the inauguration of the regime considering the nature of the conservative liberal party, the Democratic Party of Korea.]
  89. ^ Anna Bosco (2013). Party Change in Southern Europe. Routledge. p. 15. ISBN 978-1136767777.
  90. ^ Slomp 2011, p. 519.
  91. ^ Siripan Nogsuan Sawasdee (2012), "Thailand", Political Parties and Democracy: Contemporary Western Europe and Asia, Palgrave Macmillan, p. 157
  92. ^ Olszański, Tadeusz A. (17 September 2014), Ukraine's political parties at the start of the election campaign, OSW—Centre for Eastern Studies
  93. ^ Stephen White; Elena A. Korosteleva; John Löwenhardt (2005). Postcommunist Belarus. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 37. ISBN 978-0742535558.
  94. ^ Walter L. White; Ralph Carl Nelson; R. H. Wagenberg (1998). Introduction to Canadian Politics and Government. Harcourt Brace. p. 77. ISBN 978-0-77-473589-6.
  95. ^ Tadeusz Buksiński (2009). Democracy in Western and Postcommunist Countries: Twenty Years After the Fall of Communism. Peter Lang. p. 240. ISBN 978-3-631-58543-6.
  96. ^ Frank Chibulka (2012). "The Czech Republic". In Donnacha O Beachain; Vera Sheridan; Sabina Stan (eds.). Life in Post-Communist Eastern Europe after EU Membership. Routledge. p. 36. ISBN 978-1136299810.
  97. ^ a b Carol Diane St Louis (2011). Negotiating Change: Approaches to and the Distributional Implications of Social Welfare and Economic Reform. Stanford University. p. 105. Stanford: RW793BX2256. Retrieved 19 August 2012.
  98. ^ Slomp 2011, p. 385.
  99. ^ Carol Diane St Louis (2011). Negotiating Change: Approaches to and the Distributional Implications of Social Welfare and Economic Reform. Stanford University. p. 77.
  100. ^ Stanley G. Payne (1996). A History of Fascism, 1914–1945. University of Wisconsin Pres. p. 163. ISBN 978-0299148737.
  101. ^ Helena Waddy (2010). Oberammergau in the Nazi Era: The Fate of a Catholic Village in Hitler's Germany. Oxford University Press. p. 54. ISBN 978-0199707799.
  102. ^ Stijn van Kessel (2015). Populist Parties in Europe: Agents of Discontent?. Palgrave Macmillan UK. p. 67. ISBN 978-1137414113.
  103. ^ Kerstin Hamann; John Kelly (2010). Parties, Elections, and Policy Reforms in Western Europe: Voting for Social Pacts. Routledge. p. 1982. ISBN 978-1136949869.
  104. ^ Maurizio Cotta; Luca Verzichelli (2007). Political Institutions in Italy. Oxford University Press. p. 38. ISBN 978-0199284702.
  105. ^ Walter Kickert; Tiina Randma-Liiv (2015). Europe Managing the Crisis: The Politics of Fiscal Consolidation. Routledge. p. 263. ISBN 978-1317525707.
  106. ^ ブリタニカ国際大百科事典 小項目事典の解説 [The Encyclopædia Britannica: Micropædia's explanation]. Kotobank (in Japanese). Retrieved 1 May 2022.
  107. ^ Slomp 2011, p. 532.
  108. ^ Caroline Close; Pascal Delwit (2019). "Liberal parties and elections: Electoral performances and voters' profile". In Emilie van Haute; Caroline Close (eds.). Liberal Parties in Europe. Taylor & Francis. p. 295. ISBN 978-1351245494.
  109. ^ Emiel Lamberts (1997). Christian Democracy in the European Union, 1945/1995: Proceedings of the Leuven Colloquium, 15–18 November 1995. Leuven University Press. p. 56. ISBN 978-9061868088.
  110. ^ Daniels, John Richard Sinclair. "United Party". In McLintock, A. H. (ed.). An Encyclopaedia of New Zealand. Ministry for Culture and Heritage / Te Manatū Taonga. Retrieved 6 March 2016.
  111. ^ Salvatore Garau (2015). Fascism and Ideology: Italy, Britain, and Norway. Routledge. p. 144. ISBN 978-1317909477.
  112. ^ Jennifer Lees-Marshment (2009). Political Marketing: Principles and Applications. Routledge. p. 103. ISBN 978-1134084111.
  113. ^ Jerzy Szacki (1994). Liberalism After Communism. Central European University Press. p. 182. ISBN 978-1858660165.
  114. ^ Dariusz Skrzypinski (2016). "Patterns of Recruitment of Polish Candidates in the 2014 European Parliament Elections". In Ruxandra Boicu; Silvia Branea; Adriana Stefanel (eds.). Political Communication and European Parliamentary Elections in Times of Crisis: Perspectives from Central and South-Eastern Europe. Palgrave Macmillan UK. p. 245. ISBN 978-1137585912.
  115. ^ Nyagulov, Blagovest (2014). Early Socialism in the Balkans: Ideas and Practices in Serbia, Romania and Bulgaria. Vol. 2. Brill. p. 232. ((cite book)): |work= ignored (help)
  116. ^ Jacques Rupnik; Jan Zielonka (2003). The Road to the European Union. Manchester University Press. p. 52. ISBN 978-0719065972.
  117. ^ "Three conservative opposition parties, 'President Roh, apologize for canceling his pledge to relocate the office to Gwanghwamun'. (Korean)". views&news. 8 January 2019. Retrieved 5 January 2019.
  118. ^ Slomp 2011, p. 518.
  119. ^ Slomp 2011, p. 489.