Identity and Democracy
European Parliament group
ID Group Logo EN.svg
NameIdentity and Democracy
English abbr.ID
Formal nameIdentity and Democracy Group
IdeologyNationalism[1]
Right-wing populism[2]
Anti-immigration[1]
Euroscepticism[1]
Factions:
Identitarianism[3]
Political positionRight-wing[4][5][6] to far-right[7][8][9]
European partiesIdentity and Democracy Party
From13 June 2019
Preceded byEurope of Nations and Freedom
Chaired byMarco Zanni
MEP(s)
64 / 705
Websitewww.idgroup.eu

Identity and Democracy (French: Identité et démocratie, ID) is a right-wing[4][5][6] to far-right[7][8][9] political group of the European Parliament, launched on 13 June 2019 for the Ninth European Parliament term. It is composed of nationalist, right-wing populist and eurosceptic national parties from ten European nations. It is the successor to the Europe of Nations and Freedom group formed during the eighth term.

History

In April 2019, the Danish People's Party and the Finns Party (at the time members of the European Conservatives and Reformists) announced their intention to form a new grouping with Alternative for Germany, formerly of the ECR, ENF and EFDD groups, and Italy's League following the 2019 elections.[10] AfD spokesman Jörg Meuthen appeared alongside Northern League leader Matteo Salvini to formally announce the formation of the new European political alliance with the Finns Party and Danish People's Party which was provisionally named European Alliance for People and Nations.[11]

On 12 June 2019, it was announced that the group would be named "Identity and Democracy" (ID), include Italy's League (LSP), the French National Rally (RN) and Alternative for Germany as member parties, and be a successor to the Europe of Nations and Freedom (ENF).[12] The Finns Party also joined the group.[13] Lega MEP Marco Zanni was announced as the new group's chairman.[14] The group, composed at that time of 73 MEPs, was launched in Brussels by RN leader Marine Le Pen on 13 June 2019. It was expanded to include former ENF members Vlaams Belang and the Freedom Party of Austria, as well the new Freedom and Direct Democracy (SPD) party from the Czech Republic and the Conservative People's Party of Estonia.[9][8]

The Dutch Party for Freedom (PVV) failed to secure any seats at the election; however, it gained one in the post-Brexit apportionment of seats. Before Brexit occurred, Party leader Geert Wilders stated his intention to align the PVV with ID, provided that the post-Brexit apportionment was confirmed by the European Council.[15][16] PVV MEP Marcel de Graaff subsequently took the seat, but in 2022 defected to the Forum for Democracy, citing his support for the FvD's policies against the COVID-19 vaccine. The FvD accordingly changed it affiliation from the ECR group to Identity and Democracy.

Ideology

The group lists its core priorities as protecting European cultural heritage and the sovereignty of European nations, creating jobs and growth, increasing security, stopping illegal immigration, regulating legal immigration, fighting EU bureaucracy and preventing what it describes as the potential Islamisation of Europe. Identity and Democracy also opposes the possible accession of Turkey to the European Union.[17] The group calls for a Europe based on cooperation and further reforms of the EU through "more transparency and accountability" at Brussels, but rejects any further evolution towards a European Superstate.[18] Political commentators have variously described Identity and Democracy as nationalist, right-wing populist and Eurosceptic, although the group emphasises itself as sovereigntist as opposed to "anti-European".[2]

Group members

Identity and Democracy has MEPs in 10 member states. Dark blue indicates member states sending multiple MEPs, light blue indicates member states sending a single MEP.
Identity and Democracy has MEPs in 10 member states. Dark blue indicates member states sending multiple MEPs, light blue indicates member states sending a single MEP.

9th European Parliament

Main article: List of members of the European Parliament (2019–2024)

State National party European party MEPs[19]
 Austria Freedom Party of Austria
Freiheitliche Partei Österreichs (FPÖ)
ID Party
3 / 19
 Belgium Flemish Interest
Vlaams Belang (VB)
ID Party
3 / 21
 Czech Republic Freedom and Direct Democracy
Svoboda a přímá demokracie (SPD)
ID Party
2 / 21
 Denmark Danish People's Party
Dansk Folkeparti (DF)
None
1 / 14
 Estonia Conservative People's Party of Estonia
Eesti Konservatiivne Rahvaerakond (EKRE)
ID Party
1 / 7
 Finland Finns Party
Perussuomalaiset (PS)
None
2 / 14
 France National Rally
Rassemblement national (RN)
ID Party
18 / 79
 Germany Alternative for Germany
Alternative für Deutschland (AfD)
None
9 / 96
 Italy League
Lega
ID Party
25 / 76
 European Union Total
64 / 705

References

  1. ^ a b c "Nationalism in the EU has a new name: 'Identity and Democracy'". Euronews. 13 June 2019.
  2. ^ a b "Identity and Democracy Group: United on the Outside, Divided on the Inside? – Le portail de référence pour l'espace de liberté, sécurité et justice". 28 June 2019.
  3. ^ "Far-right Generation Identity leaders jailed for Alpine stunt". Al Jazeera. 30 August 2019. The far-right grouping in the newly elected European Parliament has taken the name Identity and Democracy, in a sign of the growing influence of "identitarian" supremacist politics.
  4. ^ a b "Greta Thunberg rains on EU climate law parade". Politico. 3 May 2020.
  5. ^ a b "The European Parliament after Brexit" (PDF). Clifford Chance. 1 January 2020. p. 1.
  6. ^ a b "Germany's Altmaier encourages MEPs to be more realistic". Euractiv. 16 July 2020.
  7. ^ a b
  8. ^ a b c Cook, Lorne (13 June 2019). "Europe's populists rebrand but policies remain the same". Associated Press.
  9. ^ a b c "France's Le Pen unveils new far-right European Parliament group". Reuters. 13 June 2019.
  10. ^ "EU's nationalist parties announce plans to join forces after May vote". Saudi Gazette. 8 April 2019.
  11. ^ "Germany's AfD joins Italy's League in new populist coalition". Deutsche Welle. 8 April 2019.
  12. ^ Weise, Zia (12 June 2019). "Salvini alliance to be named Identity and Democracy". Politico.
  13. ^ Nikolaj Nielsen (13 June 2019). "New 'ID' far-right EU parliament group falls short". EUobserver. Retrieved 13 June 2019.
  14. ^ Alfie Tobutt (13 June 2019). "Marine Le Pen to unveil new far-right alliance in European Parliament". Euronews. Retrieved 13 June 2019.
  15. ^ Morgan, Sam (31 May 2019). "Post-Brexit Parliament: Winners and losers". Euractiv.
  16. ^ "Europe's far-right politicians join forces to fight for more power". The Independent. 18 May 2019.
  17. ^ "Parliament group priorities: Identity and Democracy". Europarl (Press release). 19 August 2019.
  18. ^ https://d3n8a8pro7vhmx.cloudfront.net/kantodev/pages/102/attachments/original/1582196570/EN_Statutes_of_the_ID_Group.pdf?1582196570[bare URL PDF]
  19. ^ "MEPs by Member State and political group". Retrieved 9 December 2022.