Progressive Alliance
of Socialists and Democrats
European Parliament group
NameProgressive Alliance
of Socialists and Democrats
English abbr.S&D[1]
(23 June 2009 – present)
Older:
French abbr.S&D[6]
(23 June 2009 – present)
Older:
  • PSE[7]
    (21 April 1993 – 22 June 2009)
    SOC[2]
    (1958 – 21 April 1993)
    S[5]
    (23 June 1953 – 1958)
Formal nameGroup of the Progressive Alliance of Socialists and Democrats
in the European Parliament[1]
(23 June 2009 – present)
Older:
  • Socialist Group
    in the European Parliament[7][8]
    (20 July 2004[3] – 23 June 2009)
    Group of the Party
    of European Socialists[5][9]
    (21 April 1993[3] – 20 July 2004)[3]
    Socialist Group[4][10]
    (1958[4] – 21 April 1993)[3]
    Group of the Socialists[5]
    (23 June 1953[3] – 1958)[4]
IdeologySocial democracy[11][12]
Progressivism
Pro-Europeanism
Political positionCentre-left[13]
European partiesPES
Associated organisationsProgressive Alliance
Socialist International
From23 June 1953[3]
ToPresent
Chaired byIratxe García
MEP(s)
140 / 705
Websitesocialistsanddemocrats.eu

The Progressive Alliance of Socialists and Democrats (S&D)[1] is the political group in the European Parliament of the Party of European Socialists (PES).[14] The Progressive Alliance of Socialists and Democrats was officially founded as a Socialist Group on 29 June 1953, which makes it the second oldest political group in the European Parliament after Renew Europe (Renew). It adopted its present-day name on 23 June 2009.[15] Centre-left in orientation,[16] the group mostly comprises social-democratic parties and is affiliated with the Progressive Alliance and Socialist International.

Until the 1999 European Parliament elections, it was the largest group in the Parliament, but since then it has always been the second-largest group. During the eighth EU Parliament Assembly, the S&D was the only Parliament group with representation from all 27 EU member states. In the current EU Parliament the S&D is currently composed of 140 members from 25 member states.

In the European Council, eight out of 27 heads of state and government belong to PES parties and in the European Commission, 8 out of 27 Commissioners come from PES parties.

History

The Socialist Group was one of the first three groups to be created when it was founded on 23 June 1953[3][17] in the Common Assembly of the European Coal and Steel Community. The Common Assembly was the predecessor of the European Parliament. A group bureau and secretariat was established in Luxembourg. The group continued through the creation of the appointed Parliament in 1958 and, when the Parliament became an elected body in 1979 following the first European election, the group became the largest in terms of returned MEPs. It has ever since remained the largest or second-largest Group.

In 1987, the Single European Act came into force and the group began co-operating with the European People's Party (EPP) to secure the majorities needed under the cooperation procedure.[18] The left–right coalition between the Socialists and EPP has dominated the Parliament since then.[19] Further, with some exceptions, the post of President of the Parliament has alternated between the two groups ever since.[20]

Meanwhile, the national parties making up the group were also organising themselves on a European level outside the Parliament, creating the Confederation of Socialist Parties of the European Community in 1974.[4][5][21] The Confederation was succeeded by the Party of European Socialists (PES), in 1992.[4][21] As a result, the parliamentary group was renamed the Group of the Party of European Socialists on 21 April 1993.[3]

In 1999, the Parliament refused to approve the Santer Commission's handling of the EU budget. Allegations of corruption centred on two PES Commissioners, Édith Cresson and Manuel Marín. The group initially supported the Commission but later withdrew their support, forcing the Commission to resign.[22]

The group was renamed again to the Socialist Group in the European Parliament[7] on 20 July 2004[3] and was given a different logo, to further distinguish the PES group organisation from the PES European political party.

In 2007, the Socialist Group was the second largest group in Parliament, with MEPs from all but two member states, Latvia and Cyprus.[23] However, the 2009 European election saw a reduction in the number of PES MEPs returned from 2004. The group sought additional members in the Democratic Party of Italy, which was not affiliated to the PES in 2009.[24][25] By the conclusion of the 2004–2009 parliamentary term, the Democratic Party had 8 MEPs in the Socialist Group (coming from the Democrats of the Left), but also had eight MEPs in ALDE Group (coming from the Daisy). The Democratic Party is a big tent centre-left party, strongly influenced by social democracy and the Christian left, and had MEPs who were former Christian Democrats or had other political views.[citation needed][26] As such, a new and more inclusive group name had to be found.

The group was going to be named Alliance of Socialists and Democrats for Europe (ASDE) but this was seemed too similar to Alliance of Liberals and Democrats for Europe (ALDE).[27] The name Progressive Alliance of Socialists and Democrats was suggested on 18 June by group president Martin Schulz[28] and it was renamed on 23 June 2009.[15] The English abbreviation was initially unclear, being variously reported as PASD,[29] S&D Group[30] or PASDE.[31][32] Dissatisfaction by Socialist MEPs towards the new name led Martin Schulz to admit that the name was still under consideration and that the group was to be referred to as the "Socialists and Democrats" until a final title was chosen.[33] On 14 July 2009, the first day of the constitutive session of the 2009–2014 term, the full formal group name was Group of the Progressive Alliance of Socialists and Democrats in the European Parliament[1] and the abbreviation was S&D.[1]

The S&D Group joined the Progressive Alliance upon its official foundation on 22 May 2013[34] and is a member of the organisation's board.[35] The group was formerly an associated organisation of the Socialist International.[36]

Presidents of the European Parliament

For presidents of the European Parliament from the group, see President of the European Parliament.

Organisation

The group is led by a President and a Bureau of vice-presidents. There is also a Treasurer and a Secretary General.[37]

Presidents of the group

Presidents of the group include:[38]

Chairperson Took office Left office Country
(Constituency)
Party
Guy Mollet 1953 1956  France
French Section of the Workers' International
Hendrik Fayat 1956 1958  Belgium
Belgian Socialist Party
Pierre-Olivier Lapie 1958 1959  France
French Section of the Workers' International
Willi Birkelbach 1959 1964  Germany
Social Democratic Party
Käte Strobel 1964 1967  Germany
Social Democratic Party
Francis Vals 1967 1974  France
French Section of the Workers' International
Georges Spénale 1974 1975  France
Socialist Party
Ludwig Fellermaier 1975 1979  Germany
Social Democratic Party
Ernest Glinne 1979 1984  Belgium
(French)

Socialist Party
Rudi Arndt 1984 1989  Germany
Social Democratic Party
Jean-Pierre Cot 1989 1994  France
Socialist Party
Pauline Green 1994 1999  United Kingdom
(London North)

Labour Party
Enrique Barón Crespo 1999 2004  Spain
Spanish Socialist Workers' Party
Martin Schulz 2004 2012  Germany
Social Democratic Party
Hannes Swoboda 2012 2014  Austria
Social Democratic Party
Martin Schulz 2014 (May) 2014 (June)  Germany
Social Democratic Party
Gianni Pittella 2014 2018  Italy
(Southern)

Democratic Party
Udo Bullmann 2018 (March) 2019  Germany
Social Democratic Party
Iratxe García 2019 present  Spain
Spanish Socialist Workers' Party

2019–2024 legislature

Vice-presidents

Following the 2019 European elections, S&D Members elected their new political Bureau made up of the President Iratxe García Pérez, nine vice-presidents and the treasurer. As a consequence of Brexit, British S&D Member Claude Moraes had to resign from his position as vice-president. Marek Belka has been appointed the new vice-president.[39]

Treasurer

2014–2019 legislature

Vice-presidents

Previous vice-presidents of the group appointed at the start of the current legislature in 2014[40]

Treasurer

2009–2014 legislature

Vice-presidents

Previous vice-presidents of the group appointed at the start of the 2009 legislature:[41]

2004–2009 legislature

Vice-presidents

Previous vice-presidents of the group for the 2004–2009 term were as follows:

Treasurers

Current/previous Treasurers of the group are as follows:

Secretaries General

Current/previous Secretaries General of the group are as follows:

MEPs

9th European Parliament

Main article: List of members of the European Parliament (2019–2024)

The S&D has MEPs from 26 of the 27 EU states, including 24 with more than one MEP (in red) and two (Luxembourg and Czech Republic) with exactly one MEP (pink). Ireland has no S&D MEPs.
State National party European party MEPs[42]
 Austria Social Democratic Party of Austria
Sozialdemokratische Partei Österreichs (SPÖ)
PES
5 / 19
 Belgium Socialist Party
Parti Socialiste (PS)
PES
1 / 21
Forward
Vooruit
PES
1 / 21
 Bulgaria Bulgarian Socialist Party
Българска социалистическа партия (БСП)
Bulgarska sotsialisticheska partiya (BSP)
PES
5 / 17
 Croatia Social Democratic Party of Croatia
Socijaldemokratska partija Hrvatske (SDP)
PES
4 / 12
 Cyprus Movement for Social Democracy
Κίνημα Σοσιαλδημοκρατών (ΚΣ)
Kinima Sosialdimokraton (KS)
PES
1 / 6
Democratic Party
Δημοκρατικό Κόμμα
Dimokratikó Kómma (DIKO)
None
1 / 6
 Czech Republic Social Democracy
Sociální demokracie (SOCDEM)[43]
PES
1 / 21
 Denmark Social Democrats
Socialdemokraterne
PES
3 / 14
 Estonia Social Democratic Party
Sotsiaaldemokraatlik Erakond (SDE)
PES
2 / 7
 Finland Social Democratic Party of Finland
Suomen sosialidemokraattinen puolue
Finlands socialdemokratiska parti
PES
2 / 14
 France Socialist Party
Parti socialiste (PS)
PES
3 / 79
Public place
Place publique (PP)
None
2 / 79
New Deal
Nouvelle Donne
DiEM25
1 / 79
Renaissance
Renaissance (RE)
None
1 / 79
 Germany Social Democratic Party of Germany
Sozialdemokratische Partei Deutschlands (SPD)
PES
16 / 96
 Greece Panhellenic Socialist Movement - Movement for Change
(Panellínio Sosialistikó Kínima– Kínima Allagís)
(PASOK-KINAL)
PES
1 / 21
Independent
Theodoros Zagorakis
Independent
1 / 21
 Hungary Democratic Coalition
Demokratikus Koalíció (DK)
PES
4 / 21
Opportunity Community
Esély Közösség (EK)
PES
1 / 21
 Italy Democratic Party
Partito Democratico (PD)
PES
14 / 76
Independent
Giuliano Pisapia
Independent
1 / 76
 Latvia Social Democratic Party "Harmony"
Sociāldemokrātiskā partija "Saskaņa" (SDPS)
PES
1 / 8
Honor to serve Riga
Gods kalpot Rīgai (GKR)
None
1 / 8
 Lithuania Social Democratic Party of Lithuania
Lietuvos socialdemokratų partija (LSDP)
PES
2 / 11
 Luxembourg Luxembourg Socialist Workers' Party
Lëtzebuerger Sozialistesch Aarbechterpartei
Parti ouvrier socialiste luxembourgeois
Luxemburger Sozialistische Arbeiterpartei (LSAP)
PES
1 / 6
 Malta Labour Party
Partit Laburista (LP Malta)
PES
4 / 6
 Netherlands Labour Party
Partij van de Arbeid (PvdA)
PES
6 / 29
 Poland New Left
Nowa Lewica
PES
6 / 52
Independents
Leszek Miller
Independent
1 / 52
 Portugal Socialist Party
Partido Socialista (PS)
PES
9 / 21
 Romania Social Democratic Party
Partidul Social Democrat (PSD)
PES
7 / 33
PRO Romania
PRO România (PRO)
None
1 / 33
Social Liberal Humanist Party
Partidul Umanist Social Liberal (PUSL)
None
1 / 33
 Slovakia Independent
Róbert Hajšel
Independent
1 / 76
 Slovenia Social Democrats
Socialni demokrati (SD Slovenia)
PES
2 / 8
 Spain Spanish Socialist Workers' Party
Partido Socialista Obrero Español (PSOE)
PES
21 / 59
 Sweden Swedish Social Democratic Party
Sveriges socialdemokratiska arbetareparti (SAP)
PES
5 / 21
 European Union Total
140 / 705

From 6th to 8th European Parliament

State National party European
party
MEPs
2004–
2009
MEPs
2009–
2014
MEPs
2014–
2019
 Austria Social Democratic Party of Austria
Sozialdemokratische Partei Österreichs
PES 7 4 5
 Belgium Socialist Party
Parti Socialiste
PES 4 3 3
Socialist Party Different
Socialistische Partij Anders
PES 3 2 1
 Bulgaria Bulgarian Socialist Party
Българска социалистическа партия
Bulgarska sotsialisticheska partiya
PES 5 4 4
 Croatia Social Democratic Party of Croatia
Socijaldemokratska partija Hrvatske
PES 5 4
 Cyprus Movement for Social Democracy
Κίνημα Σοσιαλδημοκρατών
Kinima Sosialdimokraton
PES 1 1
Democratic Party
Δημοκρατικό Κόμμα
Dimokratikó Kómma
None 1 1 1
 Czech Republic Czech Social Democratic Party
Česká strana sociálně demokratická
PES 2 7 4
 Denmark Social Democrats
Socialdemokraterne
PES 5 4 3
 Estonia Social Democratic Party
Sotsiaaldemokraatlik Erakond
PES 3 1 1
 Finland Social Democratic Party of Finland
Suomen sosialidemokraattinen puolue
Finlands socialdemokratiska parti
PES 3 2 2
 France Socialist Party
Parti socialiste
PES 31 14 12
Radical Party of the Left
Parti radical de gauche
None 1
 Germany Social Democratic Party of Germany
Sozialdemokratische Partei Deutschlands
PES 24 23 27
 Greece Movement for Change (PASOK)
Κίνημα Αλλαγής
Kinima Allagis
PES 8 6 2
Democratic Left
Δημοκρατική Αριστερά
Dimokratiki Aristera
None 1
The River
Το Ποτάμι
To Potami
None 2
 Hungary Hungarian Socialist Party
Magyar Szocialista Párt
PES 9 4 2
Democratic Coalition
Demokratikus Koalíció
None 2
 Ireland Labour Party
Páirtí an Lucht Oibre
PES 1 3
Nessa Childers (Independent) None 1
 Italy Democrats of the Left[44]
Democratici di Sinistra
PES 12
Democratic Party
Partito Democratico
PES 21 31
Italian Democratic Socialists[45]
Socialisti Democratici Italiani
PES 2
Article 1 – Democratic and Progressive Movement
Articolo Uno – Movimento Democratico e Progressista
None 3
Italian Left
Sinistra Italiana
None 1
Possible
Possibile
None 1
United in the Olive Tree
Uniti nell'Ulivo
None 2
 Latvia Social Democratic Party "Harmony"
Sociāldemokrātiskā partija "Saskaņa"
PES 1 1
 Lithuania Social Democratic Party of Lithuania
Lietuvos socialdemokratų partija
PES 2 3 2
 Luxembourg Luxembourg Socialist Workers' Party
Lëtzebuerger Sozialistesch Aarbechterpartei
Parti ouvrier socialiste luxembourgeois
Luxemburger Sozialistische Arbeiterpartei
PES 1 1 1
 Malta Labour Party
Partit Laburista
PES 3 4 3
 Netherlands Labour Party
Partij van de Arbeid
PES 7 3 3
 Poland Democratic Left Alliance-Labor Union
Sojusz Lewicy Demokratycznej – Unia Pracy
PES 5 7 5
Self-Defence of the Republic of Poland
Samoobrona Rzeczpospolitej Polskiej
None 2 1
Social Democratic Party of Poland
Socjaldemokracja Polska
None 3
 Portugal Socialist Party
Partido Socialista
PES 12 7 8
 Romania Social Democratic Party
Partidul Social Democrat
PES 10 11 14
 Slovakia Direction – Social Democracy
Smer – sociálna demokracia
PES 3 5 4
 Slovenia Social Democrats
Socialni demokrati
PES 1 2 1
 Spain Spanish Socialist Workers' Party
Partido Socialista Obrero Español
PES 24 21 14
 Sweden Swedish Social Democratic Party
Sveriges socialdemokratiska arbetareparti
PES 5 5 5
Feminist Initiative
Feministiskt initiativ
None 1
 United Kingdom Labour Party PES 19 13 20
Total 215 184 190

References

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  15. ^ a b "European socialists change name to accommodate Italian lawmakers". monstersandcritics.com.
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  18. ^ "EPPED Chronology – 1981–1990". EPP-ED Group website. Retrieved 7 November 2007.
  19. ^ Settembri, Pierpaolo (2 February 2007). "Is the European Parliament competitive or consensual ... "and why bother"?" (PDF). Federal Trust. Retrieved 7 October 2007.
  20. ^ "Interview: Graham Watson, leader of group of Liberal Democrat MEPs". Euractiv. 15 June 2004. Retrieved 1 November 2007.
  21. ^ a b How does the PES work? Archived 30 January 2009 at the Wayback Machine
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  25. ^ "Franceschini, Ok Alleanza Socialisti e Democratici". Archived from the original on 18 June 2009. Retrieved 4 February 2016.
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  39. ^ "Our president & bureau".
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  43. ^ left ANO 2011
  44. ^ On 14 October 2007 the Democrats of the Left merged with Democracy is Freedom – The Daisy to form the Democratic Party. A minority of Democrats of the Left MEPs did not join the Democratic Party and sat in the PES group affiliated with Democratic Left.
  45. ^ The party became the Italian Socialist Party in October 2007. The Italian Socialist Party had 4 MEPs for the remainder of the 2004–2009, the additional two from Socialists United for Europe, formerly Non-Inscrits.