The foreign policy of the Netherlands is based on four basic commitments: to the Atlantic cooperation, to European integration, to international development and to international law. While historically the Kingdom of the Netherlands was a neutral state, since 1945 it has become a member of NATO, the United Nations, the European Union and many other international organizations. The Dutch economy is very open and relies on international trade. During and after the 17th century—its Golden Age—the Dutch built up a commercial and colonial empire. It was a leading shipping and naval power and was often at war with England, its main rival. Its main colonial holding was Indonesia, which fought for and achieved independence after 1945. The historical ties inherited from its colonial past still influence the foreign relations of the Netherlands. Foreign trade policy is handled by the European Union. The Dutch have been active in international peacekeeping roles.

History

Main article: History of the Netherlands

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Former colonial possessions of the Dutch Empire.

In the Dutch Golden Age, which had its zenith around 1667, there was a flowering of trade, industry, the arts and the sciences. A rich worldwide Dutch empire developed and the Dutch East India Company became one of the earliest and most important of national mercantile companies based on entrepreneurship and trade.

During the 18th century, the power and wealth of the Netherlands declined. A series of wars with the more powerful British and French neighbors weakened it. Britain seized the North American colony of New Amsterdam, turning it into New York. There was growing unrest and conflict between the Orangists and the Patriots. The French Revolution spilled over after 1789, and a pro-French Batavian Republic was established in 1795–1806. Napoleon made it a satellite state, the Kingdom of Holland (1806–1810), and later simply a French imperial province.

In 1815–1940 it was neutral and played a minor role in world diplomacy, apart from a failed effort to control the seceding Southern provinces that became Belgium before giving up in 1839.[1]

Unlike most European countries, the Netherlands succeeded in remaining neutral throughout The Great War. This approach failed during the Second World War however and the kingdom quickly fell to an unprovoked German invasion in 1940 and would remain under Nazi occupation until being liberated by the allies in 1945. After the war, as a member of the allies, the Netherlands was included in the first class of U.N. members. During the Cold War like most Western European countries, the Dutch aligned with the United States against the Soviet Union, co-founding the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), in 1949.[2][3] The Dutch were also at the forefront of promoting European cooperation and integration during this time period; co-founding the European Coal and Steel Community and becoming one of the European Union's (EU) original members.[4]

European integration

The Dutch have been strong advocates of European integration, and most aspects of their foreign, economic, and trade policies are coordinated through the European Union (EU). The Dutch postwar customs union with Belgium and Luxembourg (the Benelux group) paved the way for the formation of the European Community (precursor to the EU), of which the Netherlands was a founding member. Likewise, the Benelux abolition of internal border controls was a model for the wider Schengen Accord, which today has 29 European signatories (including the Netherlands) pledged to common visa policies and free movement of people across common borders.

The Dutch stood at the cradle of the 1992 Maastricht Treaty and have been the architects of the Treaty of Amsterdam concluded in 1998. The Dutch have thus played an important role in European political and monetary integration; indeed, until the year 2003, Dutchman Wim Duisenberg headed the European Central Bank. In addition, Dutch financial minister Gerrit Zalm was the main critic of the violation of the Stability and Growth Pact by France and Germany in 2004 and 2005.[5]

Involvement in developing countries

Main article: Netherlands Development Cooperation

The Netherlands was the 9th-largest donor country in 2021, giving about $5 billion, about 0.5% of its gross national income (GNI), in official development assistance (ODA).[6] The country contributes through multilateral channels, especially the United Nations Development Programme, the international financial institutions, and EU programs. A large portion of Dutch aid funds is also channeled through private ("co-financing") organizations that have almost total autonomy in choice of projects.[citation needed]

The Netherlands is a member of the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, which recently initiated economic reforms in central Europe. The Dutch strongly support the Middle East peace process and in 1998 earmarked $29 million in contributions to international donor-coordinated activities for the occupied territories and also for projects in which they worked directly with Palestinian authorities. These projects included improving environmental conditions and support for multilateral programs in cooperation with local non-governmental organizations. In 1998, the Dutch provided significant amounts of aid to the former Yugoslavia and Africa. The Dutch consistently provide significant amounts of humanitarian relief aid to the victims of the worst natural disasters, such as Hurricane Mitch in Central America in 1998, the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake and tsunami in South and Southeast Asia, Hurricane Katrina in the United States in 2005, the 2010 Haiti earthquake, and more recent catastrophes in Pakistan and Burma including Typhoon Haiyan in the Philippines in 2013, and the 2015 Nepal earthquake.[7]

On 25 April 2022, Vice Minister Schuiling visited Vietnam for promotion of economic cooperation between Netherlands and Vietnam, including the agriculture, water, logistics, energy and high tech sectors.[8]

Export assistance grants

"Developing countries aspiring to purchase foreign goods and services to invest in, inter alia, port facilities, roads, public transport, health care, or drinking water facilities may be eligible for a special Dutch grant facility. The grant facility, known as ORET (a Dutch acronym for Ontwikkelingsrelevante Exporttransacties, or Development-Related Export) serves to award grants to governments of developing countries for making payments to foreign suppliers."[9]

International organizations

Main article: International organization membership of the Netherlands

As a relatively small country, the Netherlands generally pursues its foreign policy interests within the framework of multilateral organizations. The Netherlands is an active and responsible participant in the United Nations system as well as other multilateral organizations such as the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), World Trade Organization (WTO),[10] and International Monetary Fund.[11]

The Netherlands is one of the founding members of what today is the European Union. It was one of the first countries to start European integration, through the Benelux in 1944 and the European Coal and Steel Community in 1952. Being a small country with a history of neutrality it was the host country for the important Maastricht Treaty and Amsterdam Treaty and is the seat of the International Court of Justice.[12]

International issues

Nord Stream 1 opening ceremony on 8 November 2011 with Angela Merkel, Dmitry Medvedev, Mark Rutte and François Fillon.

The Dutch work with the U.S. and other countries on international programs against drug trafficking and organized crime. The Dutch-U.S. cooperation focuses on joint anti-drug operations in the Caribbean, including an agreement establishing Forward Operating Locations on the Dutch Kingdom islands of Curaçao and Aruba. The Netherlands is a signatory to international counter-narcotics agreements, a member of the United Nations International Drug Control Program, the UN Commission on Narcotic Drugs, and is a contributor to international counter-narcotics.

From June 26 until December 22, 2006, two children, Ammar (12–13) and Sara (10–11), lived in the Dutch embassy in Damascus because of a child custody dispute between the Dutch mother, supported by Dutch law and the Hague Convention on the Civil Aspects of International Child Abduction, and the Syrian father, supported by Syrian law (Syria is no participant of this convention). The children had been living in Syria since 2004, after an alleged international child abduction by the father from the Netherlands to Syria, during a family contact in which he supposedly would visit Paris with them. The children fled to the embassy because they would like to live with their mother in the Netherlands. Minister of Foreign Affairs Ben Bot traveled to Damascus, negotiated and on December 22 the children finally could return to the Netherlands.

The father claims that the Dutch government has promised not to prosecute him for the abduction. However, a Dutch prosecutor claims that he is free to prosecute the father and may well do that and that the Dutch have only retracted the international request to arrest him outside the Netherlands.[13]

Mark Rutte's government provided materials to the Levant Front rebel group in Syria.[14] In September 2018, the Dutch public prosecution department declared the Levant Front to be a "criminal organisation of terrorist intent", describing it as a "salafist and jihadistic" group that "strives for the setting up of the caliphate".[15]

In July 2019, the UN ambassadors from 22 nations, including the Netherlands, signed a joint letter to the UNHRC condemning China's mistreatment of the Uyghurs as well as its mistreatment of other minority groups, urging the Chinese government to close the Xinjiang re-education camps.[16][17]

Diplomatic relations

List of countries which the Netherlands maintains diplomatic relations with:

# Country Date
1  United Kingdom 1 April 1603[18]
2  Denmark 31 March 1605[19]
3  Russia 1613[20]
4  Sweden April 1614[21]
5  Portugal February 1641[22]
6  Spain 29 June 1649[23]
7  France 28 July 1749[24]
8  United States 19 April 1782[25]
9   Switzerland 31 January 1814[26]
10  Mexico 15 June 1827[27]
11  Brazil 20 December 1828[28]
12  Colombia 1 May 1829[29]
 Holy See May 1829[30][31]
13  Belgium 3 August 1839[32]
14  Costa Rica 12 July 1852[33]
15  Dominican Republic 30 November 1853[34]
16  Japan 30 January 1856[35]
17  Venezuela 22 March 1856[36]
18  Guatemala 22 March 1856[37]
19  El Salvador 1857[38]
20  Italy 15 September 1859[39]
21  Thailand 17 December 1860[40]
22  Chile 9 January 1872[41]
23  Greece 1874[42]
24  Romania 12 February 1880[43]
25  Iran 5 January 1883[44]
26  Luxembourg 4 March 1891[45]
27  Argentina 24 January 1896[46]
28  Uruguay 15 April 1896[47][48]
29  Serbia 26 April 1899[49]
30  Cuba 20 May 1902[50]
31  Paraguay 9 November 1903[51]
32  Panama 10 April 1904[52]
33  Norway 4 December 1905[53]
34  Bulgaria 8 July 1909[54]
35  Bolivia 21 July 1911[55]
36  Haiti 21 November 1912[56]
37  Finland 14 August 1918[57]
38  Poland 4 July 1919[58]
39  Czech Republic 13 November 1919[59]
40  Peru 13 May 1921[60]
41  Hungary 1921[61]
42  Egypt 16 November 1922[62]
43  Turkey 22 June 1924[63]
44  South Africa 25 November 1929[64][65]
45  Saudi Arabia 9 June 1930[66]
46  Iraq 10 May 1935[67]
47  Canada 3 January 1939[68]
48  Australia 16 April 1942[69]
49  Ireland 1945[70]
50  Iceland 9 January 1946[71]
51  Honduras 16 March 1946[72]
52  Austria 3 September 1946[73]
53  India 17 April 1947[74]
54  New Zealand 19 June 1947[75]
55  Myanmar 22 December 1947[76]
56  Pakistan July 1948[77]
57  Liberia 3 May 1949[78]
58  Indonesia October 1949[79][80]
59  Israel 16 January 1950[81]
60  Lebanon 12 October 1950[78]
61  Ethiopia 6 November 1950[78]
62  Germany 6 March 1951[82]
63  Philippines 17 May 1951[83]
64  Sri Lanka 23 November 1951[84]
65  Jordan 15 December 1951[85]
66  Syria 24 January 1952[86]
67  Libya 1955[87]
 Nicaragua (suspended) 1955[88]
68  Sudan 15 February 1956[89]
69  Afghanistan 2 August 1956[90]
70  Morocco 1956[91]
71  Malaysia 31 August 1957[92]
72  Cambodia 1957[93]
73  Tunisia 1957[94]
74  Ghana 9 May 1959[95]
75  Guinea 9 March 1960[96]
76    Nepal 2 April 1960[97]
77  Somalia 7 July 1960[98]
78  Democratic Republic of the Congo 25 July 1960[99]
79  Cyprus 24 September 1960[100]
80  Nigeria October 1960[101]
81  Madagascar 16 March 1961[101]
82  South Korea 4 April 1961[102]
83  Republic of the Congo 3 August 1961[103]
84  Gabon 24 August 1961[104]
85  Togo 5 October 1961[105]
86  Senegal 7 November 1961[103]
87  Cameroon 2 December 1961[103]
88  Burkina Faso 14 December 1961[104]
89  Niger 20 December 1961[103]
90  Benin 26 December 1961[104]
91  Ivory Coast 9 January 1962[103]
92  Sierra Leone 22 February 1962[105]
93  Mauritania 9 March 1962[103]
94  Tanzania 31 March 1962[103]
95  Chad 7 May 1962[103]
96  Burundi 4 July 1962[106]
97  Jamaica 2 August 1962[107]
98  Trinidad and Tobago 19 October 1962[108]
99  Algeria October 1962[109]
100  Kenya 3 February 1964[110]
101  Mali 11 July 1964[111]
102  Rwanda 1 October 1964[112]
103  Kuwait 1964[113]
104  Malta 6 October 1965[114]
105  Zambia 2 November 1965[115]
106  Singapore 7 December 1965[116]
107  Central African Republic 10 December 1965[117]
108  Malawi 16 December 1965[118]
109  Uganda 1965[119]
110  Gambia 1 August 1966[120]
111  Monaco 29 August 1966[121]
112  Botswana 10 August 1967[122]
113  Lesotho 22 February 1968[123]
114  Eswatini 1968[124]
115  Mauritius 5 March 1969[125]
116  Barbados 12 December 1969[126]
117  Equatorial Guinea 1969[127]
118  Guyana 15 May 1970[128]
119  Albania 17 November 1970[129]
120  Yemen 5 October 1971[130]
121  Oman 1 January 1972[131]
122  Bangladesh 11 February 1972[132]
123  Fiji February 1972[133]
124  Mongolia 6 March 1972[134]
125  Bahrain 2 May 1972[135]
126  United Arab Emirates 6 May 1972[136]
127  China 18 May 1972[137]
128  Qatar 15 June 1972[138]
129  Vietnam 9 April 1973[139]
130  Bahamas 28 March 1974[140]
131  Mozambique 25 June 1975[141]
132  Guinea-Bissau 13 August 1975[142]
133  Tonga 4 November 1975[143]
134  Laos 17 November 1975[144]
135  Suriname 25 November 1975[145]
136  Angola 18 February 1976[146]
137  Samoa 13 April 1976[147]
138  Papua New Guinea 25 August 1976[148]
139  Cape Verde 20 November 1976[149]
140  Seychelles 18 January 1977[150]
141  Comoros 21 February 1977[151]
142  Maldives 3 September 1979[152]
143  Zimbabwe 18 April 1980[153]
144  Kiribati 6 June 1980[154]
145  Dominica 1980[155]
146  Saint Lucia 1980[156]
147  Djibouti 10 February 1981[157]
148  Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 8 April 1981[158]
149  Solomon Islands 1 February 1982[159]
150  Antigua and Barbuda 11 May 1982[160]
151  Nauru 1982[161]
152  Vanuatu May 1984[162]
153  Brunei 27 April 1985[163]
154  Bhutan 10 June 1985[164]
155  Belize 13 April 1987[165]
156  Namibia 23 April 1990[166]
157  Latvia 24 September 1991[167]
158  Estonia 21 October 1991[168]
159  Lithuania 3 December 1991[169]
160  Slovenia 24 January 1992[170]
161  Armenia 30 January 1992[171]
162  Croatia 11 February 1992[172]
163  Belarus 24 March 1992[173]
164  Azerbaijan 1 April 1992[174]
165  Ukraine 1 April 1992[175]
166  Georgia 22 April 1992[176]
167  Turkmenistan 20 May 1992[177]
168  Kyrgyzstan 10 June 1992[178]
169  Tajikistan 27 July 1992[179]
170  Kazakhstan 10 September 1992[180]
171  Uzbekistan 24 November 1992[181]
172  Bosnia and Herzegovina 15 December 1992[182]
173  Slovakia 1 January 1993[183]
174  Marshall Islands 2 March 1993[184]
175  Moldova 10 July 1993[185]
176  Andorra 14 December 1993[186]
177  North Macedonia 16 December 1993[187]
178  Eritrea 15 July 1994[188]
179  San Marino 1995[189]
180  Federated States of Micronesia 15 April 1996[190]
181  Palau 21 April 1997[191]
182  Liechtenstein 6 November 2000[192]
183  North Korea 15 December 2000[193]
184  East Timor 17 November 2003[194]
185  Saint Kitts and Nevis March 2004[195]
186  Montenegro 8 September 2006[196]
 Kosovo 27 June 2008[197]
 Cook Islands 16 August 2011[198]
187  South Sudan 9 September 2011[199]
188  Ecuador Unknown
189  Grenada Unknown
190  São Tomé and Príncipe Unknown
191  Tuvalu Unknown

Bilateral relations

Africa

Country Formal relations began Notes
 Burkina Faso 14 December 1961 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 14 December 1961[104]
 Comoros
 Egypt 16 November 1922 See Egypt–Netherlands relations

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 16 November 1922 when Mr. J. P. graaf van Limburg Stirum was accredited as Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary of the Netherlands to Egypt.[204]

  • Egypt has an embassy in The Hague.
  • Netherlands has an embassy in Cairo.
 Ethiopia 6 November 1950 See Ethiopia–Netherlands relations

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 6 November 1950[78]

  • Ethiopia is accredited to the Netherlands from its embassy in Brussels.
  • Netherlands has an embassy in Addis Ababa.
 Ivory Coast 9 January 1962 See Ivory Coast–Netherlands relations

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 9 January 1962[103]

  • Ivory Coast has an embassy in The Hague.
  • Netherlands has an embassy in Abidjan.
 Kenya 3 February 1964 See Kenya–Netherlands relations

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 3 February 1964[110]

  • Kenya has an embassy in The Hague.
  • the Netherlands has an embassy in Nairobi.
 Liberia 3 May 1949 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 3 May 1949.[78] Also both countries established diplomatic relations on 27 March 1936 when has been accredited Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary of Liberia to the Netherlands Baron Otto van den Bogaerde van Terbrugge.[205]
 Mauritania 9 March 1962 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 9 March 1962[103]
 Morocco See Morocco–Netherlands relations
 South Africa See Netherlands–South Africa relations

Americas

Country Formal relations began Notes
 Argentina 24 January 1896 See Argentina–Netherlands relations

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 24 January 1896.[210]

 Bolivia 21 July 1911 See Bolivia–Netherlands relations

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 21 July 1911.[213][55]

  • Bolivia has an embassy in The Hague.
  • Netherlands is accredited to Bolivia from its embassy in Lima, Peru.
 Brazil See Brazil–Netherlands relations
 Canada 3 January 1939 See Canada–Netherlands relations

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 3 January 1939[216]

Canada has an embassy in The Hague and the Netherlands has one in Ottawa, and three Consulates-General in Toronto, Montreal and Vancouver. Canada and the Netherlands have worked closely together on many foreign issues and enjoy an especially close relationship. To foster business and commercial relations between the Netherlands and Canada, the Dutch business community set up the Netherlands-Canadian Chamber of Commerce.[217] They are both members of the United Nations (and its Specialized Agencies), the World Trade Organization, and Interpol; they are both founding members of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), the Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council (EAPC), the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE), and the Stability Pact for South Eastern Europe. Canada and the Netherlands also work together on such issues as the prohibition and elimination of anti-personnel mines, the control of the proliferation of small arms and light weapons, eradicating the worst forms of child labour, the provision of rapid reaction peacekeeping forces to the United Nations (SHIRBRIG) and regional security issues such as Bosnia (SFOR) and Ethiopia and Eritrea (UNMEE).

 Chile 10 June 1872 See Chile–Netherlands relations

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 10 June 1872.[220]

  • Chile has an embassy in The Hague and a consulate-general in Amsterdam.
  • Netherlands has an embassy in Santiago.
 Colombia 1829 See Colombia–Netherlands relations

Relations between Colombia and the Netherlands were established in 1829.

 Costa Rica 12 July 1852 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 12 July 1852.[223]
  • Costa Rica has an embassy in The Hague.
  • Netherlands has an embassy in San José.
 Cuba 20 May 1902 See Cuba–Netherlands relations

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 20 May 1902.[224]

  • Cuba has an embassy in The Hague and two consulates-general in Amsterdam and Rotterdam.
  • Netherlands has an embassy in Havana.
 Dominica
 Dominican Republic 18 March 1892 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 18 March 1892[227]
 El Salvador
  • El Salvador has an embassy in The Hague.
  • Netherlands is accredited to El Salvador from its embassy in San José, Costa Rica.
 Guyana 15 May 1970

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 15 May 1970.[228]

Guyana was made up of three former Dutch colonies: (Berbice, Demerara and Essequibo (colony)) which were brought together by the British and renamed collectively British Guiana.

 Honduras 16 May 1946 See Honduras–Netherlands relations

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 16 May 1946 when has been accredited Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary of the Netherlands to Hohduras with residence in Guatemala Mr. G. M. Bijvanck.[229]

  • Honduras is accredited to Netherlands from its embassy in Brussels, Belgium.
  • Netherlands is accredited to Honduras from its embassy in San José, Costa Rica. and an honorary consulates in Tegucigalpa.
 Mexico 16 June 1828 See Mexico–Netherlands relations

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 16 June 1828.[230][non-primary source needed]

On September 27, 1993, the Netherlands Ministry of Finance announced The Netherlands – Mexico Tax Treaty and Protocol. The regulations detail the formalities residents of the Netherlands must observe "in order to be exempt from, or obtain a refund of, the Mexican withholding taxes on dividends, interest and royalties."[231] In 2008 Mexico and the Netherlands modified their existing tax treaty, initially signed in 1993 to strength cooperation to curb tax evasion.[232][233]

 Peru See Netherlands–Peru relations
  • Netherlands has an embassy in Lima.
  • Peru has an embassy in The Hague.
 Suriname 1975-25-11 See Netherlands–Suriname relations
 United States 19 April 1782 See Netherlands–United States relations

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 19 April 1782[238]

The bilateral relations between the two nations are based on historical and cultural ties as well as a common dedication to individual freedom and human rights. The Netherlands shares with the United States a liberal economic outlook and is committed to free trade. The Netherlands is the third-largest direct foreign investor in the United States,[239] and Dutch holding companies employ more than 650,000 Americans.[240] The United States is the third-largest direct foreign investor in the Netherlands.

The United States and the Netherlands often have similar positions on issues and work together both bilaterally and multilaterally in such institutions as the United Nations and NATO. The Dutch have worked with the United States at the World Trade Organization, in the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, as well as within the European Union to advance the shared U.S. goal of a more open and market-led global economy.

The United States and the Netherlands joined NATO as charter members in 1949. The Dutch were allies with the United States in the Korean War and the first Gulf War and have been active in global peacekeeping efforts in the former Yugoslavia, Afghanistan and Iraq. Netherlands also support and participate in NATO and EU training efforts in Iraq. They are active participants in the International Security Assistance Force and Operation Enduring Freedom in Afghanistan.

 Uruguay 15 April 1896 See Netherlands–Uruguay relations

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 15 April 1896[47][243]

  • Netherlands is accredited to Uruguay from its embassy in Buenos Aires.[244]
  • Uruguay has an embassy in The Hague.[245]
 Venezuela See Netherlands–Venezuela relations

Asia

Country Formal relations began Notes
 Afghanistan 2 August 1956 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 2 August 1956 when first Envoy of Afgnanistan Dr. Sardir Najib-Ullah Khan presented his credentials to Queen of the Netherlands.[90]
  • Afghanistan has an embassy in The Hague.
  • The Netherlands closed its embassy in Kabul in 2021.[246][247]
 Armenia 30 January 1992 See Armenia–Netherlands relations

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 30 January 1992.[248]

 Azerbaijan 1 April 1992 See Azerbaijan–Netherlands relations

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 1 April 1992.[252]

  • Azerbaijan has an embassy in The Hague.
  • The Netherlands has an embassy in Baku.
  • Both countries are full members of the Council of Europe.
 Bangladesh 1971-01-04 See Bangladesh–Netherlands relations
  • Bangladesh has an embassy in The Hague.
  • Netherlands has an embassy in Dhaka.
 Bhutan 10 June 1985 See Foreign relations of Bhutan

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 10 June 1985[253]

  • Bhutan is represented to the Netherlands through embassy in Brussels.
  • Netherlands is represented to Bhutan through embassy in Delhi.
 China 18 May 1972[254] See China–Netherlands relations
 Georgia 22 April 1992 See Georgia–Netherlands relations

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 22 April 1992.[255]

 India 17 April 1947 See India–Netherlands relations

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 17 April 1947[256]

  • India has an embassy in The Hague.
  • Netherlands has an embassy in Delhi and consulates-general Bangalore and Mumbai.
 Indonesia See Indonesia–Netherlands relations
 Iran 5 January 1883 See Iran–Netherlands relations

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 5 January 1883 when Mirza Jawad Khan, Persian Minister in Belgium, was also accredited to the Netherlands.[259][260]

  • Iran has an embassy in The Hague.
  • Netherlands has an embassy in Tehran.
 Iraq 10 May 1935 See Iraq–Netherlands relations

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 10 May 1935 when has been accredited Chargé d'Affaires of Netherlands to Jeddah (Saudi Arabia) C. Adriaanse also to Iraq.[67]

  • Iraq has an embassy in The Hague.
  • Netherlands has an embassy in Baghdad and a consulate-general in Erbil.
 Israel 1949 See Israel–Netherlands relations

In 1947, the Netherlands voted in favor of the United Nations Resolution 181. Both countries established diplomatic relations in 1949.[261]

 Japan 1609 See Japan–Netherlands relations

Relations between Japan and the Netherlands date back to 1609, when the first formal trade relations were established.[264][265] The relations between Japan and the Netherlands after 1945 have been a triangular relationship. The invasion and occupation of the Netherlands East Indies during World War II, brought about the destruction of the colonial state in Indonesia, as the Japanese removed as much of the Dutch government as they could, weakening the post war grip the Netherlands had over the territory. Under pressure from the United States, the Netherlands recognised Indonesian sovereignty in 1949 (see United States of Indonesia).

  • Japan has an embassy in The Hague.
  • Netherlands has an embassy in Tokyo and a consulate-general in Osaka.
 Kazakhstan 10 September 1992 See Kazakhstan–Netherlands relations

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 10 September 1992.[266]

The Netherlands is Kazakhstan's largest foreign investor and the second largest European Union partner in terms of foreign trade turnover with Kazakhstan.[267]

  • Kazakhstan has an embassy in The Hague.
  • Netherlands has an embassy in Astana.
 Kyrgyzstan
  • Kyrgyzstan is accredited to the Netherlands from its embassy in Brussels, Belgium.
  • the Netherlands is accredited to Kyrgyzstan from its embassy in Astana, Kazakhstan.
 Malaysia 31 August 1957 See Malaysia–Netherlands relations

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 31 August 1957.[268]

The graves of Dutch dignitaries in Melaka's ruined St. Paul's Church.

The Dutch involvement in the Malay Peninsula used to be much more extensive than it is now. The Dutch established relations with the Sultanate of Johor in the early 17th century, and in 1641 they captured the Portuguese colony of Malacca (on the south-eastern coast of today's Peninsular Malaysia). With a long interruption during the Napoleonic Wars, the Dutch Malacca era lasted until 1824. In the 20th century, the Netherlands established diplomatic relations with Malaysia soon after the Asian state became independent. The erudite Dutch Sinologist and author Robert van Gulik (who was raised in the former Dutch East Indies himself) served as the ambassador of the Netherlands in Kuala Lumpur in the early 1960s. During his diplomatic service there he became closely acquainted with Malaysia's gibbons (he kept a few in his ambassadorial residence) and became sufficiently interested in this ape species to start the study of its role in ancient Chinese culture, the results of which he later published in his last book (Gibbon in China).[269]

 Oman See Foreign relations of Oman
  • Netherlands has an embassy in Muscat.
  • Oman has an embassy in The Hague.
 Pakistan 1947-15-8 See Netherlands–Pakistan relations
  • Netherlands has an embassy in Islamabad and a consulate-general in Karachi.
  • Pakistan has an embassy in The Hague.
 Philippines 20 May 1947 See Netherlands–Philippines relations

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 20 May 1947.[270]

  • Netherlands has an embassy in Manila.
  • Philippines has an embassy in The Hague.
 Saudi Arabia 9 June 1930 See Netherlands–Saudi Arabia relations

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 9 June 1930 when first the Netherlands Chargé d'Affaires, M. Van de Meulen, presented letters of credence to King Ibn Saud.[66]

  • Netherlands has an embassy in Riyadh.
  • Saudi Arabia has an embassy in The Hague.
 Singapore 7 December 1965 See Netherlands–Singapore relations

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 7 December 1965.[271]

  • Netherlands has an embassy in Singapore.
  • Singapore has an embassy in The Hague.
 South Korea 1961-01-04[272] See Netherlands–South Korea relations

The establishment of diplomatic relations between the Republic of Korea and the Kingdom of the Netherlands began on April 1, 1961.

  • Relations between the Netherlands and South Korea are excellent. The Netherlands are known in the country, thanks to increasing trade and the investments made by Dutch businesses.
  • Political relations
    • South Koreans still appreciate the contribution made by Dutch troops, serving under the UN flag, during the Korean War of 1950–1953. The Netherlands was an ally to South Korea throughout the war, against communist North Korea (backed by the Soviet Union). The Netherlands still monitors developments between South Korea and North Korea with interest, and remain an ally. In 2011 the Netherlands and South Korea marked 50 years of diplomatic relations.
    • The Netherlands frequently serves as an example to South Korea, for example in the areas of development cooperation and water management. In 2011, for instance, a South Korean delegation visited parts of the Room for the River project – designed to make the Dutch river delta safer by 2015 – to gain inspiration for a South Korean water management plan.[273]
  • The Netherlands has a Working Holiday Program Agreement with South Korea. Citizens of both countries can live and work in the other for up to two years.
  • The number of the South Korean citizens living in the Netherlands in 2012 was about 2,602.
 Taiwan See Netherlands–Taiwan relations
 Turkey 1612 See Netherlands–Turkey relations

Europe

Country Formal relations began Notes
 Albania 17 November 1970 See Albania–Netherlands relations

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 17 November 1970[129]

  • Albania has an embassy in The Hague.
  • Netherlands has an embassy in Tirana.
  • Albania is an EU candidate and The Netherlands is an EU member.
 Austria See Austria–Netherlands relations
 Belarus 24 March 1992 See Belarus–Netherlands relations

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 24 March 1992[282]

 Belgium 3 August 1839 See Belgium–Netherlands relations

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 3 August 1839.[32]

Relations were established after the independence of Belgium. Both nations are allies and have cultural similarities.

  • Belgium has an embassy in The Hague.[283]
  • Netherlands has an embassy in Brussels and a consulate-general in Antwerp.[284]
  • Both nations are members of the European Union and NATO.
 Bosnia & Herzegovina 15 December 1992 See Bosnia and Herzegovina–Netherlands relations

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 15 December 1992[285]

  • Bosnia and Herzegovina has an embassy in The Hague.
  • Netherlands has an embassy in Sarajevo.
 Bulgaria See Bulgaria–Netherlands relations
  • Bulgaria has an embassy in The Hague.[286]
  • The Netherlands has an embassy in Sofia.[287]
  • Both countries are full members of the European Union and NATO.
 Croatia 11 February 1992 See Croatia–Netherlands relations

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 11 February 1992.[288]

  • Croatia has an embassy in The Hague.
  • Netherlands has an embassy in Zagreb.
  • Both countries are full members of the European Union and NATO.
 Cyprus See Cyprus–Netherlands relations
  • Cyprus has an embassy in The Hague.
  • Netherlands has an embassy in Nicosia.
  • Both countries are full members of the European Union and of the Council of Europe.
 Czech Republic 13 November 1919 See Czech Republic–Netherlands relations

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 13 November 1919[289]

  • Czech Republic has an embassy in The Hague.
  • Netherlands has an embassy in Prague.
  • Both countries are full members of the European Union and NATO.
 Denmark See Denmark – Netherlands relations
 Finland 14 August 1918 See Finland–Netherlands relations

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 14 August 1918[292]

  • Finland has an embassy in The Hague.
  • Netherlands has an embassy in Helsinki.
  • Both nations are members of the European Union, NATO and the Council of Europe.
 France See France–Netherlands relations
 Germany 1871 See Germany–Netherlands relations
 Greece See Greece–Netherlands relations
 Hungary See Hungary–Netherlands relations
 Iceland 9 January 1946 See Iceland–Netherlands relations

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 9 January 1946[297]

  • Iceland is represented in the Netherlands by its embassy in Oslo, Norway.[298]
  • The Netherlands is represented in Iceland by its embassy in Brussels, Belgium.[299]
  • Both countries are full members of NATO.
 Ireland See Ireland–Netherlands relations
 Latvia 24 September 1991 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 24 September 1991.[302]
  • Latvia has an embassy in The Hague.
  • Netherlands has an embassy in Riga.
  • Both nations are members of the European Union, NATO and the Council of Europe.
 Lithuania 3 December 1991 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 3 December 1991.[303]
  • Lithuania has an embassy in The Hague.
  • Netherlands has an embassy in Vilnius.
  • Both nations are members of the European Union, NATO and the Council of Europe.
 Moldova 10 July 1992 See Moldova–Netherlands relations

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 10 July 1992[304]

 Poland 4 July 1919 See Netherlands–Poland relations

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 4 July 1919[305]

  • Netherlands has an embassy in Warsaw.
  • Poland has an embassy in The Hague.
  • Both countries are full members of the European Union and NATO.
 Portugal See Netherlands–Portugal relations
 Romania 12 February 1880 See Netherlands–Romania relations

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 12 February 1880[306]

  • The Netherlands has an embassy in Bucharest and three honorary consulates.
  • Romania has an embassy in The Hague and four honorary consulates.
  • Both countries are full members of the European Union and NATO.
 Russia See Netherlands–Russia relations

Both countries were establishment of diplomatic relations in 1991 after the fall of the Soviet Union. Peter the Great studied in Holland. During the Cold War, all the Dutch consecutive governments perceived the Warsaw pact including the Soviet Union and Russia as a threat to its safety.

 Serbia 1899-04-26
 Slovakia 1993-01-01 See Netherlands–Slovakia relations
 Slovenia 1991-06-25 See Netherlands–Slovenia relations
  • The Netherlands has an embassy in Ljubljana.[310]
  • Slovenia has an embassy in The Hague.[311]
  • Both countries are full members of the European Union and NATO.
 Spain See Netherlands–Spain relations
  • Netherlands has an embassy in Madrid.
  • Spain has an embassy in The Hague.
  • Both nations are members of the European Union, NATO and the Council of Europe.
 Sweden See Netherlands–Sweden relations
  • Netherlands has an embassy in Stockholm.
  • Sweden has an embassy in The Hague.
  • Both countries are full members of the European Union, NATO and the Council of Europe.
 Ukraine 1 April 1992 See Netherlands–Ukraine relations

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 1 April 1992[312]

 United Kingdom See Netherlands–United Kingdom relations

Oceania

Country Formal relations began Notes
 Australia 31 January 1942 See Australia–Netherlands relations

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 31 January 1942.[317]

  • Australia has an embassy in The Hague.
  • Netherlands has an embassy in Canberra and a consulate-general in Sydney.
 New Zealand 19 June 1947 See Netherlands–New Zealand relations

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 19 June 1947.[318]

  • Netherlands has an embassy in Wellington.
  • New Zealand has an embassy in The Hague.
 Solomon Islands 1 February 1982 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 1 February 1982[319]
 Vanuatu

Vanuatu has an honorary consulate in The Hague.[323]

See also

Notes

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Further reading