Mestreech (Limburgish)
Anthem: Mestreechs Volksleed
Highlighted position of Maastricht in a municipal map of Limburg
Location in Limburg
Maastricht is located in Netherlands
Location within the Netherlands
Maastricht is located in Europe
Location within Europe
Coordinates: 50°51′N 5°41′E / 50.850°N 5.683°E / 50.850; 5.683
Country Netherlands
Settled≈ circa 50 AD
City rightsgradually acquired
City HallMaastricht City Hall
7 districts
  • Centrum (Binnenstad, Jekerkwartier, Kommelkwartier, Statenkwartier, Boschstraatkwartier, Sint Maartenspoort, Wyck-Céramique)
  • Noordoost (Beatrixhaven, Borgharen, Itteren, Meerssenhoven)
  • Oost (Wyckerpoort, Wittevrouwenveld, Nazareth, Limmel, Amby, Scharn, Heugemerveld)
  • Zuidoost (Randwyck, Heugem, Heer, De Heeg, Vroendaal)
  • Zuidwest (Villapark, Jekerdal, Biesland, Campagne, Wolder, Sint Pieter)
  • West (Brusselsepoort, Mariaberg, Belfort, Pottenberg, Malpertuis, Caberg, Malberg, Dousberg-Hazendans, Daalhof)
  • Noordwest (Boschpoort, Bosscherveld, Frontenkwartier, Belvédère, Lanakerveld)
 • BodyMunicipal council
 • MayorWim Hillenaar (CDA)
 • Municipality60.12 km2 (23.21 sq mi)
 • Land55.99 km2 (21.62 sq mi)
 • Water4.13 km2 (1.59 sq mi)
Elevation49 m (161 ft)
 (Municipality, January 2021; Urban and Metro, May 2014)[4][5]
 • Municipality120,227
 • Density2,147/km2 (5,560/sq mi)
 • Urban
 • Metro
≈ 3,500,000
 Urban population for Dutch-Belgian region;[6] metropolitan population for Dutch-Belgian-German region.[7]
Demonyms(Dutch) Maastrichtenaar;
(Limb.) Mestreechteneer or "Sjeng" (nickname)
Time zoneUTC+1 (CET)
 • Summer (DST)UTC+2 (CEST)
Area code043

Maastricht (/ˈmɑːstrɪxt/ MAH-strikht, US also /mɑːˈstrɪxt/ mah-STRIKHT,[8][9][10] Dutch: [maːˈstrɪxt] ; Limburgish: Mestreech [məˈstʀeːx]; French: Maestricht (archaic); Spanish: Mastrique (archaic)) is a city and a municipality in the southeastern Netherlands. It is the capital and largest city of the province of Limburg. Maastricht is located on both sides of the Meuse (Dutch: Maas), at the point where the Jeker joins it. Mount Saint Peter (Sint-Pietersberg) is largely situated within the city's municipal borders. Maastricht is adjacent to the border with Belgium and is part of the Meuse-Rhine Euroregion, an international metropolis with a population of about 3.9 million, which includes the nearby German and Belgian cities of Aachen, Liège, and Hasselt.

Maastricht developed from a Roman settlement (Trajectum ad Mosam) to a medieval river trade and religious centre. In the 16th century it became a garrison town and in the 19th century an early industrial centre.[11] Today, the city is a thriving cultural and regional hub. It became well known through the Maastricht Treaty and as the birthplace of the euro.[12] Maastricht has 1,677 national heritage buildings (rijksmonumenten), the second highest number in the Netherlands, after Amsterdam. The city is visited by tourists for shopping and recreation, and has a large international student population.


For a chronological guide, see Timeline of Maastricht.


Maastricht is mentioned in ancient documents as [Ad] Treiectinsem [urbem] ab. 575, Treiectensis in 634, Triecto, Triectu in 7th century, Triiect in 768–781, Traiecto in 945, Masetrieth in 1051.[13][14]

The place name Maastricht is an Old Dutch compound Masa- (> Maas "the Meuse river") + Old Dutch *treiekt, itself borrowed from Gallo-Romance *TRA(I)ECTU cf. its Walloon name li trek, from Classical Latin trajectus ("ford, passage, place to cross a river") with the later addition of Maas "Meuse" to avoid the confusion with the -trecht of Utrecht having exactly the same original form and etymology. The Latin name first appears in medieval documents and it is not known whether *Trajectu(s) was Maastricht's name during Roman times.

A resident of Maastricht is referred to as Maastrichtenaar whilst in the local dialect it is either Mestreechteneer or, colloquially, Sjeng (derived from the formerly popular French name Jean).

Early history

Roman sanctuary in the basement of Hotel Derlon

Neanderthal remains have been found to the west of Maastricht (Belvédère excavations). Of a later date are Palaeolithic remains, between 8,000 and 25,000 years old. Celts lived here around 500 BC, at a spot where the river Meuse was shallow and therefore easy to cross.

It is not known when the Romans arrived in Maastricht, nor whether the settlement was founded by them. The Romans built a bridge across the Meuse in the 1st century AD, during the reign of Augustus Caesar. The bridge was an important link in the main road between Bavay and Cologne. Roman Maastricht was relatively small. Remains of the Roman road, the bridge, a religious shrine, a Roman bath, a granary, some houses and the 4th-century castrum walls and gates, have been excavated. Fragments of provincial Roman sculptures, as well as coins, jewelry, glass, pottery and other objects from Roman Maastricht are on display in the exhibition space of the city's public library (Centre Céramique).

According to legend, the Armenian-born Saint Servatius, Bishop of Tongeren, died in Maastricht in 384 where he was interred along the Roman road, outside the castrum. According to Gregory of Tours it was bishop Monulph who around 570 built the first stone church on the grave of Servatius, a precursor of the present-day Basilica of Saint Servatius. The city remained an early Christian diocese until it lost the distinction to nearby Liège in the 8th or 9th century.

Middle Ages

In the early Middle Ages Maastricht, along with Aachen and Liège, formed part of what is considered the heartland of the Carolingian dynasty. At this time, the town was an important centre for river trade and manufacturing. Merovingian coins minted in Maastricht have been found throughout Europe. In 881 the town was plundered by the Vikings. In the 10th century it briefly became the capital of the duchy of Lower Lorraine.

During the 11th and 12th centuries the town flourished culturally. Several provosts of the chapter of Saint Servatius held important positions in the Holy Roman Empire. The two collegiate churches were largely rebuilt and redecorated during this era. Maastricht Romanesque stone sculpture and silversmithing are regarded as highlights of Mosan art. Maastricht painters were praised by Wolfram von Eschenbach in his Parzival. Around the same time, the poet Henric van Veldeke wrote a legend of Saint Servatius, one of the earliest works in Dutch literature. The two main churches acquired a wealth of relics and the septennial Maastricht Pilgrimage became a major event that drew up to 100,000 pilgrims.

Unlike most Dutch towns, Maastricht did not receive city rights at a certain date. These gradually developed during its long history. In 1204 the city's dual authority was formalised in a treaty, with the prince-bishop of Liège and the duke of Brabant holding joint sovereignty over the city. Soon afterwards the first ring of medieval walls were built. In 1275, the old Roman bridge collapsed under the weight of a procession, allegedly killing 400 people. A replacement bridge, funded by church indulgences, was built slightly to the north and survives until today, the Sint Servaasbrug.[15]

Throughout the Middle Ages, the city remained a centre for trade and manufacturing principally of wool and leather but gradually economic decline set in. After a brief period of economic prosperity around 1500, the city's economy suffered during the wars of religion of the 16th and 17th centuries, and recovery did not happen until the industrial revolution in the early 19th century.

16th to 18th centuries

The Siege of Maastricht (1579) as depicted in the Palace of Aranjuez

The strategic location of Maastricht at a major river crossing necessitated the construction of an array of fortifications around the city during this period. The Spanish and Dutch garrisons became an important factor in the city's economy. In 1579 the city was sacked by the Spanish army led by the Duke of Parma (Siege of Maastricht, 1579). For over fifty years the Spanish crown took over the role previously held by the dukes of Brabant in the joint sovereignty over Maastricht. In 1632 the city was conquered by Prince Frederick Henry of Orange and the Dutch States General replaced the Spanish crown in the joint government of Maastricht. There was an attempt in 1634 of Spanish forces to recapture the city, but to no avail.

Another Siege of Maastricht (1673) took place during the Franco-Dutch War. In June 1673, Louis XIV laid siege to the city because French supply lines were being threatened. During this siege, Vauban, the famous French military engineer, developed a new tactic in order to break down the strong fortifications surrounding Maastricht. His systematic approach remained the standard method of attacking fortresses until the 20th century. On 25 June 1673, while preparing to storm the city, captain-lieutenant Charles de Batz de Castelmore, also known as the comte d'Artagnan, was killed by a musket shot outside the Tongerse Poort. This event was embellished in Alexandre Dumas' novel The Vicomte de Bragelonne, part of the D'Artagnan Romances. French troops occupied Maastricht from 1673 to 1678.

In 1748 the French again conquered the city at what is known as the Second French Siege of Maastricht, during the War of Austrian Succession. After each siege the city's fortifications were restored and expanded. The French revolutionary army failed to take the city in 1793 but a year later they succeeded. The condominium was dissolved and Maastricht was annexed to the French First Republic, later the First French Empire. For almost twenty years (1795–1814/15) Maastricht was the capital of the French département of Meuse-Inférieure.

19th and early 20th century

19th-century industry: Maastricht potteries in Boschstraat

After the Napoleonic era, Maastricht became part of the United Kingdom of the Netherlands in 1815. It was made the capital of the newly formed Province of Limburg (1815–1839). When the southern provinces of the newly formed kingdom seceded in 1830, the Dutch garrison in Maastricht remained loyal to the Dutch king, William I, even when most of the inhabitants of the town and the surrounding area sided with the Belgian revolutionaries. In 1831, arbitration by the Great Powers allocated the city to the Netherlands. However, neither the Dutch nor the Belgians agreed to this and the arrangement was not implemented until the 1839 Treaty of London. During this period of isolation Maastricht developed into an early industrial town.

Plate commemorating the liberation, 14 September 1944

Because of its eccentric location in the southeastern Netherlands, as well as its geographical and cultural proximity to Belgium and Germany, integration of Maastricht and Limburg into the Netherlands did not come about easily. Maastricht retained a distinctly non-Dutch appearance during much of the 19th century and it was not until the First World War that the city was forced to look northwards.

Like the rest of the Netherlands, Maastricht remained neutral during World War I. However, being wedged between Germany and Belgium, it received large numbers of refugees, putting a strain on the city's resources. Early in World War II, the city was taken by the Germans by surprise during the Battle of Maastricht of May 1940. On 13 and 14 September 1944 it was the first Dutch city to be liberated by Allied forces of the US Old Hickory Division. The three Meuse bridges were destroyed or severely damaged during the war. As elsewhere in the Netherlands, the majority of Maastricht Jews died in Nazi concentration camps.[16]

After World War II

Prime minister Dries van Agt presiding over the 1981 European Council in the town hall

During the latter half of the century, traditional industries (such as Maastricht's potteries) declined and the city's economy shifted to a service economy. Maastricht University was founded in 1976. Several European institutions found their base in Maastricht. In 1981 and 1991 European Councils were held in Maastricht, the latter one resulting a year later in the signing of the Maastricht Treaty, leading to the creation of the European Union and the euro.[17] Since 1988, The European Fine Art Fair, regarded as the world's leading art fair, annually draws in some of the wealthiest art collectors.

Since the 1990s, large parts of the city have been refurbished, including the areas around the main railway station and the Maasboulevard promenade along the Meuse, the Entre Deux and Mosae Forum shopping centres, as well as some of the main shopping streets. A prestigious quarter designed by international architects and including the new Bonnefanten Museum, a public library, and a theatre was built on the grounds of the former Société Céramique factory near the town centre. Further large-scale projects, such as the redevelopment of the area around the A2 motorway, the Sphinx Quarter and the Belvédère area are under construction.

In the early 2000s, Maastricht launched several campaigns against drug-dealing in an attempt to stop foreign buyers taking advantage of the liberal Dutch legislation and causing trouble in the downtown area.[18]



Typical street in the Jekerkwartier, part of the city centre
Dutch topographic map of Maastricht, March 2014

Maastricht consists of seven areas (wijken) and 44 neighbourhoods (buurten). Each area and neighbourhood has a number which corresponds to its CBS code.

  1. Maastricht Centrum (CBS area code: 093500): Binnenstad, Jekerkwartier, Kommelkwartier, Statenkwartier, Boschstraatkwartier, Sint Maartenspoort, Wyck-Céramique
  2. South-West (093501): Villapark, Jekerdal, Biesland, Campagne, Wolder, Sint Pieter)
  3. West (093502): Brusselsepoort, Mariaberg, Belfort, Pottenberg, Malpertuis, Caberg, Malberg, Dousberg-Hazendans, Daalhof
  4. North-West (093503): Boschpoort, Bosscherveld, Frontenkwartier, Belvédère, Lanakerveld
  5. North-East (093505): Beatrixhaven, Borgharen, Itteren, Meerssenhoven
  6. East (093504): Wyckerpoort, Wittevrouwenveld, Nazareth, Limmel, Amby, Scharn, Heugemerveld
  7. South-East (093506): Randwyck, Heugem, Heer, De Heeg, Vroendaal

Itteren, Borgharen, Limmel, Amby, Heer, Heugem, Scharn, Oud-Caberg, Sint Pieter and Wolder are neighbourhoods that used to be separate municipalities or villages until they were annexed by the city of Maastricht in the course of the 20th century.

Neighbouring municipalities

The outlying areas of the following municipalities are bordering the municipality of Maastricht directly.

Clockwise from north-east to north-west:

(B = Situated in Belgium)


Maastricht's city limits has an international border with Belgium. Most of it borders Belgium's Flemish region, but a small part to the south also has a border with Wallonia. Both countries are part of Europe's Schengen Area thus are open without border controls.


Maastricht features the same climate as most of the Netherlands (Cfb, Oceanic climate), however, due to its more inland location in between hills, summers tend to be warmer (especially in the Meuse valley, which lies 70 metres lower than the meteorological station) and winters a bit colder, although the difference is only noticeable on just a few days a year. The highest temperature recorded was on 25 July 2019 at 39.6 °C (103.3 °F).

Climate data for Maastricht (1991−2020 normals, extremes 1906−present)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 16.5
Mean maximum °C (°F) 12.5
Mean daily maximum °C (°F) 5.7
Daily mean °C (°F) 3.2
Mean daily minimum °C (°F) 0.5
Mean minimum °C (°F) −7.3
Record low °C (°F) −19.3
Average precipitation mm (inches) 63.8
Average precipitation days (≥ 1 mm) 12.0 10.8 10.4 8.4 9.4 9.7 10.2 10.2 8.8 10.7 11.7 13.2 125.7
Average snowy days 6.1 6.7 3.3 0.3 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.1 1.1 4.7 22.2
Average relative humidity (%) 86.4 83.2 77.7 71.7 72.1 72.8 73.1 74.8 79.4 83.9 87.9 88.3 79.3
Mean monthly sunshine hours 66.9 86.0 138.5 180.8 208.7 205.5 209.0 197.5 157.0 118.2 74.1 53.5 1,695.7
Percent possible sunshine 25.4 30.3 37.5 43.7 43.4 41.7 42.1 43.8 41.3 35.5 27.4 21.5 36.1
Source: Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute (snowy days 2003-2020)[19][20] Infoclimat[21]


Historical population

Historical population
YearPop.±% p.a.
Source: Lourens & Lucassen 1997, pp. 32–33 (1400-1795)
Statistics Netherlands (1970-2010)

Inhabitants by nationality

Maastricht residents by nationality - Top 10 (2000-2021)
Nationality 2021 2014[22] 2010 2000
Netherlands Netherlands 100,297 107,418 109,722 116,171
Germany Germany 3,908 3,869 1,956 783
Italy Italy 1,572 653 387 280
Belgium Belgium 1,475 1,055 946 909
Spain Spain 913 431 232 241
United Kingdom United Kingdom 842 815 386 280
China China 739 595 248 87
France France 686 351 214 120
United States United States 665 623 277 162
Turkey Turkey 436 404 368 404

Inhabitants by country of birth

Maastricht residents by country of birth - Top 10 (2000-2020)
Country of birth 2020 2013[23] 2010 2000
Netherlands Netherlands 93,162 100,269 102,433 109,632
Germany Germany 3,949 4,100 2,467 1,444
Belgium Belgium 2,355 1,920 1,839 1,900
United States United States 1,380 753 383 217
Indonesia Indonesia 1,020 1,199 1,267 1,556
China China (excl. Hong Kong and Macau) 1,019 651 373 215
Turkey Turkey 973 919 836 784
United Kingdom United Kingdom 926 677 404 310
Morocco Morocco 829 838 867 859
Poland Poland 563 437 316 152


Maastricht is a city of linguistic diversity, partly as a result of its location at the crossroads of multiple language areas and its international student population.


Religions in Maastricht (2013)[26]

  Roman Catholic (60.1%)
  Other Christian denominations (2.2%)
  Islam (3.3%)
  Hinduism (0.1%)
  Buddhism (0.4%)
  Judaism (0.2%)
  No affiliation (30.9%)

In 2010–2014, 69.8% of the population of Maastricht regarded themselves as religious. 60.4% of the total population stated an affiliation with the Roman Catholic Church. 13.9% attended a religious ceremony at least once a month.[27]


ENCI quarry
Office park Randwyck-Noord

Private companies based in Maastricht

Public institutions

Provincial Government Buildings
European Institute of Public Administration

Since the 1980s, a number of European and international institutions have made Maastricht their base. They provide an increasing number of employment opportunities for expats living in the Maastricht area.

Culture and tourism

Medieval city wall (Onze-Lieve-Vrouwewal)
View of Maastricht from the fortress on Mount Saint Peter
Vrijthof with Saint John's (left) and Saint Servatius Basilica
View of Our Lady's from the church tower of Saint John's
Christmas decorations at Onze Lieve Vrouweplein
Markt and town hall
13th-century Dominican church converted into a bookstore
Slavante on the slopes of Mount Saint Peter
The landmark tower of the Bonnefanten Museum on the east bank of the Meuse in Wyck-Céramique
Medieval art in the Bonnefantenmuseum
Chest of Saint Servatius in the Treasury of the Basilica of Saint Servatius
Maastricht University faculty on their way to the annual dies natalis
TEFAF, Maastricht's prestigious art fair
Giants' Parade, 2019: Gigantius of Maastricht

Sights of Maastricht

Maastricht is known in the Netherlands and beyond for its lively squares, narrow streets, and historic buildings. The city has 1,677 national heritage buildings (rijksmonumenten), more than any Dutch city outside Amsterdam. In addition to that there are 3,500 locally listed buildings (gemeentelijke monumenten). The entire city centre is a conservation area (beschermd stadsgezicht) and largely traffic-free. The tourist information office (VVV) is located in the basement of Dinghuis, a late-medieval courthouse overlooking Grote Staat. Maastricht's main sights include:

Museums in Maastricht

Events and festivals

Furthermore, the Maastricht Exposition and Congress Centre (MECC) hosts many events throughout the year.


A pond in Stadspark, Maastricht's main park
Relaxing in Charles Eyckpark
Sheep on Mount Saint Peter
Jeker valley with vineyards


There are several city parks and recreational areas in Maastricht:[30]

Natural areas


Student rowing club MSRV Saurus in Zuid-Willemsvaart


City council

Parties 2006 2010 2014
Senioren Partij Maastricht (SPM) 3 5 6
CDA 7 (6) 7 5
PvdA 13 7 5
D66 2 4 5
SP 3 2 5
GroenLinks 5 4 4
VVD 4 (3) 4 3
TON / Partij Veilig Maastricht (PVM) - 2 3
Stadsbelangen Mestreech (SBM) 2 2 1
Liberale Partij Maastricht (LPM) (1) 1 1
Christelijke Volkspartij (Maastricht) (CVP) (1) 1 1
Total 39 39 39

The municipal government of Maastricht consists of a city council, a mayor and a number of aldermen. The city council, a 39-member legislative body directly elected for four years, appoints the aldermen on the basis of a coalition agreement between two or more parties after each election. The 2006 municipal elections in the Netherlands were, as often, dominated by national politics and led to a shift from right to left throughout the country. In Maastricht, the traditional broad governing coalition of Christian Democrats (CDA), Labour (PvdA), Greens (GreenLeft) and Liberals (VVD) was replaced by a centre-left coalition of Labour, Christian Democrats and Greens. Two Labour aldermen were appointed, along with one Christian Democrat and one Green alderman. Due to internal disagreements, one of the VVD council members left the party in 2005 and formed a new liberal group in 2006 (Liberalen Maastricht). The other opposition parties in the current city council are the Socialist Party (SP), the Democrats (D66) and two local parties (Stadsbelangen Mestreech (SBM) and the Seniorenpartij).

Aldermen and mayors

The aldermen and the mayor make up the executive branch of the municipal government. After the previous mayor, Gerd Leers (CDA), decided to step down in January 2010 following the 'Bulgarian Villa' affair, an affair concerning a holiday villa project in Byala, Bulgaria, in which the mayor was alleged to have been involved in shady deals to raise the value of villas he had ownership of. Up until 1 July 2015 the mayor of Maastricht was Onno Hoes, a Liberal (VVD), the only male mayor in the country, who officially was married to a male person. In 2013 Hoes was the subject of some political commotion, after facts had been disclosed about intimate affairs with several other male persons. The affair had no consequences for his political career.[34] Because of a new affair in 2014 Hoes eventually stepped down.[35]

Since 1 July 2015 the current mayor of Maastricht has been Annemarie Penn-te Strake.[36] Penn is independent and serves no political party, although her husband is a former[37] chairman of the Maastricht Seniorenpartij.[38] She has served for the Dutch judicial system for many years in many different positions. During her tenure as mayor she still serves as attorney general.[39]


One controversial issue which has dominated Maastricht politics for many years and which has also affected national and international politics, is the city's approach to soft drugs. Under the pragmatic Dutch soft drug policy, a policy of non-enforcement, individuals may buy and use cannabis from 'coffeeshops' (cannabis bars) under certain conditions. Maastricht, like many other border towns, has seen a growing influx of 'drug tourists', mainly young people from Belgium, France and Germany, who provide a large amount of revenue for the coffeeshops (around 13) in the city centre. The city government, most notably ex-mayor Leers, have been actively promoting drug policy reform in order to deal with its negative side effects.

Two 'coffeeshop' boats at Maasboulevard

One of the proposals, known as the 'Coffee Corner Plan', proposed by then-mayor Leers and supported unanimously by the city council in 2008, was to relocate the coffeeshops from the city centre to the outskirts of the town (in some cases near the national Dutch-Belgian border).[40] The purpose of this plan was to reduce the impact of drug tourism on the city centre, such as parking problems and the illegal sale of hard drugs in the vicinity of the coffeeshops, and to monitor the sale and use of cannabis more closely in areas away from the crowded city centre. The Coffee Corner Plan, however, has met with fierce opposition from neighbouring municipalities (some in Belgium) and from members of the Dutch and Belgian parliament. The plan has been the subject of various legal challenges and has not been carried out up to this date (2014).

On 16 December 2010, the Court of Justice of the European Union upheld a local Maastricht ban on the sale of cannabis to foreign tourists, restricting entrance to coffeeshops to residents of Maastricht.[41] The ban did not affect scientific or medical usage. In 2011, the Dutch government introduced a similar national system, the wietpas ("cannabis pass"), restricting access to Dutch coffeeshops to residents of the Netherlands. After protests from local mayors about the difficulty of implementing the issuing of wietpasses, Dutch parliament in 2012 agreed to replace the pass by any proof of residency.[42] The new system has led to a slight reduction in drug tourism to cannabis shops in Maastricht but at the same time to an increase of drug dealing on the street.


A2 motorway and Koning Willem-Alexandertunnel
Maastricht main railway station
Arriva bus at Boschstraat
Maastricht Aachen Airport

By car

Maastricht is served by the A2 and A79 motorways. The city can be reached from Brussels and Cologne in approximately one hour and from Amsterdam in about two and a half hours.

The A2 motorway runs through Maastricht in a double-decked tunnel. Before 2016, the A2 motorway ran through the city; heavily congested, it caused air pollution in the urban area. Construction of a two-level tunnel designed to solve these problems started in 2011 and was opened (in stages) by December 2016.[43]

In spite of several large underground car parks, parking in the city centre forms a major problem during weekends and bank holidays because of the large numbers of visitors. Parking fees are deliberately high to encourage visitors to use public transport or park and ride facilities away from the centre.

By train

Maastricht is served by three rail operators, all of which call at the main Maastricht railway station near the centre and two of which call at the smaller Maastricht Randwyck, near the business and university district. Only Arriva also calls at Maastricht Noord, which opened in 2013. Intercity trains northwards to Amsterdam, Eindhoven, Den Bosch and Utrecht are operated by Dutch Railways. The line to Heerlen, Valkenburg and Kerkrade is operated by Arriva. The National Railway Company of Belgium runs south to Liège in Belgium. The westbound railway to Hasselt (Belgium) closed in 1954. The former railway to Aachen was closed down in the 1980s. However, Aachen can still be reached via Heerlen.

By bus

Regular bus lines connect the city centre, outer areas, business districts and railway stations. The regional Arriva bus network extends to most parts of South Limburg and Aachen (Germany). Regional buses by De Lijn connect Maastricht with Hasselt, Tongeren and Maasmechelen, and one bus connects Maastricht with Liège, operated by TEC. Various bus companies such as Flixbus and Eurolines provide intercity bus services from Maastricht to many European destinations.

By air

Maastricht is served by the nearby Maastricht Aachen Airport (IATA: MST, ICAO: EHBK), in nearby Beek, and it is informally referred to by that name. The airport is located about 10 kilometres (6 miles) north of the city centre. The airport is served by Corendon Dutch Airlines and Ryanair which operate scheduled flights to destinations around the Mediterranean, the Canary Islands, North-Africa and also London Stansted Airport from March 2022. There are also charter flights to Lourdes which are operated by Enter Air.

By boat

Maastricht has a river port (Beatrixhaven) and is connected by water with Belgium and the rest of the Netherlands through the river Meuse, the Juliana Canal, the Albert Canal and the Zuid-Willemsvaart. Although there are no regular boat connections to other cities, various organized boat trips for tourists connect Maastricht with Belgium cities such as Liège.

Distances to other cities

These distances are as the crow flies and so do not represent actual overland distances.


Maastricht University, Campus Randwyck
Students at work at UM Law School
Hotel Management School at Bethlehem Castle

Secondary education

Tertiary education


International relations

See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in the Netherlands

Twin towns

Maastricht is twinned with:

Notable people

See also: Category:People from Maastricht

Peter Debye
Tom Dumoulin
Jan Pieter Minckeleers
Henrietta d'Oultremont
André Rieu
Victor de Stuers

Born in Maastricht

Residing in Maastricht

Saint Servatius

Local anthem

In 2002 the municipal government officially adopted a local anthem (Limburgish (Maastrichtian variant): Mestreechs Volksleed, Dutch: Maastrichts Volkslied) composed of lyrics in Maastrichtian. The theme was originally written by Ciprian Porumbescu (1853–1883).[44]


Vrijthof square, early morning

See also


  1. ^ "Mrs. Annemarie Penn-te Strake" [Mr. Annemarie Penn-te Strake] (in Dutch). Gemeente Maastricht. Archived from the original on 3 July 2015. Retrieved 12 October 2013.
  2. ^ "Kerncijfers wijken en buurten 2020" [Key figures for neighbourhoods 2020]. StatLine (in Dutch). CBS. 24 July 2020. Retrieved 19 September 2020.
  3. ^ "Postcodetool for 6211DW". Actueel Hoogtebestand Nederland (in Dutch). Het Waterschapshuis. Archived from the original on 21 September 2013. Retrieved 12 October 2013.
  4. ^ "Bevolkingsontwikkeling; regio per maand" [Population growth; regions per month]. CBS Statline (in Dutch). CBS. 1 January 2021. Retrieved 2 January 2022.
  5. ^ "Bevolkingsontwikkeling; Regionale kerncijfers Nederland" [Regional core figures Netherlands]. CBS Statline (in Dutch). CBS. 1 January 2020. Retrieved 8 March 2021.
  6. ^ Including the Belgian municipalities of Lanaken, Riemst and Maasmechelen to the west and Visé to the south.
  7. ^ Basically, the metropolitan areas of Maastricht, Liège, Hasselt-Genk, Sittard-Geleen, Heerlen-Kerkrade and Aachen-Düren constitute the densely populated urban core of the Meuse–Rhine Euroregion.
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  13. ^ As Treiectinsem urbem, "the city of Trajectum", in Gregory of Tours, Historia Francorum, 2, 5 Archived 16 March 2015 at the Wayback Machine (late 6th ct.).
  14. ^ M. Gysseling, Toponymisch Woordenboek van België, Nederland, Luxemburg, Noord-Frankrijk en West-Duitsland (vóór 1226) (Tongeren, 1960) p. 646.
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