This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.Find sources: "BASF" – news · newspapers · books · scholar · JSTOR (January 2021) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)

Company typePublic (Societas Europaea)
PredecessorKnoll AG Chemische Fabriken
Zuckerfabrik Körbisdorf
Herbol Edit this on Wikidata
Founded6 April 1865; 158 years ago (6 April 1865) (as Badische Anilin- und Sodafabrik); Mannheim, Baden
FounderFriedrich Engelhorn
HeadquartersLudwigshafen, Germany
Key people
ProductsChemicals, plastics, performance chemicals, catalysts, coatings, crop technology, crude oil and natural gas exploration and production
RevenueIncrease 87.3 billion (2022)[1]
Decrease €6.55 billion (2022)[1]
Decrease €−627 million (2022)[1]
Total assetsDecrease €84.5 billion (2022)[1]
Total equityDecrease €40.9 billion (2022)[1]
Number of employees
Increase 111,481 (end 2022)[1]
SubsidiariesWintershall, Nunhems, TrinamiX, Cognis, BTC Europe, Chemster, Siegfried PharmaChemikalien Minden, Verenium Corporation, Isobionics, Succinity, Pinturas Thermicas del Norte

BASF SE (German pronunciation: [beːaːɛsˈʔɛf] ), an initialism of its original name Badische Anilin- und Sodafabrik (German for 'Baden Aniline and Soda Factory'), is a European multinational company and the largest chemical producer in the world.[2][3][4] Its headquarters are located in Ludwigshafen, Germany.

BASF comprises subsidiaries and joint ventures in more than 80 countries, operating six integrated production sites and 390 other production sites across Europe, Asia, Australia, the Americas and Africa.[5] BASF has customers in over 190 countries and supplies products to a wide variety of industries. Despite its size and global presence, BASF has received relatively little public attention since it abandoned the manufacture and sale of BASF-branded consumer electronics products in the 1990s.[6]

The company began as a dye manufacturer in 1865. Fritz Haber worked with Carl Bosch, one of its employees, to invent the Haber-Bosch process by 1912, after which the company grew rapidly. In 1925, the company merged with several other German chemical companies to become the chemicals conglomerate IG Farben. IG Farben would go on to play a major role in the economy of Nazi Germany. It extensively employed forced and slave labor during the Nazi period, and produced the notorious Zyklon B chemical used in The Holocaust. IG Farben was disestablished by the Allies in 1945. BASF was reconstituted from the remnants of IG Farben in 1952. It was part of the German economic miracle, and has since expanded considerably. It has received modern criticism for its poor environmental record.[citation needed]

At the end of 2019, the company employed 117,628 people, with over 54,000 in Germany.[7] In 2019, BASF posted sales of €59.3 billion and income from operations before special items of about €4.5 billion. Between 1990 and 2005, the company invested €5.6 billion in Asia, specifically in sites near Nanjing and Shanghai in China and Mangalore in India.[8] BASF is listed on the Frankfurt Stock Exchange, London Stock Exchange, and Zurich Stock Exchange. The company delisted its ADR from the New York Stock Exchange in September 2007.[9] The company is a component of the Euro Stoxx 50 stock market index.[10][11]


BASF plant in Ludwigshafen, 1865

BASF is an acronym for Badische Anilin- und Sodafabrik (German for 'Baden Aniline and Soda Factory'). It was founded by Friedrich Engelhorn on 6 April 1865 in Mannheim, in the German-speaking state of Baden. Engelhorn had been responsible for setting up a gasworks and street lighting for the town council in 1861. The gasworks produced tar as a by-product from coal, and Engelhorn used this to extract aniline for the production of dyes. BASF was set up in 1865, to produce other chemicals necessary for dye production, notably soda and acids. The plant, however, was erected on the other side of the Rhine river at Ludwigshafen because the town council of Mannheim was afraid that the air pollution from the chemical plant could bother the inhabitants of the town. In 1866, the dye production processes were also moved to the BASF site.[12]

Aniline dyes (1869)

BASF plant in Ludwigshafen, 1881

The discovery in 1857 by William Henry Perkin that aniline could be used to make intense colouring agents had led to the commercial production of synthetic dyes in England from aniline extracted from coal tar. BASF recruited Heinrich Caro, a German chemist with experience of the dyestuff industry in England, to be the first head of research.[13] Caro developed a synthesis for alizarin (a red dye used for dying textile fabrics) and applied for a British patent on 25 June 1869. Coincidentally, Perkin applied for a virtually identical patent on 26 June 1869, and the two companies came to a mutual commercial agreement about the process.[12]

Further patents were granted for the synthesis of methylene blue and eosin, and in 1880, research began to try to find a synthetic process for indigo dye, though this was not successfully brought to the market until 1897. In 1901, some 80% of the BASF production was dyestuffs.[12]

Solvay process soda (1880)

BASF main laboratory in Ludwigshafen, 1887

Sodium carbonate (soda) was produced by the Leblanc process until 1880, when the much cheaper Solvay process became available. BASF ceased to make its own and bought it from the Solvay company thereafter.[12]

Knietsch sulfuric acid (1890)

Indigo production at BASF in 1890

Sulfuric acid was initially produced by the lead chamber process, but in 1890, a unit using the contact process was brought on stream, producing the acid at higher concentration (98% instead of 80%) and a lower cost. This development followed extensive research and development by Rudolf Knietsch, for which he received the Liebig Medal in 1904.[12]

Haber's ammonia (1913)

The development of the Haber process from 1908 to 1912, made it possible to synthesize ammonia (a major industrial chemical as the primary source of nitrogen), and, after acquiring exclusive rights to the process, in 1913, BASF started a new production plant in Oppau, adding fertilizers to its product range. BASF also acquired and began mining anhydrite for gypsum at the Kohnstein in 1917.[14]

IG Farben (1921)

Company scrip from Badische Anilin- & Soda-Fabrik, 2 Pfennig Gutschein, ca. 1918

In 1916, BASF started operations at a new site in Leuna, where explosives were produced during the First World War. On 21 September 1921, an explosion occurred in Oppau, killing 565 people. The Oppau explosion was the biggest industrial accident in German history. Under the leadership of Carl Bosch, BASF founded IG Farben with Hoechst, Bayer, and three other companies, thus losing its independence. BASF was the nominal survivor, as all shares were exchanged for BASF shares before the merger. Rubber, fuels, and coatings were added to the range of products.

In 1935, IG Farben and AEG presented the magnetophon – the first tape recorder – at the Radio Exhibition in Berlin.[citation needed]

World War II

After the appointment of Adolf Hitler as Chancellor in 1933, IG Farben co-operated with the National Socialist government, profiting from guaranteed volumes and prices and, in time, from forced ("unfree") labour provided through governmental concentration camps. BASF (leader of the chemical industry of the IG Farben) built a 24km2 chemical factory in Auschwitz named "IG Auschwitz", the largest chemical factory in the world at the time. IG Farben became notorious through its production of Zyklon-B, the lethal gas used to kill prisoners in German extermination camps during the Holocaust.[15]

IG Farben made extensive use of forced labor during WWII consisting mostly of drafted "service-duty" Germans, foreign workers from German-occupied territories, and prisoners of war. By 1943, nearly one-half of all IG Farben workers were forced laborers housed in factory-camp facilities. This number did not include the 51,445 concentration camp laborers supplied by the Nazis. Spread out over 23 facilities, it is estimated that 31,500–33,500 of those concentration camp inmates were killed by authorities or died from starvation, exhaustion, or disease.[16][17]

The Ludwigshafen site was almost completely destroyed during the Second World War but was subsequently rebuilt. The allies dissolved IG Farben in November 1945.[citation needed]

Both the Ludwigshafen and Oppau plants were of strategic importance for the war because the German military needed many of their products (e.g., synthetic rubber and gasoline). As a result, they were major targets for air raids. During the war, Allied bombers attacked the plants a total of 65 times.

Bombing took place from the autumn of 1943 and saturation bombing inflicted extensive damage. Production virtually stopped by the end of 1944.

Due to a shortage of male workers during the war, women were conscripted to work in the factories, joined later by prisoners of war and foreign civilians. Concentration camp inmates did not work at the Ludwigshafen and Oppau plants.

In July 1945, the American military administration confiscated all IG Farben assets. That same year, the Allied Commission decreed that IG Farben should be dissolved. The sites at Ludwigshafen and Oppau were controlled by French authorities.[citation needed]

BASF refounded (1952)

On 28 July 1948, an explosion occurred at a BASF site in Ludwigshafen, killing 207 people and injuring 3818.[18] In 1952, BASF was refounded under its name following the efforts of former Nazi Party member Carl Wurster, who served in Nazi Germany as Wehrwirtschaftsführer (war economy leader). With the German economic miracle in the 1950s, BASF added synthetics such as nylon to its product range. BASF developed Polystyrene in the 1930s and invented Styropor in 1951.

Post-WW2 20th century

In the 1960s, production abroad was expanded and plants were built in Argentina, Australia, Belgium, Brazil, France, India, Italy, Japan, Mexico, Spain, United Kingdom and the United States. Following a change in corporate strategy in 1965, greater emphasis was placed on higher-value products such as coatings, pharmaceuticals, pesticides and fertilizers. Following German reunification, BASF acquired a site in Schwarzheide, Eastern Germany, on 25 October 1990.

In 1968, BASF (together with Bayer AG) bought the German coatings company Herbol. BASF completely took over the Herbol branches in Cologne and Würzburg in 1970. Under new management, the renewal and expansion of the trademark continued. After an extensive reorganisation and an increasing international orientation of the coatings business, Herbol became part of the new founded Deco GmbH in 1997.

BASF bought the Wyandotte Chemical Company, and its Geismar, Louisiana chemical plant in the early 1970s.[19] The plant produced plastics, herbicides, and antifreeze. BASF soon tried to operate union-free, having already reduced or eliminated union membership in several other US plants. Challenging the Geismar OCAW union resulted in a labor dispute that saw members locked out from 1984 to 1989, and eventually winning their case. A worker solidarity committee at BASF's headquarters plant in Ludwigshafen, Germany, took donations from German workers to support the American strikers and organized rallies and publicity in support. The dispute was the subject of an academic study.[20] The union also exposed major accidental releases of phosgene, toluene and other toxic gases, these being publicized in the local media and through a video, Out of Control.[19][21] A court threw out a $66,700 fine against BASF for five environmental violations as "too small".[19]

BASF's European coatings business was taken over by AkzoNobel in 1999.

21st century

With the help of Gerhard Schröder, BASF's Jürgen Hambrecht signed the Gazprom Nord Stream-Yuzhno-Russkoye deal in 2004 with a 49-51 structure, as opposed to the older 50-50 split of for example BP's TNK-BP project.[22] [23] Putin has insisted on majority Russian ownership of any joint-venture in Russian territory since that time.[22]

BASF bought the Engelhard Corporation for $4.8 billion in 2006. Other acquisitions in 2006, were the purchase of Johnson Polymer and the construction chemicals business of Degussa.

The acquisition of Johnson Polymer was completed on 1 July 2006. The purchase price was $470 million on a cash and debt-free basis. It provided BASF with a range of water-based resins that complements its portfolio of high solids and UV resins for the coatings and paints industry and strengthened the company's market presence, particularly in North America.

BASF Portsmouth Site in the West Norfolk area of Portsmouth, Virginia, United States. The plant is served by the Commonwealth Railway.

The acquisition of Degussa AG's construction chemicals business was completed in 2006. The purchase price for equity was about €2.2 billion. In addition, the transaction was associated with a debt of €500 million.

The company agreed to acquire Ciba (formerly part of Ciba-Geigy) in September 2008.[24] The proposed deal was reviewed by the European Commissioner for Competition. On 9 April 2009, the acquisition was officially completed.[25][26]

On 19 December 2008, BASF acquired U.S.-based Whitmire Micro-Gen together with U.K.-based Sorex Ltd.[27] Sorex is a manufacturer of branded chemical and non-chemical products for professional pest management. In March 2007 Sorex was put up for sale with a price tag of about £100 million.[28]

In December 2010, BASF completed the acquisition of Cognis.[29]

BASF expanded to Podolsk, Russia, in 2012, and to Kazan in 2013.[30]

In May 2015, BASF agreed to sell parts of its pharmaceutical ingredients business to Swiss drug manufacturer Siegfried Holding for a fee of €270 million, including assumed debt.[31]

Since 2016, BASF has partnered with a subsidiary of Xinjiang Zhongtai Group, a company sanctioned under the Uyghur Forced Labor Prevention Act, to operate a plant in Korla.[32]

In October 2017, BASF announced it would buy seed and herbicide businesses from Bayer for €5.9 billion ($7 billion), as part of Bayer's acquisition of Monsanto.[33][34]

The company announced the start of a US$10 billion investment project at Zhanjiang, China, in November 2019. This ″Verbund″ site is intended for the production of engineering plastics and TPU. The site would be the third-largest BASF site worldwide, following Ludwigshafen, Germany, and Antwerp, Belgium, and is expected to be operational by 2022.[35]

Former BASF headquarters building in Ludwigshafen

In August 2019, BASF agreed to sell its global pigments business to Japanese fine chemical company DIC for €1.15 billion ($1.28 billion) on a cash and debt-free basis.[36]

In September 2019, BASF signed an agreement with DuPont Safety & Construction, a subsidiary business unit of DuPont, to sell its ultrafiltration membrane business, Inge GmbH.[37] According to BASF executives, Inge GmbH and its products fit better with DuPont and their business strategy.[37]

In 2023, BASF announced that the company is planning to close one of its two ammonia factories at its site in Ludwigshafen, this comes as part of the companies plans to cut costs as the organisation has struggled with high energy costs. The result of the organisations plans will lead to increased production in China while resulting in the loss of 2,600 jobs.[38]

Notable lawsuits

Dicamba lawsuit

On 27 January 2020, the first-ever lawsuit concerning Dicamba-related products began in Cape Girardeau, Missouri.[39][40] The lawsuit involves a peach farmer who alleged that Dicamba-based herbicides caused significant damage to his crops and trees.[41] It had also been filed in November 2016, when Dicamba was still owned by Monsanto.[42][43][44] On 14 February 2020, the jury involved in the lawsuit ruled against BASF its co-defendant Bayer, which had acquired Monsanto and its products, and found in favor of the peach grower, Bader Farms owner Bill Bader.[45] BASF and Bayer were also ordered to pay Bader $15 million in damages.[46] On 15 February 2020, Monsanto and BASF were ordered to pay an additional $250 million in punitive damages.[47][48]


For the fiscal year 2017, BASF reported earnings of €6.1 billion, with an annual revenue of €64.5 billion, an increase of 12% over the previous fiscal cycle.[49] BASF's shares traded at over €69 per share, and its market capitalization was valued at €63.7 billion in November 2018.[50] In October 2019, BASF reported a drop of operating income for July to September amounting to 24 percent, along with a drop in EBIT earnings of €1.1 billion ($1.2 billion).[51] The US–China trade war as well as uncertainties related to Brexit were identified as contributing factors.[51] However, overall third quarter profit beat expectations as the acquisition of Bayer AG's agrochemical and seed business help to offset some of the effects of the trade war.[52]

Year Revenue
in bn. €
Net income
in bn. €
Total assets
in bn. €
2013 73.973 4.842 64.382 112,206
2014 74.326 5.155 71.359 113,292
2015 70.449 3.987 70.836 112,435
2016 57.550 4.056 76.496 113,830
2017 61.223 6.078 78.768 115,490
2018 62.675 4.707 86.556 122,404
2019 59.316 8.421 86.950 117,628
2020 59.149 −1.060 80.292 110,302
2021 78.598 5.523 87.383 111,047
2022 87.327 −0.627 84.472 111,481

Business segments and leadership

BASF visitor center, Ludwigshafen, Germany

BASF operates in a variety of markets. As of 2020 its business is organized in the segments of Chemicals, Plastics, Performance Products, Functional Solutions, Agricultural Solutions, and Oil and Gas.[citation needed]


BASF produces a wide range of chemicals such as solvents, amines, resins, glues, electronic-grade chemicals, industrial gases, basic petrochemicals, and inorganic chemicals (such as Z-Cote). The most important customers for this segment are the pharmaceutical, construction, textile, and automotive industries.


BASF's plastic products include high-performance materials in thermoplastics, foams, and urethanes.[53]

Engineering Plastics
BASF's Engineering Plastics consists of the "4 Ultras" – Ultramid polyamide (PA) nylon-based resins, Ultradur, polybutylene terephthalate (PBT), Ultraform, polyacetal (POM), and Ultrason, polysulfone (PSU) and polyethersulfone (PES).

BASF Styrenics consists of the Foams and Copolymers. BASF's styrenic copolymers have applications in electronics, building and construction, and automotive components. In 2011 BASF and INEOS blended their global business activities in the fields of styrene monomers (SM), polystyrene (PS), acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS), styrene butadiene copolymers (SBC) and other styrene-based copolymers (SAN, AMSAN, ASA, MABS) into a joint venture named Styrolution.[54]

BASF's Polyurethanes business consists of diverse technologies and finished products. Urethane chemicals are raw materials used in rigid and flexible foams commonly used for insulation in the construction and appliance industries, furniture, packaging, and transportation.

Foams like Styropor are generally used as insulating materials. They are eco-efficient and offer advantages over other materials in terms of cost-effectiveness, preservation of resources and environmental protection. Investments made for insulating materials usually pay for themselves within a short time and contribute to retaining and even enhancing the value of buildings.

Polyamides and Intermediates
BASF manufactures polyamide precursors and polyamide.

Biodegradable plastics
BASF developed a biodegradable plastic with a high content of polylactic acid.[citation needed]

Performance products

BASF produces a range of performance chemicals, coatings and functional polymers. These include raw materials for detergents, textile and leather chemicals, pigments and raw materials for adhesives, paper chemicals. Customers are the automotive, oil, paper, packaging, textile, sanitary products, detergents, construction materials, coatings, printing, and leather industries.

Functional Solutions

BASF-sponsored Museum for Laquerware in Münster, Germany
BASF in Ludwigshafen

BASF's Functional Solutions segment consists of the Catalysts, Construction Chemicals and Coatings divisions. These divisions develop customer-specific products, in particular for the automotive and construction industries.


BASF supplies agricultural products and chemicals including fungicides, herbicides, insecticides and seed treatment products.[55][56] The company also researches nutrigenomics.[57] BASF opened a new crop protection technology center in Limburgerhof, Germany in 2016.[58]


BASF was cooperating with Monsanto Company in research, development and marketing of biotechnology.[59] In correlation to this work, BASF has licensed many gene editing tools including CRISPR Cas9 and CRISPR Cas12a (Cpf1).[60][61]

The BASF Plant Science subsidiary produces the Amflora and Starch Potato genetically modified potato with reduced amylose.[62][63] In 2010 BASF conducted Department of Environment, Food and Rural Affairs approved trials of genetically modified potatoes in the United Kingdom.[64] Starch Potato was authorised for use in the USA[63] in 2014.

Other GM crops are Phytaseed Canola varieties with phytase, sulfonylurea herbicide tolerant soybean[65] and drought tolerant corn (with cold shock protein B) developed with Monsanto.[66]

Oil and gas

BASF explores for and produces oil and gas through its subsidiary Wintershall Dea.


Each of the divisions of BASF has a President. They are governed by a Chairman and CEO.


75% of the BASF shares are held by institutional investors (BlackRock more than 5%). 36% of the shares are held in Germany, 11% in the UK and 17% in the U.S.


BASF's recent success is characterized by a focus on creating resource efficient product lines after completely abandoning consumer products. This strategy was reflected in production by a re-focus towards integrated production sites. The largest such integrated production site is located in Ludwigshafen employing 33,000 people.

Integrated production sites are characterized by co-location of many individual production lines (producing a specific chemical), which share an interconnected material flow. Piping is used ubiquitously for volume materials. All production lines use common raw material sourcing and feed back waste resources, which can be used elsewhere (e.g. steam of various temperatures, sulfuric acid, carbon monoxide). The economic incentive for this approach is high resource and energy efficiency of the overall process, reduced shipping cost and associated reduced risk of accidents. Due to the high cost of such an integrated production site, it establishes a high entry barrier for competitors trying to enter the market for volume chemicals.

BASF built a new chemical complex in Dahej, Gujarat at a cost of $100 million. This facility has South Asia's first methylene diphenyl diisocyanate (MDI) splitter for processing crude MDI. BASF has 8 production facilities in India.[67]

BASF SE has succeeded in developing a semi-crystalline polyamide that allows light to pass through largely unhindered, known as Ultramid.[68]

Ludwigshafen production site

Environmental record

According to the 2022 "Top 100 Polluters Indexes" published by the University of Massachusetts, Amherst's "Political Economy Research Institute" (PERI), BASF was ranked the #2 largest polluter of air and #14 largest polluter of water in 2020, the most recent year for which data is available from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.[69]

In 2006, BASF was included in the Climate Leadership Index for their efforts in relation to climate change and greenhouse gas emissions.[70]

The BASF Company and Columbia University formed a partnership to further research "environmentally benign and sustainable energy sources". The company has recently reported their emissions in 2006 to be "1.50 million metric tons of waste," which is a decrease from previous years. The amount of waste BASF produces has continued to fall.[71]

While BASF publishes its environmental information in the US and Europe, Greenpeace has expressed deep concerns at BASF's refusal to release environmental information on its operations in China.[72]

In May 2009, a BASF Plant in Hannibal, Missouri, United States, accidentally discharged chromium into the Mississippi River. The local Department of Natural Resources performed tests in December 2009 showing the chromium levels did not exceed regulatory safety limits.[73] BASF worked with the Missouri Department of Natural Resources (MoDNR) to resolve questions regarding the elevated level of hexavalent chromium that was detected in the effluent from one of its permitted outfalls into the Mississippi River. The state department of health reviewed the test results and determined that the amounts found were well below recommended public health screening levels.[74]

In 2013, BASF reported a spill of several hundred kilogrammes of the chelating agent Trilon-B (tetrasodium Edta) into the river Rhine from BASF's headquarters in Ludwigshafen, Germany.[75] BASF has instituted an eco-efficiency analysis to promote green engineering principles.[76]

See also


  1. ^ a b c d e f "BASF 10 year summary" (PDF). Retrieved 11 October 2023.
  2. ^ "BASF Headquarters". BASF. Archived from the original on 2 June 2017. Retrieved 26 February 2016.
  3. ^ "Who Are The World's Largest Chemical Producing Companies?". World Atlas. Archived from the original on 25 October 2017. Retrieved 25 October 2017.
  4. ^ "Largest chemical companies worldwide based on revenue in 2017 (in billion U.S. dollars)". Statista. Archived from the original on 25 October 2017. Retrieved 25 October 2017.
  5. ^ BASF website[permanent dead link]
  6. ^ "How gas rationing at Germany's BASF plant could plunge Europe into crisis". the Guardian. 15 September 2022. Retrieved 7 November 2022.
  7. ^ "Annual Report 2019" (PDF). Retrieved 12 March 2020.
  8. ^ "Time savings at BASF". vjoon. Retrieved 20 January 2023.
  9. ^ "UPDATE 2-Germany's BASF says to delist from NYSE". Reuters. 30 July 2007. Retrieved 4 February 2020.
  10. ^ "Börse Frankfurt (Frankfurt Stock Exchange): Stock market quotes, charts and news". Archived from the original on 8 February 2019. Retrieved 3 February 2016.
  11. ^ "European shares drop after weak BASF and Novartis updates". Reuters. Archived from the original on 25 October 2017. Retrieved 25 October 2017.
  12. ^ a b c d e W. Ludewig (1966), Trans Inst Chem Engrs vol. 44, pp. 237–252, "Highlights in the History of BASF".
  13. ^ "1865–1901: The Birth of the Chemical Industry and the Era of Dyes". BASF. Archived from the original on 13 March 2017. Retrieved 25 June 2017.
  14. ^ Ordway, Frederick I III; Sharpe, Mitchell R (1979). The Rocket Team. Apogee Books Space Series 36. pp. 75, 76, 79, 88.
  15. ^ "IG Farben to be dissolved". BBC News. 17 September 2001. Archived from the original on 6 February 2010. Retrieved 9 May 2008.
  16. ^ "Wollheim Memorial".
  17. ^ Zuppi, Alberto (1 February 2006). "Slave Labor in Nuremberg's I.G. Farben Case: The Lonely Voice of Paul M. Hebert". Louisiana Law Review. 66 (2).
  18. ^ de:Kesselwagenexplosion in der BASF[circular reference]
  19. ^ a b c Richard Leonard and Zack Nauth. 1990. Beating BASF: OCAW Busts Union-Buster Archived 12 June 2018 at the Wayback Machine. Labor Research Review 1(16): 39–49.
  20. ^ Timothy J. Minchin. 2003. Forging a Common Bond: Labor and Environmental Activism during the BASF Lockout. University of Florida Press.
  21. ^ Archived at Ghostarchive and the Wayback Machine: markdcatlin (28 April 2018). "Out of Control OCAW 1990". Retrieved 28 August 2018 – via YouTube.
  22. ^ a b Harley Balzer, "The Putin Thesis and Russian Energy Policy" Post-Soviet Affairs, 2005, 21, 3, pp. 210–225.
  23. ^ "Russia's energy empire: Putin and the rise of Gazprom". DW Documentary. YouTube. 3 February 2024.
  24. ^ Kuehnen, Eva (15 September 2008). "BASF bids $3 bln for Switzerland's Ciba". Reuters. Archived from the original on 20 May 2011. Retrieved 15 September 2008.
  25. ^ "EU mergers and takeovers (March 6)". Reuters. 6 March 2009. Archived from the original on 11 February 2011. Retrieved 6 March 2009.
  26. ^ "BASF sees Ciba integration largely completed in Q2". Reuters. 25 February 2010. Retrieved 20 January 2023.
  27. ^ "BASF Acquires Sorex Pest Control Business; Deal Includes Whitmire Micro-Gen". PCT – Pest Control Technology. Archived from the original on 30 August 2019. Retrieved 30 August 2019.
  28. ^ "British business press". Financial Mail. South Africa. Reuters. 18 March 2007. Rat Poisoner Sorex is For Sale. Archived from the original on 12 May 2015. Retrieved 2 October 2009 – via Reuters Press Digest.
  29. ^ "BASF Acquires Cognis in $3.8 Billion Deal". New York Times. 23 June 2010. Archived from the original on 30 August 2019. Retrieved 30 August 2019.
  30. ^ "BASF opens production facility for concrete admixtures in Kazan, Russia". BASF. 17 September 2013. Archived from the original on 21 September 2013. Retrieved 21 September 2013.
  31. ^ Ludwig Burger (7 May 2015). "Siegfried buys BASF drug ingredient businesses for $306 million". Reuters. Archived from the original on 10 May 2015. Retrieved 7 May 2015.
  32. ^ "Report: German company's Xinjiang partner linked to Chinese forced labor". Radio Free Asia. 17 November 2023. Retrieved 19 November 2023.
  33. ^ Shevlin, Anthony; Drozdiak, Natalia (13 October 2017). "Bayer to Sell Assets to BASF for $7 Billion Amid Scrutiny of Monsanto Megadeal". Wall Street Journal. ISSN 0099-9660. Archived from the original on 19 June 2018. Retrieved 5 June 2018.
  34. ^ "Competition Bureau asks Bayer to divest some Canadian assets to win Monsanto deal approval". The Globe and Mail. Archived from the original on 26 March 2019. Retrieved 5 June 2018.
  35. ^ Construction starts on BASF's Zhanjiang smart project Archived 24 November 2019 at the Wayback Machine, 23 November 2019. Retrieved 26 May 2023.
  36. ^ Sutherland, Jeff (29 August 2019). "Japan's DIC Corp. to Buy BASF's Pigments Unit for $1.1 Billion". Bloomberg. Archived from the original on 30 August 2019.
  37. ^ a b DiStefano, Joseph N. (23 September 2019). "Wet future: Streamlined DuPont is buying again, adds BASF water". Archived from the original on 24 September 2019. Retrieved 24 September 2019.
  38. ^ "BASF outlines further cost-cutting and 2,600 job losses as it downsizes in Germany". Financial Times. 24 February 2023. Retrieved 24 February 2023.
  39. ^ Ruff, Corinne (28 January 2020). "Dicamba-Related Federal Trial Begins In Southeast Missouri".
  40. ^ "Bayer/BASF-Dicamba Lawsuit | KDUZ". 27 January 2020.
  41. ^ Hettinger, Johnathan (11 February 2020). "Monsanto's defense: Fungal disease, not dicamba, to blame for peach farmer's problems". Midwest Center for Investigative Reporting.
  42. ^ Hettinger, Johnathan (31 January 2020). "Dicamba on trial: Monsanto officials limited testing on their own plots". Midwest Center for Investigative Reporting.
  43. ^ Ruff, Corinne (24 January 2020). "Dicamba Goes On Trial: The History Behind Monsanto's Friendship-Wilting Weed Killer".
  44. ^ Hettinger, Johnathan (4 February 2020). "Peach farmer takes stand in lawsuit against Bayer, BASF". Midwest Center for Investigative Reporting.
  45. ^ Gray, Bryce (14 February 2020). "Jury finds in favor of Missouri peach grower in lawsuit against Bayer, BASF".
  46. ^ Feeley, Jef; Bross, Tim; Loh, Tim (17 February 2020) [14 February 2020]. "Bayer's Dicamba Hit Tests Patience of Frustrated Investors". Bloomberg. Retrieved 23 November 2021.
  47. ^ Ruff, Corinne (15 February 2020). "Monsanto, BASF Will Pay $250 Million In Punitive Damages In First Dicamba Trial".
  48. ^ "Missouri Farm Awarded $265M in Suit Against BASF and Bayer". The New York Times. Associated Press. 15 February 2020. Archived from the original on 15 February 2020. Retrieved 15 February 2020.
  49. ^ "BASF Bilanz, Gewinn und Umsatz | BASF Geschäftsbericht | BASF11". Archived from the original on 5 November 2018. Retrieved 5 November 2018.
  50. ^ "BAS.DE Key Statistics | BASF SE NA O.N. Stock – Yahoo Finance". Yahoo! Finance. Archived from the original on 5 November 2018. Retrieved 5 November 2018.
  51. ^ a b "UPDATE 1-BASF operating profit dives 24% as trade disputes weigh". Reuters. 24 October 2019. Archived from the original on 7 November 2019. Retrieved 7 November 2019.
  52. ^ Noel, Andrew MArc (24 October 2019). "BASF Beats Estimates as Farming Helps Offset Trade-War Pain". Bloomberg. Bloomberg. Archived from the original on 7 November 2019.
  53. ^ "BASF Plastics Portal – Global Homepage". Archived from the original on 19 November 2008. Retrieved 3 February 2016.
  54. ^ "EU Commission approves formation of joint venture Styrolution". Messe Düsseldorf GmbH. 13 June 2011. Archived from the original on 15 May 2012. Retrieved 25 June 2017.
  55. ^ Tan, S; Evans, RR; Dahmer, ML; Singh, BK; Shaner, DL (March 2005). "Imidazolinone-tolerant crops: history, current status and future". Pest Management Science.
  56. ^ "Major Products: Welcome to BASF Crop Protection".
  57. ^ Wallace, Helen (January 2006). "Your Diet Tailored to Your Genes: Preventing Diseases or Misleading Marketing?" (PDF). GeneWatch UK. Archived (PDF) from the original on 30 May 2008. Retrieved 9 May 2008.
  58. ^ "BASF opens crop protection technology center in Germany". WorldOfChemicals. 23 September 2016. Archived from the original on 23 September 2016. Retrieved 23 February 2016.
  59. ^ BASF SE. "BASF-Gruppe: Interview Dr. Jürgen Hambrecht zur Zusammenarbeit mit Monsanto". Archived from the original on 24 November 2012. Retrieved 3 February 2016.
  60. ^ "BASF licenses CRISPR-Cas9 genome-editing technology from the Broad Institute". Archived from the original on 29 July 2019. Retrieved 29 July 2019.
  61. ^ "BASF licenses CRISPR-Cpf1 genome editing technology from the Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard". Archived from the original on 29 July 2019. Retrieved 29 July 2019.
  62. ^ "EH92-527-1 – GM Approval Database". ISAAA. Archived from the original on 25 April 2015. Retrieved 25 June 2017.
  63. ^ a b "AM04-1020 – GM Approval Database". ISAAA. Archived from the original on 25 April 2015. Retrieved 25 June 2017.
  64. ^[permanent dead link]
  65. ^ "GM Crop Events developed by BASF – GM Approval Database". ISAAA. Archived from the original on 16 March 2013. Retrieved 25 June 2017.
  66. ^ "MON87460 - GM Approval Database-". Archived from the original on 21 August 2016. Retrieved 29 July 2016.
  67. ^ "BASF India invests Rs 1,000 cr in Guj chemical complex". Business Standard India. Press Trust of India. 8 October 2014. Archived from the original on 3 February 2016. Retrieved 3 February 2016.
  68. ^ "BASF develops first semi-crystalline polyamide, Ultramid Vision". WorldOfChemicals. 13 October 2017. Archived from the original on 16 October 2017. Retrieved 17 October 2017.
  69. ^ "Top 100 Polluter Indexes". 25 August 2023. Retrieved 25 August 2023.
  70. ^ "BASF's environmental efforts recognized". Evertiq. 25 September 2006. Archived from the original on 15 March 2016. Retrieved 3 February 2016.
  71. ^ "Sustainability". BASF. Archived from the original on 28 January 2014. Retrieved 3 February 2016.
  72. ^ "BASF: the bad boy in China?". Greenpeace East Asia. Archived from the original on 24 September 2015. Retrieved 3 February 2016.
  73. ^ Maguire, Kim; Messenger, Tony (8 January 2010). "New tests find higher level of chemical Hannibal water results prompt questions about state's disclosure delay". St. Louis Post-Dispatch. Retrieved 3 February 2016.
  74. ^ Henley, Danny (12 February 2010). "BPW: Chromium-6 findings require no water treatment changes" Archived 23 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine. Hannibal Courier-Post. Retrieved 9 March 2010.
  75. ^ "Chemical Product Spill at BASF – 600 kg Trilon B Leaked into Rhine River". February 2013. Retrieved 3 February 2016.
  76. ^ Shonnard, David R.; Kicherer, Andreas; Saling, Peter (1 December 2003). "Industrial Applications Using BASF Eco-Efficiency Analysis: Perspectives on Green Engineering Principles". Environmental Science & Technology. 37 (23): 5340–5348. Bibcode:2003EnST...37.5340S. doi:10.1021/es034462z. ISSN 0013-936X.

Further reading

49°29′46″N 8°25′52″E / 49.49611°N 8.43111°E / 49.49611; 8.43111