• MayorVijaya Arun
 • Total398,745

Mangalore (Kannada: ಮಂಗಳೂರು, Mangalooru; Tulu: ಕುಡ್ಲ, Kudla; ) pronunciation is the chief port city of the state of Karnataka, India. It is situated on the west coast of the country on the Arabian Sea, with the Western Ghats to Mangalore's east.

Mangalore is the administrative headquarters of the Dakshina Kannada (South Canara) district in the southwestern corner of Karnataka, and developed as a port on the Arabian Sea - to this day it remains one of the major ports of India. Lying on the backwaters formed by the Netravati and Gurupura rivers, it has long been a roadstead along the Malabar Coast.

Mangalore is known for its beaches, temples and industries. There are several languages spoken there, including Tulu, Konkani, Kannada, and Beary.

The landscape is dominated by the characteristic coconut palms accompanying rolling hills and streams flowing into the sea. The landscape is dotted with tiled-roof buildings, topped with the famous Mangalore tiles made with the local hard red clay and typically walled with laterite blocks. Older houses are commonly found with elaborate wood-work.

Origin of the name

The city Mangalore was named after the local Hindu deity Mangaladevi.[1] According to legend Matsyendranath, one of the important protagonist of the Nath cult had arrived at Mangalore with the princess of Kerala, Premaladevi. He converted the princess to his cult and named her Mangaladevi. It is believed that they could not proceed further as Mangaladevi died after a brief period of illness and a temple was consecrated in her name at Bolar. Later the Mangaladevi temple was renovated by the Alupa king Kundavarma in 968 AD.

One of the earliest references to this city name is made by Pandya King Chettian, who called the city as Managalapuram in 715 AD. Yet another historical reference is by the 11th century Arabian traveler Ibn Batuta, whose chronicles refer to Mangalore as Manjarur. This variation in spelling is attributed to the pronunciation gap between and Arabic and the local language. [2] Mangalore has been known as Mangaluru, Mangalapura, Mangaruth, Manjuran, Mandjaur, Mandegora, Corial, Codial Bunder, or Kuddala throughout the ages.

Other names

The cosmopolitan nature of Mangalore is centuries old. This is reflected in the names used by the various linguistic groups in this region. In the native Tulu language, the city is known as Kudla meaning ‘junction’ as the city is situated at the confluence of the two rivers – Nethravathi and Phalguni. Konkanis use the variant Kodial. The Bearys, a Muslim community who speak a dialect of their own, call it Maikala.

On the occasion of "Suvarna Karnataka" in 2006, the Karnataka state government stated that the city would be renamed Mangalooru in English. [3]


Town Hall, Mangalore

There are many historical references regarding to the town. Cosmas Indicopleustes referred to the port of Mangarouth [4]. Pliny, a Roman historian made references of a place called Nithrias [5], and Greek historian Ptolemy referred to Nitre, both the references probably referred to River Netravathi. Roman writer Arien called Mangalore Mandegora. A copper inscription belonging to 7th century called Mangalore, Mangalapura.Template:Act This region, given away as a reward to sage Parashurama by Samudraraja, is well known for its Kadali fruits. It is the land of enchantment of Sahyadri mountains, where the great sages Kanva, Vysa, Vashista, Vishwamitra and other in the Loral past spent their days of meditation.

The ancient history proved Mangalore had been the capital of Alupa dynasty till 14th century[6], A traveler, Ibn Battuta who had visited the town in 1342 stated that he arrived at a place named Manjurun or Mandjaur situated on a large estuary. He had mentioned that the town was a trading centre and Fars (Persian) and Yemeni merchants disembarked at Mangalore [7]. In 1448, Abdul Razak, a Persian Ambassador passed via this route to Vijayanagar. He said that he had seen a glorious temple here. The inscriptions at Moodabidri stated a king Mangaras Odeya was the governor of Mangaluru Raajya during the reign of Vira Harihararaya II of Vijayanagar dynasty. Another inscription stated that Deeva Raaja Odeya ruled the Mangalura Raajya in 1429 during the reign of Vijayanagara King Veera Devaraya II.

Various powers have fought for control over Mangalore. The major dynasties that ruled the town till the arrival of Portuguese were Kadambas, the Western Chalukyas, Rastrakutas, Alupas and Hoysalas. In 1520 the Portuguese took control of the area from Vijayanagara rulers, but in 1695, the town was burned by the Arabs in retaliation for Portuguese restrictions on Arab trade. Hyder Ali (1722–1782) the ruler of Mysore conquered Mangalore in 1763 [8], and it was under his administration till 1768, before being annexed by the British between 1768 and 1794. Later in 1794 Hyder Ali's son Tippu Sultan again took control of the area [9], but it was re-conquered by the British upon the fall of Srirangapatana in 1799. A part of the Madras Presidency up to Indian independence, Mangalore was merged into a unified Karnataka state in 1956.


Mangalore is located at 12°52′N 74°53′E / 12.87°N 74.88°E / 12.87; 74.88[10]. It has an average elevation of 45 metres (147 feet). Mangalore forms a part of the konkan coast and is closely situated to Goa. Three National Highways pass through Mangalore connecting the city to the rest of the country. NH-17 (1567 km), which runs from Panvel (in Maharashtra) to Cranganur Junction (near Edapally in Kerala)(500 km), passes through Mangalore in a north-south direction, while NH-48 runs eastward to the state capital Bangalore. NH-13 runs north-east from Mangalore to Sholapur 676 km., and a state highway connects it to the city of Mysore(250 km) passing through the hill town of Madikeri. There are about 300 buses from Bangalore to Mangalore on daily basis.

The coastline of the city is dotted with several beaches like Mukka beach, Panambur beach, Tannirbavi beach, KREC beach and Someshwara beach. Vegetation is predominantly coconut trees, palm trees, Ashoka trees along with others. The city has still perserved much of its green cover compared to other Indian cities. Pilikula Nisargadhama, Kadri Park, Tagore Park and Corporation Bank Park are some of the green lungs sought by public for leisure.

Civic Administration

Front View of MCC Headquarters at Lalbagh

The Mangalore City Corporation ('Mangalooru Mahanagarapalike' in Kannada) is the municipal corporation in charge of the civic and infrastructural assets of the city. The municipal limits start from Mukka in the North to Netravati river bridge in the south & western sea shore to Kudupu in the east.

The MCC council comprises 60 elected representatives, called "corporators", one from each of the 60 wards (localities) of the city. Elections to the council are held once every five years, with results being decided by popular vote. One of the corporators from the majority party is selected as a Mayor.

The headquarters of Mangalore City Corporation is located at Lalbagh. Its sub offices are located at Suratkal & Bikarnakatta.

Until the revision of Lok Sabha & legislative constituencies by the Delimitation Commission [11][12] Mangalore used to contribute two members to the Lok Sabha (India's lower house of parliament,) one for the southern part of the city fell under the Mangalore Lok Sabha Constituency and another for the northern part of the city fell under the Udupi Lok Sabha Constituency. Additionally Mangalore used to sends 3 members to the Karnataka State Legislative Assembly (with the Mangalore, Ullal & Suratkal legislative Constituencies). With the revision the entire Mangalore Taluk (including those that used to fall under the Udipi constituency) now falls under the Dakshina Kannada Lok Sabha constituency, resulting in Mangalore contributing to only one member of parliament. For the Legislative Assembly the Ullal and Suratkal Constituencies have been merged with Mangalore to comprise the following Legislative constituencies viz. Mangalore urban north (202), Mangalore urban south (203) and Mangalore (204).

Power & Water Supply

Electricity in Mangalore is regulated through the Karnataka Power Transmission Corporation Limited (KPTCL) & distribution is through Mangalore Electricity Supply Company (MESCOM). Like many cities in India, Mangalore experiences scheduled and unscheduled power cuts, especially over the summer, to allow electricity providers to meet the consumption demands of households as well as corporations. Major industries like MRPL & MCF have set up their own captive power plants.

Potable water to the city is supplied by MCC. Almost all water is taken from the vented dam constructed across the Netravati River.


As of 2001 India census[13], Mangalore had a population of 398,745. Males constitute 50% of the population and females 50%. Mangalore has an average literacy rate of 83%, higher than the national average of 59.5%: male literacy is 86%, and female literacy is 79%. In Mangalore, 9% of the population is under 6 years of age.

As of the same census, the urban area had a population of 538,560.

Language and religion

St Aloysius Chapel

Tulu, Konkani, Kannada, Beary bashe are the widely spoken languages that are understood among Mangaloreans along with English. The official language is the state language Kannada. Tulu is a local language in Mangalore.

Hinduism is followed by large number of the population. Among the indigenous Hindus,the Billavas, Bunts and Mogaveeras form the biggest groups. Kota brahmins, Shivalli Brahmins, Havyaka Brahmins and GSBs (Gowda Saraswat Brahmins) also form a considerable portion of the Hindu population. Besides the Hindu pantheon of gods, divine spirits are also worshipped here.

A significant part of the population of Mangalore consists of followers of Christianity; Konkani-speaking Catholics and Born Again Christians are the highest in number among the Christians, popularly known as Mangalorean Catholics. The Protestants (of various denominations) consist of an appreciable number of locals who speak Kannada, and Malayali. Muslims constitute minority of the population, among them Beary form the 80% of total Muslim population and speak their own dialect called Beary bashe. There is also sizeable group of people who were basically land owners, following Jainism. Some famous Jain centers of pilgrimage are located here like Gomateshwara Betta in Karkala and Dharmastala and some more Jain temples in Moodabidri. Buddhism also flourished here in the early centuries.


Mangalore's location makes it accessible by all forms of transport: road, rail, air and sea. It is notable here that a native of Mangalore U. Srinivas Mallya (a Member of the Indian Parliament) was instrumental in getting the National Highway system, the Mangalore Airport and the New Mangalore Port to Mangalore. In his tribute there is a statue of him alongNH 17 near the Kadri Park, and another at the entrance of the New Mangalore Harbour.

Local public transport

Mangalore's city bus service is operated by private operators, with routes covering the full extent of the city and beyond. There are two distinct sets of routes for the buses, with the city routes being covered by city buses, and the intercity routes being covered by service and express buses. Service buses essentially touch all towns and villages on the intercity route, while express buses reach their destination with very limited or no stops in between.

Another mode for local transportation is the autorickshaw. The minimum cost charged by an autorickshaw up to 2 km is Rs 11. Meter is introduced in all autorickshaws plying inside the city and the suburbs and the customers are charged based on the exact cost displayed on the meter. However charges are 1.5 times the displayed reading between 9pm to 6am.

Long Distance Bus Routes

Karnataka State Road Transport Corporation (KSRTC) runs the long distance bus services from Mangalore to other parts of the state. Mangalore-Bangalore route is the most lucrative route due to absence of passenger train and is equally served by public & private players.

The longest bus route served is the Mangalore - Ankola - Hubli-Belgaum - Pune - Mumbai bus route run by a number of private players and KSRTC. The journey is about 22 hours by normal buses & 16 hours by Volvo Buses.


The Mangalore Railway Station used to be the last station connecting Mangalore to the state of Kerala in the south and to the rest of the country. While the British had left behind an extensive railway network when they left India, the stretch between Mangalore - Mumbai, and Mangalore - Hassan had never been connected. There are many trains connecting Shoranur and Coimbatore.

A metre gauge railway track was built through the Western Ghats in the east, connecting Mangalore with Hassan. While this provided a very picturesque journey, it was not very successful, and the tracks were removed several years later to be replaced with a broad gauge line. However, the conversion project was halted for several years. It has since resumed and some sections of this track are now functional. The broad gauge track connecting Mangalore to Bangalore via Hassan is open for freight traffic since May 2006. [14] Movement of passenger traffic was supposed to start after December 2006. Finally after a gap of 11 years the Indian Railways have announced that the inaugural train will leave Mangalore for Bangalore on 8 December 2007. [15]

When India gained independence Mangalore was not connected to Mumbai by rail. The railway network established by the British terminated at Mangalore. Since independence there was a strong need to connect Mangalore to Mumbai and hence the Konkan Railway came into being. The project was completed in 1998 and since then the travel time to the north of the country have come down considerably.


Sea entrance to New Mangalore Port

The Mangalore Harbour provides a connection by sea to the rest of the world. Currently dry, bulk and fluid cargos are handled by the New Mangalore Port, providing an important gateway to the state of Karnataka. It is also the station for the Coast Guard. This modern artificial harbour 10 km north of the town, is now India's ninth largest cargo handling port.[16]


Mangalore Airport (IATA: IXE) is located near Bajpe, around 20 km north-east of the city centre.

Main article: Mangalore International Airport


Fishing in Mukka, near Mangalore

Mangalore's economy is dominated by agricultural processing and port-related activities. Imports include tropical timber from south-east Asia for furniture making, a necessity since India places major restrictions on its own teak felling. The port handles 75% of India’s coffee exports and the bulk of its cashew nuts. The latter are brought from many coastal areas (notably from Kerala); the National Cashew research centre is nearby at Puttur. Mangalore roof tiles are famous all over India. The roof tiles made from red clay and baked, is used as roof in many parts of the country. There is rapid decline in this industry due to use of RCC roofs.

Mangalore is home to the automobile leaf spring industry. In 1950 the Canara Workshops Ltd started production under the brand name Canara Springs, and in 1976 Lamina Suspension Products Ltd started production under the brand name Lamina. Thereafter various small scale manufacturers have put up shop in the industrial area at Baikampady to manufacture leaf springs. Over the period there has been a lot of consolidation because of some of the smaller units shutting down. Currently there are about six or seven units producing about one thousand metric tonnes of leaf springs per month. They cater almost entirely to the replacement or after market of South India. Beedi rolling industry is also famous in Mangalore.

The major industries in Mangalore are Mangalore Chemical and Fertilizers Ltd. (MCF), Kudremukh Iron Ore Company Ltd. (KIOCL), Mangalore Refinery and Petrochemicals Ltd (MRPL), BASF, ELF GAS.

The boat building and fishing industry has been core business in Mangalore city for generations.

Modern industry

Major information technology and outsourcing companies have started locating their facilities in Mangalore. IT major Infosys was one of the first to move in and establish a large presence.Chennai based banking software major Lasersoft infosystems ltd has a software development unit in Mangalore. Wipro also plans to set-up its development facility soon in Mangalore. Outsourcing major MPhasis BPO was one of the first outsourcing companies to set up their facilities near the city. First Indian corporation,a wholly owned subsidiary of The First American Corporation has started operations in Mangalore from Manansa Towers, MG Road.

Three dedicated IT parks are currently under construction. Two such parks are under construction, one Export Promotion Industrial Park (EPIP) at Ganjimutt and a second IT SEZ near Mangalore University. A third IT SEZ is being proposed at Ganjimutt. Another IT SEZ of 2 million square feet (180,000 m²) is under construction at Thumbe by the BA group. This will include a business centre, convention centre, mall and helipad facility.[17]

The Oil and Natural Gas Corporation ONGC plans to invest over Rs. 35,000 crore in a new 15 million tonnes refinery, petrochemical plant and power and LNG plants at the Mangalore Special Economic Zone. This will be the first Petroleum, Chemicals, Petrochemicals Investment Region (PCPIR) of the country.[18]

In the year 2006 investors meet, held in Mangalore, received proposals worth more than 3,000 crores in the IT and Hospitality sectors. Companies such as TCS, Wipro, KEL and Infosys are expanding their workforce in Mangalore.

Thus, with rapid strides in the nearby future Mangalore is well on its course to be one of the most promising future Metropolis of India. Is expected to house a number of well known IT Companies in the nearby future, thereby providing a serious alternative to Bangalore for the aspiring IT professionals.

According to International edition of 'India Today' (November 28-December 4'th, 2006), Mangalore is the fastest growing non metro in the south followed by Kochi.

Banking and finance

Two of the nineteen nationalised banks were established in Mangalore during the first half of the 20th century. The two banks are:-

and one more which was not nationalised

In addition to these two there was two more which was established in nearby Udupi and Manipal. These two banks are:-

These banks are considered quality institutions across the country - the national character taken on with nationalisation has been combined with the culture and quality of service inculcated by the founders. Prior to nationalisation, these banks were stewarded by very efficient and competent teams of managers, predominantly Mangaloreans. During this tremendous growth phase, these banks spawned a whole generation of bankers from Mangalore across these firms from the top to bottom. A large proportion of the Konkani, Bunt and brahmin community from Mangalore were at one point employed by these banks.

While Karnataka Bank and Corporation Bank are still head quartered in Mangalore, Vijaya Bank and Canara Bank are head quartered in Bangalore and Syndicate Bank is head quartered in Manipal. Even to date, a large proportion of employees at all levels in these banks are of Mangalorean origin.

Traditional Commerce and Industry

Mangalore developed as a fishing town and this has been maintained to this day, with the local diet maintaining a high proportion of fish. The fishing industry employs thousands of people, and their produce is exported from around the region.

The nationalisation of the banking sector was a big blow to the Mangalorean economy, but it has not affected the entrepreneurial spirit of the population. Mangalorean firms have had a major presence in the tile, beedi, coffee and cashewnut industry, although the tile industry has been in decline due to the predominance of concrete in the modern construction.


National Institute of Technology, Karnataka, One of the premier institutes in Mangalore

With its many colleges and universities Mangalore is regarded by many as the Athens of Karnataka. With the growth of the banking institutions in the early 20th century, Mangalore had a large middle class and affluent population. Also, Mangaloreans have always placed high emphasis on education. The combination of the above two factors resulted in the establishment of some quality educational institutions, including:-

Main article: List of educational institutions in Mangalore

Since the 1980s, there have been a large number of professional institutions established in a variety of fields including engineering, medicine, dentistry,Business management and hotel management. These institutions attract students from all over the country due to the quality of their programs.

On 10 September 1980, the Mangalore University was established. It caters to the higher educational needs of Dakshina Kannada, Udupi and Kodagu districts. The University Campus has become a major centre for advanced academic studies and research. Although Mangalore University is one of the youngest universities in the country, it has within its ambit some of the oldest and prestigious institutions of higher learning. Besides 26 post graduate departments offering different Post Graduate programmes on the Campus, the University has 118 affiliated colleges (including two constituent colleges) imparting education in the field of arts, commerce and management, science, law and education.


Major national English newspapers like The Hindu, Deccan Herald, Times of India and Indian Express publishe Mangalore editions.

Among Kannada newspapers Udayavani, Vijaya Karnataka, Prajavani, Kannada Prabha and Varthabharathi are popular. There are evening newspapers like Karavali Ale, Mangalooru Mitra, Sanjevani and Jayakirana being published here. A lot of other periodicals are also being pulished from Mangalore. Rakno is one of the famous Konkani language weekly that goes around the world wherever Mangaloreans stay.

All India Radio (AIR) has a studio at Kadri which airs program for scheduled hours. Among the private players there is RADIO MIRCHI 98.3 FM & BIG 92.7 FM. The state run, nationally broadcast Doordarshan provides both national and localised television coverage. Cable Television providers air cable channels of independently owned private networks.


Typical Yakshagana Artist

Mangalore is a multi-cultural and multi-lingual city that speaks four local languages Tulu, Kannada, Beary and Konkani apart from Hindi, Urdu and English. The communities include Tuluva (Bunts, Mogaveeras, Kulala, Billavas, Dalits etc), Konkani (Gaud Saraswat Brahmins, Saraswats, Roman Catholics), , Kannada speaking Brahmins, and Urdu and Beary speaking Muslims.

With several famous pilgrim centres, a trip to Mangalore is incomplete without watching the classic Yakshagana - an elaborate dance - drama performance unique to Karnataka [19][20]. A night-long event, with people adorned vibrantly, and dancing to the beat of drums, Yakshagana performance attracts thousands of people.

Hulivesha (Tiger dance) is a unique form of folk dance in Dakshina Kannada[21] that fascinates the young and the old alike. Since tiger is considered as the favored carrier of Goddess Sharada (the deity in whose honor Dussera is celebrated), this dance is performed during the Dussera celebration. It is also performed during other festivals like Krishna Janmasthami. Bhuta Kola or spirit worship is practised here. Bhuta kola is usually done at night. Kambala or buffalo race is also conducted in water filled paddy fields. Korikatta (Cockfight) is another favourite sport for village people.

Kodial Theru/Mangalore Rathotsava (Car Festival) is one of the major festivals for the Konkani community(GSB). The Car festival of the Sri Venkatramana Temple.

Mangalore has had a tradition for strength in education, and accordingly has become a focus for local media. Despite its relatively small size, it has its own versions of national English-language newspapers like the Deccan Herald, The Times of India, and The Hindu, as well as several local-language publications.

Annual festivals are promoted during summer every year. This has been used to promote commaraderie and has been called as Karavali Utsav, Kudlostava to promote the local cultural events.


Mangalorean cuisine is largely influenced by South Indian cuisine. Mangalorean curry uses a lot of coconut and curry leaves. Ginger, garlic and chilli is also used in curry. Mangalorean fish curry is known for its taste in the whole of coastal Karnataka.

Some of the famous dishes are: Kori Rotti, Bangude Pulimunchi, Beeja-Manoli Upkari, Boothai Gasi, Kadubu among others. The Konkani cummunity has its specialities that include Patrode, Daali thoy, beebe-upkari (cashew based), val val, avnas ambe sasam,Kadgi chakko

The vegetarian cuisine is same as Udupi cuisine.


A view of the Kadri Park

The most pleasant months in Mangalore are from December to February - during which time the humidity and temperature are the lowest by Mangalore standards. Day time temperatures fall below 30°C and night time temperatures fall below 20°C.

This pleasant season is soon followed by a "hot" summer season from March to May, when temperatures rise as high as 38°C. However, a high relative humidity of more than 90% makes it feel above 40°C.

This is soon followed by the monsoon season. Mangalore receives very heavy rainfall compared with other urban centres in India. Rains measuring up to 4000 mm fall during the period from June to September. The rains finally subside in September, with the occasional rainfall catching people unaware in October.

Notable people from Mangalore

Main article: Notable people of Mangalore

Sister city

Mangalore is twinned with Hamilton in Canada. [22]


  1. ^ "Mahatobhara Shree MangalaDevi Temple, Mangalore". Our Retrieved 2006-11-07.
  2. ^ "MANGALORE–THE CITY NAME". Mangalore City Corporation. Retrieved 2007-08-03.
  3. ^ "They will be Belagavi, Mangalooru, Mysuru". The Hindu. 2005-12-19. Retrieved 2007-08-03. ((cite news)): Check date values in: |date= (help)
  4. ^ "Cosmas Indicopleustes, Christian Topography (1897) pp. 358-373. Book 11". The Tertullian Project. Retrieved 2007-05-24.
  5. ^ "KODUNGALLUR - THE CRADLE OF CHRISTIANITY IN INDIA". Indian Retrieved 2007-05-24.
  6. ^ ((cite web |url =
  7. ^ "A Quick Guide to the World History of Globalization". School of Arts & Sciences - University of Pennsylvania. Retrieved 2007-06-04.
  8. ^ "Tipu Sultan". Retrieved 2007-06-04.
  9. ^ "Tipu Sultan". Retrieved 2007-06-04.
  10. ^ Falling Rain Genomics, Inc - Mangalore
  11. ^ "New Assembly constituencies". 2007-07-14. Retrieved 2007-09-22. ((cite news)): Check date values in: |date= (help)
  12. ^ "Assembly constituencies proposed by Delimitation Commission". The Hindu. 2006-05-05. Retrieved 2007-09-22. ((cite news)): Check date values in: |date= (help)
  13. ^ Template:GR
  14. ^ "Mangalore-Hassan rail line open for freight traffic". Hindu Business Line. 2006-05-06. Retrieved 2006-10-13. ((cite news)): Check date values in: |date= (help)
  15. ^ "Bangalore-Mangalore train is back on track". Gulf Times. 2007-12-06. Retrieved 2007-12-07. ((cite news)): Check date values in: |date= (help)
  16. ^ "". New Mangalore Port. Retrieved 2006-10-13. ((cite news)): External link in |title= (help)
  17. ^ "Two more plans for EPIP cleared". The Hindu. 2006-08-31. Retrieved 2006-09-29.
  18. ^ "ONGC's huge outlay for Mangalore SEZ". The Hindu. 2006-09-19. Retrieved 2006-09-29.
  19. ^ "Yakshagana". SZCC, Tamil Nadu. Retrieved 2007-12-07.
  20. ^ Plunkett, Richard (2001). South India. Lonely Planet. p. 53. ISBN:1864501618. ((cite book)): Cite has empty unknown parameter: |coauthors= (help)
  21. ^ "Human `tigers' face threat to health". Times of India. 2001-10-26. Retrieved 2007-12-07. ((cite news)): Check date values in: |date= (help)
  22. ^ "Hamilton Ontario Sister Cities". Retrieved 2007-12-07.