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Ajmer
City
Clockwise from the top:
Ajmer Sharif Dargah, Prithviraj Chauhan statue, and Mayo College
Ajmer is located in India
Ajmer
Ajmer
Ajmer is located in Rajasthan
Ajmer
Ajmer
Coordinates: 26°27′00″N 74°38′24″E / 26.4499°N 74.6399°E / 26.4499; 74.6399Coordinates: 26°27′00″N 74°38′24″E / 26.4499°N 74.6399°E / 26.4499; 74.6399
CountryIndia
StateRajasthan
DistrictAjmer
Founded byAjayaraja I or Ajayaraja II
Named forAjayaraja I or Ajayaraja II
Government
 • TypeMunicipal Corporation
 • BodyAjmer Municipal Corporation
 • MayorBraj Lata Hada (BJP)[1]
Area
 • City55 km2 (21 sq mi)
Elevation
480 m (1,570 ft)
Population
 (2011)[3]
 • City542,321
 • Density9,900/km2 (26,000/sq mi)
 • Urban
551,101
Time zoneUTC+5:30 (IST)
PIN
305001 to 305023
Telephone code0145, +91145
Vehicle registrationRJ-01(Ajmer)

RJ-36 (Beawar) RJ-42 (Kishangarh)

RJ-48 (Kekri)
Websitewww.ajmer.rajasthan.gov.in

Ajmer pronounced [ədʒmeːr] (listen) is one of the major and oldest cities in the Indian state of Rajasthan and the centre of the eponymous Ajmer District. It is located at the centre of Rajasthan. It is also known as heart of Rajasthan.[citation needed] The city was established as "Ajayameru" (translated as "Invincible Hills") by a Chahamana ruler, either Ajayaraja I or Ajayaraja II, and served as their capital until the 12th century CE.[4][5] Home to the dargah of Moinuddin Chishti, Ajmer is one of the most important destinations of Islamic pilgrimage in South Asia.[6]

Ajmer is surrounded by the Aravalli Mountains. Ajmer had been a municipality since 1869. Ajmer has been selected as one of the heritage cities for the HRIDAY[7] and Smart City Mission schemes of the Government of India.[8]

History

Main article: History of Ajmer

Jahangir receives Prince Khurram at Ajmer on his return from the Mewar campaign
Jahangir receives Prince Khurram at Ajmer on his return from the Mewar campaign

Ajmer was originally known as Ajayameru. The city was founded by an 11th-century Chahamana king Ajaydeva. Historian Dasharatha Sharma notes that the earliest mention of the city's name occurs in Palha's Pattavali, which was copied in 1113 CE (1170 VS) at Dhara. This suggests that Ajmer was founded sometime before 1113 CE.[9] A prashasti (eulogistic inscription), issued by Vigraharaja IV and found at Adhai Din Ka Jhonpra, states Ajayadeva (that is Ajayaraja II) moved his residence to Ajmer.[4]

A later text Prabandha-Kosha states that it was the 8th-century king Ajayaraja I who commissioned the Ajayameru fort, which later came to be known as the Taragarh fort of Ajmer.[5] According to historian R. B. Singh, this claim appears to be true, as inscriptions dated to the 8th century CE have been found at Ajmer.[10] Singh theorizes that Ajayaraja II later expanded the town area, constructed palaces, and moved the Chahamana capital from Shakambhari to Ajmer.[11]

In 1193, Ajmer was annexed by the Mamluks of the Delhi Sultanate, and later was returned to Rajput rulers under condition of tribute.[12]

In 1556, Ajmer came under the Mughal Empire after being conquered by Mughal Emperor Akbar.[12] It was made the capital of the eponymous Ajmer Subah. The city enjoyed special favour under the Mughals, who made frequent pilgrimages to the city to visit the dargah of Moinuddin Chishti. The city was also used as a military base for campaigns against Rajput rulers, and on a number of occasions became the site of celebration when a campaign bore success. Mughal Emperors and their nobles made generous donations to the city, and endowed it with constructions such as Akbar's palace and pavilions along the Ana Sagar.[13][14][15] Their most prominent building activities were in the dargah and its vicinity.[16] Jahanara Begum and Dara Shikoh, children of Shah Jahan, were both born in the city in 1614 and 1615 respectively.[17][18]

Mughal patronage of the city had waned by the beginning of the 18th century.[19] In 1771, the Scindias conquered the city,[6] and in 1818, the British gained authority over the city.[12] Colonial-era Ajmer served as the headquarters of the Ajmer-Merwara Province and possessed a Central jail, a large General Hospital, and two smaller hospitals according to Gazetteer, 1908. It was the headquarters of a native regiment and of a Railway Volunteer corps. From the 1900s, the United Free Church of Scotland, the church of England, the Roman Catholics, and the American Episcopal Methodists have mission establishments here.[20] At that time there were twelve printing presses in the city, from which eight weekly newspapers were published.[21]

At the time of Independence Ajmer continued as a separate state with its own legislature until its merger with erstwhile Rajputana province then called Rajasthan. The Legislature of Ajmer State was housed in the building which now houses T. T. College. It had 30 MLAs, and Haribhau Upadhyay was the first chief minister of the erstwhile state, with Bhagirath Chaudhary as the first Vidhan Sabha speaker. In 1956, after acceptance of the proposal by Fazil Ali, Ajmer was merged into Rajasthan to form Ajmer District with the addition of Kishangarh sub-division of Jaipur district.[22]

Other Names

A gujarati historic Novel named Gujaratno Jay written by Zaverchand Meghani, based on various Jain Prabandhas, describes the city as sapādalakṣaṇa (સપાદલક્ષણ).[23]

Geography

Ajmer is in the northwest of India and is surrounded by the Aravali Mountains. It is situated on the lower slopes of the Taragarh Hill of that range. To the northwest is the Nagapathar Range of the Aravali Mountain Ranges which protects it from desertification from the Thar Desert.

Climate

Ajmer has a hot, semi-arid climate with over 55 centimetres (22 inches) of rain every year, but most of the rain occurs in the monsoon months, between June and September. Temperatures remain relatively high throughout the year, with the summer months of April to early July having an average daily temperature of about 30 °C (86 °F). During the monsoon there is frequent heavy rain and thunderstorms, but flooding is not a common occurrence. The winter months of November to February are mild and temperate with average temperatures ranging from 15–18 °C (59–64 °F) with little or no humidity. There are, however, occasional cold weather fronts that cause temperatures to fall to near freezing levels.

Climate data for Ajmer (1981–2010, extremes 1901–2012)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 32.6
(90.7)
36.8
(98.2)
42.3
(108.1)
44.6
(112.3)
47.4
(117.3)
46.4
(115.5)
44.4
(111.9)
42.3
(108.1)
42.0
(107.6)
42.0
(107.6)
37.4
(99.3)
34.2
(93.6)
47.4
(117.3)
Average high °C (°F) 24.3
(75.7)
27.3
(81.1)
32.6
(90.7)
37.8
(100.0)
40.4
(104.7)
39.1
(102.4)
34.3
(93.7)
32.4
(90.3)
34.2
(93.6)
34.7
(94.5)
30.4
(86.7)
26.1
(79.0)
32.8
(91.0)
Average low °C (°F) 9.5
(49.1)
12.5
(54.5)
18.1
(64.6)
23.9
(75.0)
27.6
(81.7)
27.8
(82.0)
25.9
(78.6)
24.7
(76.5)
24.3
(75.7)
20.6
(69.1)
15.0
(59.0)
10.7
(51.3)
20.0
(68.0)
Record low °C (°F) −2.8
(27.0)
−1.1
(30.0)
2.2
(36.0)
9.4
(48.9)
14.3
(57.7)
14.7
(58.5)
14.4
(57.9)
18.9
(66.0)
14.6
(58.3)
7.8
(46.0)
2.8
(37.0)
−0.6
(30.9)
−2.8
(27.0)
Average rainfall mm (inches) 6.1
(0.24)
7.4
(0.29)
3.5
(0.14)
4.2
(0.17)
18.3
(0.72)
53.2
(2.09)
179.7
(7.07)
159.2
(6.27)
77.0
(3.03)
11.3
(0.44)
3.1
(0.12)
2.1
(0.08)
525.1
(20.67)
Average rainy days 0.6 0.8 0.4 0.8 1.8 3.3 8.5 8.1 3.9 0.8 0.2 0.2 29.3
Average relative humidity (%) (at 17:30 IST) 32 25 17 15 18 32 57 64 49 28 31 34 34
Source: India Meteorological Department[24][25]

Transportation

Pushkar Valley that connects Pushkar and Ajmer in the Aravalli Mountains
Pushkar Valley that connects Pushkar and Ajmer in the Aravalli Mountains

Air

The Kishangarh Airport is the nearest airport. It is 25 km from Ajmer city. The Ajmer Airport ground breaking ceremony was done by then Prime Minister of India Dr. Manmohan Singh in 2012. The airport was finally completed and inaugurated by then Union Minister of State for Civil Aviation Jayant Sinha and Chief Minister Vasundhara Raje on 11 October 2017.[26] The Airport is operational since then and regular flights to/from Delhi, Mumbai, Hyderabad, Ahmedabad, Indore and Surat are currently available. The airport is now amongst main and busy airports of Rajasthan. Currently SpiceJet and Star Air operate from Ajmer Airport on daily basis. Kishangarh Airport, Ajmer is being managed and operated by Airport Authority of India (AAI).

The Jaipur International Airport which is 135 km from Ajmer is the nearest International Airport.

Rail

The Ajmer Junction is the main railway station situated in the city.[27] and was built during colonial times.

Tourism

View of Ajmer from Taragarh Fort
View of Ajmer from Taragarh Fort
Dargah Sharif Ajmer
Dargah Sharif Ajmer
A Hindu Style Pillar in Adhai Din Ka Jhopara Monument.
A Hindu Style Pillar in Adhai Din Ka Jhopara Monument.
Swarna Nagari in Soniji Ki Nasiyan
Swarna Nagari in Soniji Ki Nasiyan
Akbari Fort and Museum
Akbari Fort and Museum
Nareli Jain Temple is a recent addition to Ajmer
Nareli Jain Temple is a recent addition to Ajmer
Baradari on Lake Anasagar
Baradari on Lake Anasagar
Tomb of Khwaja Husain Ajmeri
Tomb of Khwaja Husain Ajmeri

Education

The city has many schools and colleges. Among them, Mayo College is a prominent college. The regional office of CBSE is located here.[40]

Demographics

Religions in Ajmer
Religion Percent
Hindus
83.53%
Muslims
11.58%
Jains
2.5%
Sikhs
0.94%
Others
0.18%
Population growth of Ajmer 
CensusPopulation
189168,800
190173,8007.3%
191186,20016.8%
1921113,20031.3%
1931119,5005.6%
1941147,30023.3%
1951196,30033.3%
1961231,20017.8%
1971264,30014.3%
1981374,40041.7%
1991402,7007.6%
2001485,19720.5%
2011542,32111.8%
source:[41][42][3]

According to the 2011 census, Ajmer had a population of 542,321 in the city, 551,101 including its suburbs.[3]

The female to male ratio in the city was 947/1,000. The literacy rate in the city was 86.52%, male literacy being 92.08% and female literacy being 80.69%.[3]

Ajmer's population growth in the decade was 18.48%; this compares to a growth figure of 20.93% in the previous decade.[42]

Population growth through the years
Year Population
1891
68,800
1901
73,800
1911
86,200
1921
113,200
1931
119,500
1941
147,300
1951
196,300
1961
231,200
1968
265,200
1971
264,300
1981
374,400
1991
402,700
2001
485,197
2011
542,321

Villages

See also

References

  1. ^ "Braj Lata Hada of BJP was elected mayor of the Ajmer Muncipa ." Times of India. Retrieved 10 February 2021.
  2. ^ "AMC".
  3. ^ a b c d "Ajmer City Population Census 2011 | Rajasthan". www.census2011.co.in.
  4. ^ a b Har Bilas Sarda 1911, pp. 68–74.
  5. ^ a b R. B. Singh 1964, p. 87.
  6. ^ a b Currie, Peter Mark (1 October 2009), "Ajmer", Encyclopaedia of Islam, THREE, Brill, doi:10.1163/1573-3912_ei3_com_23249, retrieved 14 December 2021
  7. ^ "Hriday Cities | Heritage City Development and Augmentation Yojana (HRIDAY)". www.hridayindia.in. Archived from the original on 28 September 2018. Retrieved 28 September 2018.
  8. ^ "Introduction". Hriday official website. Archived from the original on 26 August 2015. Retrieved 30 April 2015.
  9. ^ Dasharatha Sharma 1959, p. 40.
  10. ^ R. B. Singh 1964, p. 88.
  11. ^ R. B. Singh 1964, pp. 131–132.
  12. ^ a b c "Ajmer". Encyclopaedia Britannica. Archived from the original on 6 September 2015. Retrieved 21 October 2020.
  13. ^ Asher, Catherine B. (24 September 1992). Architecture of Mughal India. Cambridge University Press. pp. 77–80. doi:10.1017/chol9780521267281. ISBN 978-0-521-26728-1.
  14. ^ Asher, Catherine B. (24 September 1992). Architecture of Mughal India. Cambridge University Press. pp. 118–122. doi:10.1017/chol9780521267281. ISBN 978-0-521-26728-1.
  15. ^ Asher, Catherine B. (24 September 1992). Architecture of Mughal India. Cambridge University Press. pp. 170 & 174–178. doi:10.1017/chol9780521267281. ISBN 978-0-521-26728-1.
  16. ^ Asher, Catherine B. (24 September 1992). Architecture of Mughal India. Cambridge University Press. p. 220. doi:10.1017/chol9780521267281. ISBN 978-0-521-26728-1.
  17. ^ Government of India, MoC. "IndianCulture". indianculture.gov.in. MoC, IIT Bombay, IGNOU. Retrieved 21 October 2021.
  18. ^ Singhal, Shruti (ed.). "thebetterindia". thebetterindia.com. thebetterindia. Retrieved 21 October 2021.
  19. ^ Asher, Catherine B. (24 September 1992). Architecture of Mughal India. Cambridge University Press. p. 310. doi:10.1017/chol9780521267281. ISBN 978-0-521-26728-1.
  20. ^ "#World Tourism Day 2018:सूफियत की महक और तीर्थनगरी पुष्कर की सनातन संस्कृति". www.patrika.com (in Hindi). Retrieved 28 September 2018.
  21. ^ THE IMPERIAL GAZETTEER OF INDIA, 1908. OUP. pp. Extract.
  22. ^ "Clipping of Patrika Group - Ajmer". Archived from the original on 28 September 2018. Retrieved 28 September 2018.
  23. ^ Meghani, Zaverchand (April 2011). Gujaratno Jay. Ahmdabad: Gurjar Sahitya Bhavan. p. 62. ISBN 978-81-8461-481-7.
  24. ^ "Station: Ajmer Climatological Table 1981–2010" (PDF). Climatological Normals 1981–2010. India Meteorological Department. January 2015. pp. 19–20. Archived from the original (PDF) on 5 February 2020. Retrieved 20 January 2021.
  25. ^ "Extremes of Temperature & Rainfall for Indian Stations (Up to 2012)" (PDF). India Meteorological Department. December 2016. p. M173. Archived from the original (PDF) on 5 February 2020. Retrieved 20 January 2021.
  26. ^ "Kishangarh airport inauguration ends decade long wait of Ajmer residents: CM Raje". Deccan Chronicle. 12 October 2017. Archived from the original on 13 October 2017. Retrieved 13 October 2017.
  27. ^ "Rajasthan finds favour in railway budget". The Hindu. 26 February 2010. Retrieved 7 June 2014.
  28. ^ PADMA PURANA - Significance of Pushkara Tirtha
  29. ^ a b  One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainChisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Ajmere". Encyclopædia Britannica. Vol. 1 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. pp. 452–453.
  30. ^ "Deprecated (X)HTML Markup", HTML, XHTML & CSS for Dummies®, Hoboken, NJ, USA: Wiley Publishing, Inc., pp. 119–128, 1 November 2011, ISBN 978-1-118-25758-6, retrieved 19 March 2022
  31. ^ "The Sunday Tribune - Spectrum". www.tribuneindia.com. Retrieved 19 March 2022.
  32. ^ a b Mayo College, Ajmere - British Library
  33. ^ "This Temple In Rajasthan Has A Golden Chamber Where 1000kg Of Gold Was Used To Carve Out Depictions Of Ayodhya. It's Truly Mesmerizing!". Daily Bhaskar. 24 July 2017. Retrieved 29 July 2017.
  34. ^ "Akbar Ka Kila, AJMER".
  35. ^ "Enlightenment completed the pilgrimage area - www.bhaskar.com". dainikbhaskar. 4 April 2016. Retrieved 14 April 2016.
  36. ^ Gopal, Madan (1990). K.S. Gautam (ed.). India through the ages. Publication Division, Ministry of Information and Broadcasting, Government of India. p. 173.
  37. ^ "The Future of Power - summary report, Ajmer - February 2014" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 20 May 2017. Retrieved 7 April 2018.
  38. ^ Prithviraj Memorial Ajmer
  39. ^ "Muntakhab-ut-Tawarikh - Google Search". www.google.com. Retrieved 21 April 2020.
  40. ^ "Over 3lakh to appear for CBSE exams from Ajmer region". The Times of India. 5 March 2018. Retrieved 14 February 2021.
  41. ^ "Historical Census of India". Archived from the original on 17 February 2013. Retrieved 22 March 2014.
  42. ^ a b "Census of India 2001: Data from the 2001 Census, including cities, villages and towns (Provisional)". Census Commission of India. Archived from the original on 16 June 2004. Retrieved 1 November 2008.

Bibliography