|Founded by||Ajayaraja I or Ajayaraja II|
|Named for||Ajayaraja I or Ajayaraja II|
|• Type||Municipal Corporation|
|• Body||Ajmer Municipal Corporation|
|• Mayor||Braj Lata Hada (BJP)|
|• City||55 km2 (21 sq mi)|
|Elevation||480 m (1,570 ft)|
|• Density||9,900/km2 (26,000/sq mi)|
|Time zone||UTC+5:30 (IST)|
305001 to 305023
|Telephone code||0145, +91145|
RJ-36 (Beawar) RJ-42 (Kishangarh)RJ-48 (Kekri)
Ajmer pronounced [ədʒmeːr] (listen) is one of the major and oldest cities in the Indian state of Rajasthan and the centre of the eponymous Ajmer District. It is located at the centre of Rajasthan. It is also known as heart of Rajasthan. The city was established as "Ajayameru" (translated as "Invincible Hills") by a Chahamana ruler, either Ajayaraja I or Ajayaraja II, and served as their capital until the 12th century CE. Home to the dargah of Moinuddin Chishti, Ajmer is one of the most important destinations of Islamic pilgrimage in South Asia.
Ajmer is surrounded by the Aravalli Mountains. Ajmer had been a municipality since 1869. Ajmer has been selected as one of the heritage cities for the HRIDAY and Smart City Mission schemes of the Government of India.
Main article: History of Ajmer
Ajmer was originally known as Ajayameru. The city was founded by an 11th-century Chahamana king Ajaydeva. Historian Dasharatha Sharma notes that the earliest mention of the city's name occurs in Palha's Pattavali, which was copied in 1113 CE (1170 VS) at Dhara. This suggests that Ajmer was founded sometime before 1113 CE. A prashasti (eulogistic inscription), issued by Vigraharaja IV and found at Adhai Din Ka Jhonpra, states Ajayadeva (that is Ajayaraja II) moved his residence to Ajmer.
A later text Prabandha-Kosha states that it was the 8th-century king Ajayaraja I who commissioned the Ajayameru fort, which later came to be known as the Taragarh fort of Ajmer. According to historian R. B. Singh, this claim appears to be true, as inscriptions dated to the 8th century CE have been found at Ajmer. Singh theorizes that Ajayaraja II later expanded the town area, constructed palaces, and moved the Chahamana capital from Shakambhari to Ajmer.
In 1193, Ajmer was annexed by the Mamluks of the Delhi Sultanate, and later was returned to Rajput rulers under condition of tribute.
In 1556, Ajmer came under the Mughal Empire after being conquered by Mughal Emperor Akbar. It was made the capital of the eponymous Ajmer Subah. The city enjoyed special favour under the Mughals, who made frequent pilgrimages to the city to visit the dargah of Moinuddin Chishti. The city was also used as a military base for campaigns against Rajput rulers, and on a number of occasions became the site of celebration when a campaign bore success. Mughal Emperors and their nobles made generous donations to the city, and endowed it with constructions such as Akbar's palace and pavilions along the Ana Sagar. Their most prominent building activities were in the dargah and its vicinity. Jahanara Begum and Dara Shikoh, children of Shah Jahan, were both born in the city in 1614 and 1615 respectively.
Mughal patronage of the city had waned by the beginning of the 18th century. In 1771, the Scindias conquered the city, and in 1818, the British gained authority over the city. Colonial-era Ajmer served as the headquarters of the Ajmer-Merwara Province and possessed a Central jail, a large General Hospital, and two smaller hospitals according to Gazetteer, 1908. It was the headquarters of a native regiment and of a Railway Volunteer corps. From the 1900s, the United Free Church of Scotland, the church of England, the Roman Catholics, and the American Episcopal Methodists have mission establishments here. At that time there were twelve printing presses in the city, from which eight weekly newspapers were published.
At the time of Independence Ajmer continued as a separate state with its own legislature until its merger with erstwhile Rajputana province then called Rajasthan. The Legislature of Ajmer State was housed in the building which now houses T. T. College. It had 30 MLAs, and Haribhau Upadhyay was the first chief minister of the erstwhile state, with Bhagirath Chaudhary as the first Vidhan Sabha speaker. In 1956, after acceptance of the proposal by Fazil Ali, Ajmer was merged into Rajasthan to form Ajmer District with the addition of Kishangarh sub-division of Jaipur district.
A Gujarati historic Novel named Gujaratno Jay written by Zaverchand Meghani, based on various Jain Prabandhas, describes the city as sapādalakṣaṇa (સપાદલક્ષણ).
Ajmer is in the northwest of India and is surrounded by the Aravali Mountains. It is situated on the lower slopes of the Taragarh Hill of that range. To the northwest is the Nagapathar Range of the Aravali Mountain Ranges which protects it from desertification from the Thar Desert.
Ajmer has a hot, semi-arid climate with over 55 centimetres (22 inches) of rain every year, but most of the rain occurs in the monsoon months, between June and September. Temperatures remain relatively high throughout the year, with the summer months of April to early July having an average daily temperature of about 30 °C (86 °F). During the monsoon there is frequent heavy rain and thunderstorms, but flooding is not a common occurrence. The winter months of November to February are mild and temperate with average temperatures ranging from 15–18 °C (59–64 °F) with little or no humidity. There are, however, occasional cold weather fronts that cause temperatures to fall to near freezing levels.
|Climate data for Ajmer (1981–2010, extremes 1901–2012)|
|Record high °C (°F)||32.6
|Average high °C (°F)||24.3
|Average low °C (°F)||9.5
|Record low °C (°F)||−2.8
|Average rainfall mm (inches)||4.9
|Average rainy days||0.6||0.8||0.4||0.8||1.8||3.3||8.5||8.1||3.9||0.8||0.2||0.2||29.3|
|Average relative humidity (%) (at 17:30 IST)||32||25||17||15||18||32||57||64||49||28||31||34||34|
|Average ultraviolet index||5||6||7||9||9||8||7||7||7||6||6||5||7|
|Source 1: India Meteorological Department|
|Source 2: Weather Atlas|
The Kishangarh Airport is the nearest airport. It is 25 km from Ajmer city. The Ajmer Airport ground breaking ceremony was done by then Prime Minister of India Dr. Manmohan Singh in 2012. The airport was finally completed and inaugurated by then Union Minister of State for Civil Aviation Jayant Sinha and Chief Minister Vasundhara Raje on 11 October 2017. The Airport is operational since then and regular flights to/from Delhi, Mumbai, Hyderabad, Ahmedabad, Indore and Surat are currently available. The airport is now amongst main and busy airports of Rajasthan. Currently SpiceJet and Star Air operate from Ajmer Airport on daily basis. Kishangarh Airport, Ajmer is being managed and operated by Airport Authority of India (AAI).
The Jaipur International Airport which is 135 km from Ajmer is the nearest International Airport.
The Ajmer Junction is the main railway station situated in the city. and was built during colonial times.
The city has many schools and colleges. Among them, Mayo College is a prominent college. The regional office of CBSE is located here.
According to the 2011 census, Ajmer had a population of 542,321 in the city, 551,101 including its suburbs.
The female to male ratio in the city was 947/1,000. The literacy rate in the city was 86.52%, male literacy being 92.08% and female literacy being 80.69%.
Ajmer's population growth in the decade was 18.48%; this compares to a growth figure of 20.93% in the previous decade.