The charts below show the way in which the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) represents Hindustani (Hindi and Urdu) pronunciations in Wikipedia articles. For a guide to adding IPA characters to Wikipedia articles, see Template:IPA and Wikipedia:Manual of Style/Pronunciation § Entering IPA characters.

See Hindustani phonology, Devanagari, and Urdu alphabet for a more thorough discussion of the sounds of Hindi-Urdu.

Key[edit]

Consonants
IPA Examples Devangari representation English approximation
Hindi Urdu ISO 15919
b बीस بیس bīs ब् cabbie
भालू بھالو bhālū भ् clubhouse
d[1] दाल دال dāl द् width, Spanish andar
[1] धूप دھوپ dhūp ध् adhere (but dental)
जान جان jān ज् budging
dʒʱ झड़ना جھڑنا jhaṛnā झ् hedgehog
ɖ[1] डालना ڈالنا ālnā ड् American bird
ɖʱ[1] ढक्कन ڈھکّن ḍhakkan ढ् American birdhouse
f ख़िलाफ़ خلاف k͟hilāf ख़् fuss
ɡ गोल گول gol ग् ago
ɡʱ घर گھر ghar घ् loghouse
ʔ[2] एतबार اعتبار iʻtibār[a] The pause in "uh-oh!", butter (glottal stop)
ɣ[4] बाग़ باغ ġ ग़् Similar to the French R
ɦ हम ہم ham ह् ahead
हुक्म حکم ukm ह्
j याद یاد yād य् yuck
k कमज़ोर کمزور kamzor क् scab
खाल کھال khāl ख् cab
l लब لب lab ल् leaf
m मगर مگر magar म् much
n नहीं نہیں nahī̃ न् panther
ɳ[5] किरण کرن kira ण् American burn
ŋ रंग رن٘گ rag ङ् or bang
p पल پل pal प् spot
फल پھل phal फ् pot
q[4] क़रीब قریب qarīb ‌‌‌क़् somewhat like caught
r[6] रस رس ras र् Trilled ring
ज़र्रा ذرّہ zarra र्
ɾ[6] ज़रा ذرا zarā र् American atom
ɽ लड़ना لڑنا la ड़ American garter
ɽʱ पढ़ाई پڑھائی paṛhāī ढ़ no English equivalent
s सब سب sab स् sun
साफ़ صاف āf
साबित ثابت ābit
ʂ[5] नष्ट نشٹ na ष् shrew
ʃ काश کاش ś श् shoe
t[1] तालाब تالاب tālāb त् similar to outthink, Spanish tomar
लतीफ़ा لطیفہ laīfa
[1] थैला تھیلا thailā थ् tub (but dental)
चोर چور cor च् catch
tʃʰ छोड़ना چھوڑنا choṛnā छ् achoo
ʈ[1] टमाटर ٹماٹر amāar ‌‌‌ट् stub (but retroflex)
ʈʰ[1] ठंड ٹھنڈ ṭhanḍ ठ् tub (but retroflex)
ʋ[7] वर्ज़िश ورزش varziś व् vat
w[7] पकवान پكوان pakvān व् well
x[4] ख़राब خراب k͟harāb ख़् Scottish loch
z[4] काग़ज़ کاغذ kāġaz ज़् zoo
ʒ[4] अझ़दहा اژدہا aždahā झ़् pleasure
Vowels
IPA Examples Devanagari representation English approximation
Hindi Urdu ISO 15919
काम کام kām आ or ा father
जेब جیب jeb ए or े Scottish say
ɛ[8] रहना رہنا rêhnā ऐ or ै pen
ɛː कैसा کیسا kai ऐ or ै fairy
ə कल کَل kal about
ɪ जितना جِتنا jitnā इ or ि sit
जीतना جیتنا jītnā ई or ी seat
बोलो بولو bolo ओ or ो Scottish so
ɔː कौन کَون kaun औ or ौ American saw
ʊ उन اُن un उ or ु book
ऊन اُون ūn ऊ or ू moon
◌̃ हँस ہن٘س has nasal vowel faun
([ãː, õː], etc.)
मैं مَیں mai
Suprasegmentals
IPA Example Notes
ˈ◌ [ˈbaːɦər] stress
(placed before stressed syllable)
◌ː [ˈʊtːəɾ pɾəˈdeːʃ] doubled consonant
(placed after doubled consonant)

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h Hindi and Urdu contrast dental [t] and [d] with apical postalveolar [ʈ] and [ɖ] (as well as aspirated variants). Both sets sound like /t/ and /d/ to most English speakers although the dental [t] and [d] are used in place of the English /θ/ and /ð/ for some speakers with th-stopping.
  2. ^ In a number of words, the ع and/or ء is sometimes pronounced as ʔ in Urdu, which is typically not represented or pronounced in Hindi, except when the Urdu variant is transliterated into Hindi.
  3. ^ "Meaning of etibar in English". Rekhta Dictionary. Retrieved 2023-03-18.
  4. ^ a b c d e Mainly phonemes of Urdu. Hindi speakers may replace [x], [z], [ʒ], [ɣ] and [q] with [kʰ], [dʒ], [dʒʱ], [g] and [k] respectively.
  5. ^ a b Mainly phonemes of Hindi. Urdu speakers usually replace [ɳ] and [ʂ] with [n] and [ʃ] respectively.
  6. ^ a b /ɾ/ can surface as a trill [r] in word-initial and syllable-final positions. Geminate /ɾː/ is always a trill.
  7. ^ a b [w] occurs as an allophone of [ʋ] when / و/ is in an onglide position between an onset consonant and a following vowel while [ʋ], which may phonetically be [v], occurs otherwise.
  8. ^ [ɛ] occurs as an allophone of /ə/ near an /ɦ/ that is surrounded on both sides by schwas. Usually, the second schwa becomes silent, which results in an [ɛ] preceding an /ɦ/.
  1. ^ Urdu transliteration. The Hindi variant is usually written as एतबार (etbār). Rekhta Dictionary transliterates this term as ए'तिबार (e'tibār) in Devanagari/Hindi.[3]

See also[edit]