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Voiced retroflex plosive
IPA Number106
Audio sample
Entity (decimal)ɖ
Unicode (hex)U+0256
Braille⠲ (braille pattern dots-256)⠙ (braille pattern dots-145)

The voiced retroflex plosive or stop is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ɖ ⟩, and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is d`. Like all the retroflex consonants, the IPA symbol is formed by adding a rightward-pointing hook extending from the bottom of a d, the letter that is used for the corresponding alveolar consonant. Many South Asian languages, such as Hindi and Urdu, have a two-way contrast between plain and murmured (breathy voice) [ɖ ].


Features of the voiced retroflex stop:


Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Asturian Astierna dialect ḷḷingua [ɖiŋɡwä] 'tongue' Corresponds to /ʎ/ in other dialects. See Che Vaqueira
Balochi ڈݔل / ďèl [ɖɪl] 'female donkey'
Bangla[1] ডাকাত [ɖäkät̪] 'robber' Apical postalveolar.[1] See Bengali phonology
English Indian dialects dine [ɖaɪn] 'to eat' Corresponds to /d/ in other dialects. See English phonology
Gujarati[2] [ɖə] (name of a letter) Subapical.[2] See Gujarati phonology
Hindustani[3][4] डालना/ڈالنا [ɖäːlnäː] 'to put' Apical postalveolar.[4] See Hindustani phonology
Javanese ꦣꦲꦂ/dhahar/ڎاهار [ɖahaɽ] 'to eat'
Kannada ಸು [ʌɖʌsu] 'to join'
Malayalam പാണ്വർ [ˈpäːɳɖäʋər] 'Pandavas'
Marathi[2] हा [häːɖ] 'bone' Subapical.[2] See Marathi phonology
Nepali [ɖʌr] 'fear' Apical postalveolar. See Nepali phonology
Nihali [biɖum] 'one'
Norwegian varde [ˈʋɑɖːə] 'beacon' See Norwegian phonology
Odia ଙ୍ଗା/ḍaṅgā [ɖɔŋgä] 'boat' Apical postalveolar.
Pashto ډﻙ [ɖak] 'full'
Punjabi ਡੱਡੂ [ɖəɖːu] 'frog'
Sardinian cherveddu [keɾˈveɖːu]i 'brain'
Sicilian coḍḍu [kɔɖːu] 'neck'
Somali dhul [ɖul] 'earth, land, ground' See Somali phonology
Swedish nord [nuːɖ]i 'north' See Swedish phonology
Tamil[2][5] ண்டி [ʋəɳɖi] 'cart' Subapical;[2] allophone of /ʈ/.[5] See Tamil phonology
Telugu డ్డి [kʌɖːi] 'rod' Contrasts unaspirated and aspirated forms. Aspirated form articulated as breathy consonant.
Torwali[6] ڈىغو [ɖiɣu] 'late afternoon' Realised as [ɽ] between vowels.
Urdu ڈنڈا [ɖanɖa] 'stick'

See also



  • Keane, Elinor (2004), "Tamil", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 34 (1): 111–116, doi:10.1017/S0025100304001549
  • Khatiwada, Rajesh (2009), "Nepali", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 39 (3): 337–380, doi:10.1017/s0025100309990181
  • Ladefoged, Peter (2005), Vowels and Consonants (Second ed.), Blackwell
  • Ladefoged, Peter; Maddieson, Ian (1996), The Sounds of the World's Languages, Oxford: Blackwell, ISBN 978-0-631-19815-4
  • Lunsford, Wayne A. (2001), "An overview of linguistic structures in Torwali, a language of Northern Pakistan" (PDF), M.A. Thesis, University of Texas at Arlington
  • Masica, Colin P. (1991), The Indo-Aryan Languages, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0-521-29944-6
  • Mazumdar, Bijaychandra (2000) [First published 1920], The history of the Bengali language, New Delhi: Asian Educational Services, ISBN 8120614526
  • Tiwari, Bholanath (2004) [First published 1966], Hindī Bhāshā, Kitāb Mahal: Kitāb Mahal, ISBN 81-225-0017-X