Voiceless palatal affricate
IPA Number107 (138)
Audio sample
Entity (decimal)c​͡​ç
Unicode (hex)U+0063 U+0361 U+00E7

The voiceless palatal affricate is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbols in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represent this sound are ⟨c͡ç⟩ and ⟨c͜ç⟩, and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is c_C. The tie bar may be omitted, yielding ⟨⟩ in the IPA and cC in X-SAMPA.

This sound is the non-sibilant equivalent of the voiceless alveolo-palatal affricate.

The voiceless palatal affricate occurs in such languages as Hungarian and Skolt Sami, among others. The consonant is quite rare; it is mostly absent from Europe (with the Uralic languages and Albanian being exceptions). It usually occurs with its voiced counterpart, the voiced palatal affricate.

There is also the voiceless post-palatal affricate[1] in some languages, which is articulated slightly more back compared with the place of articulation of the prototypical voiceless palatal affricate, though not as back as the prototypical voiceless velar affricate. The International Phonetic Alphabet does not have a separate symbol for that sound, though it can be transcribed as ⟨c̠͡ç̠⟩, ⟨c͡ç˗⟩ (both symbols denote a retractedc͡ç⟩) or ⟨k̟͡x̟⟩ (advancedk͡x⟩) - this article uses only the first symbol. The equivalent X-SAMPA symbols are c_-_C_- and k_+_x_+, respectively.

Especially in broad transcription, the voiceless post-palatal affricate may be transcribed as a palatalized voiceless velar affricate (⟨k͡xʲ⟩ or ⟨k͜xʲ⟩ in the IPA, k_x' or k_x_j in X-SAMPA).


Features of the voiceless palatal affricate:


Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Albanian Standard[2] qaj [c͡çaj] 'I cry' May merge with [t͡ʃ] in some dialects. Retained as [c] in some Tosk Albanian varieties, or alternatively [c͡ç]. See Albanian language
Asturian Western dialects[3] muyyer [muˈc͡çeɾ] 'woman' Alternate evolution of -lj-, -c'l-, pl-, cl- and fl- in the Brañas Vaqueiras area of Western Asturias. May be also realized as [c] or [ɟ͡ʝ]
Kaingang[4] [c͡çɔi̯ɟ] 'cranefly' Possible word-initial realization of /ç/.[5]
Dutch[6] bakje [ˈbɑc̠͡ç̠jə] 'tray' (dim.) Post-palatal; allophone of /k/ before /j/.[6] See Dutch phonology
Korean 켜다 / kyeoda [c͡çɘː.dɐ] 'turn on' Allophone of /kʰ/ before /i/ and /j/. See Korean phonology
Makassarese pacce [ˈpʰac.c͡çe] 'empathic pain' Allophone of /c/.
Navajo ashkii [aʃc͡çiː] 'boy' Allophone of /kʰ/ before the front vowels /i, e/. See Navajo phonology
Norwegian Central and Western dialects[7] ikkje [ic͡çə] 'not' See Norwegian phonology
Skolt Sami sääˊmǩiõll [ɕa̟ːmʰc͡çjɘhlː] 'Skolt Sami'
Tamil Tirunelveli Tamil கசப்பு / kacappu [kɐc͡çɐpːɯ] 'bitterness' Realization of medial ச in Tirunelveli/Teṉpāṇṭi dialect. Contrasts with /s/ in most other dialects.

See also


  1. ^ Instead of "post-palatal", it can be called "retracted palatal", "backed palatal", "palato-velar", "pre-velar", "advanced velar", "fronted velar" or "front-velar". For simplicity, this article uses only the term "post-palatal".
  2. ^ Palatal controversies Péter Siptár(2013)
  3. ^ "Tinéu. Mapa del conceyu | El Teixu" (in Asturian). Retrieved 2019-11-24.
  4. ^ Jolkesky (2009), pp. 676, 681.
  5. ^ Jolkesky (2009), p. 681.
  6. ^ a b Collins & Mees (2003), p. 193.
  7. ^ Skjekkeland (1997), pp. 96–100.


  • Collins, Beverley; Mees, Inger M. (2003) [First published 1981], The Phonetics of English and Dutch (5th ed.), Leiden: Brill Publishers, ISBN 9004103406
  • Jolkesky, Marcelo Pinho de Valhery (2009), "Fonologia e prosódia do Kaingáng falado em Cacique Doble", Anais do SETA, 3, Campinas: Editora do IEL-UNICAMP: 675–685
  • Skjekkeland, Martin (1997), Dei norske dialektane: Tradisjonelle særdrag i jamføring med skriftmåla (in Norwegian), Høyskoleforlaget (Norwegian Academic Press)