Voiceless pharyngeal trill
(voiceless epiglottal fricative)
IPA Number172
Audio sample
Entity (decimal)ʜ
Unicode (hex)U+029C
Braille⠔ (braille pattern dots-35)⠓ (braille pattern dots-125)

The voiceless epiglottal or pharyngeal trill, or voiceless epiglottal fricative,[1] is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ʜ, a small capital version of the Latin letter h, and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is H\.

The glyph is homoglyphic with the lowercase Cyrillic letter En (н).


Features of the voiceless epiglottal trill/fricative:


Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Agul[2] мехӏ [mɛʜ] 'whey'
Amis[3] tihi [tiʜiʔ] 'spouse' The epiglottal consonants in Amis have proven hard to describe, with some describing it not as epiglottal, but a pharyngeal fricative or even as a uvular consonant. See Amis Phonology
Arabic[4] Iraqi[5] حَي [ʜaj] 'alive' Corresponds to /ħ/ (ح) in Standard Arabic. See Arabic phonology
Bengali খড় [ʜↄɾ] 'straw' Often debuccalized or phonetically realised as /x/. Corresponds to /kʰ/ in standard dialect. See Bengali phonology
Chechen хьо [ʜʷɔ] 'you'
Dahalo [ʜaːɗo] 'arrow'
Haida ants [ʜʌnt͡s] 'shadow'
Somali[6] xoor [ʜoːɾ] 'bubble' Realization of /ħ/ for some speakers.[6] See Somali phonology

See also


  1. ^ John Esling (2010) "Phonetic Notation", in Hardcastle, Laver & Gibbon (eds) The Handbook of Phonetic Sciences, 2nd ed., p 695.
  2. ^ Ladefoged & Maddieson (1996:167–168)
  3. ^ * Maddieson, Ian; Wright, Richard (October 1995). "The Vowels and Consonants of Amis — A Preliminary Phonetic Report" (PDF). Fieldwork Studies of Targeted Languages III. UCLA Working Papers in Phonetics Volume 91. pp. 45–65.
  4. ^ Ladefoged & Maddieson (1996:167–168)
  5. ^ Zeki Hassan, John Esling, Scott Moisik, & lise Crevier-Buchman (2011) "Aryepiglottic trilled variants of /ʕ, ħ/ in Iraqi Arabic". Proceedings of the 17th International Congress of Phonetic Sciences (pp. 831–834), Hong Kong.
  6. ^ a b Gabbard, Kevin M. (2010). A Phonological Analysis of Somali and the Guttural Consonants (PDF) (BA Linguistics Honors Thesis). The Ohio State University. p. 14.