Voiceless pharyngeal trill
(voiceless epiglottal fricative)
IPA Number172
Audio sample
Entity (decimal)ʜ
Unicode (hex)U+029C
Braille⠔ (braille pattern dots-35)⠓ (braille pattern dots-125)

The voiceless epiglottal or pharyngeal trill, or voiceless epiglottal fricative,[1] is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ⟨ʜ⟩, a small capital version of the Latin letter h, and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is H\.

The glyph is homoglyphic with the lowercase Cyrillic letter En (н).


Features of the voiceless epiglottal trill/fricative:


Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Agul[2] мехӏ [mɛʜ] 'whey'
Amis[3] tihi [tiʜiʔ] 'spouse' The epiglottal consonants in Amis have proven hard to describe, with some describing it not as epiglottal, but a pharyngeal fricative or even as a uvular consonant. See Amis phonology
Arabic[4] Iraqi[5] حَي [ʜaj] 'alive' Corresponds to /ħ/ ⟨ح⟩ in Standard Arabic. See Arabic phonology
Bengali খড় [ʜↄɾ] 'straw' Mainly realized as such in very eastern regions; often also debuccalized or phonetically realised as /x/. Corresponds to /kʰ/ in western and central dialects. See Bengali phonology
Chechen хьо [ʜʷɔ] 'you'
Dahalo [ʜaːɗo] 'arrow'
Haida ants [ʜʌnt͡s] 'shadow'
Somali[6] xoor [ʜoːɾ] 'bubble' Realization of /ħ/ for some speakers.[6] See Somali phonology

See also


  1. ^ Esling, John (2010). "Phonetic Notation". In Hardcastle; Laver; Gibbon (eds.). The Handbook of Phonetic Sciences (2nd ed.). p. 695.
  2. ^ Ladefoged & Maddieson (1996:167–168)
  3. ^ Maddieson, Ian; Wright, Richard (October 1995). "The Vowels and Consonants of Amis — A Preliminary Phonetic Report" (PDF). UCLA Working Papers in Phonetics. 91: Fieldwork Studies of Targeted Languages III: 45–65.
  4. ^ Ladefoged & Maddieson (1996:167–168)
  5. ^ Hassan, Zeki; Esling, John; Moisik, Scott; Crevier-Buchman, Lise (2011). "Aryepiglottic trilled variants of /ʕ, ħ/ in Iraqi Arabic" (PDF). Proceedings of the 17th International Congress of Phonetic Sciences. pp. 831–834. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2020-03-19.
  6. ^ a b Gabbard, Kevin M. (2010). A Phonological Analysis of Somali and the Guttural Consonants (PDF) (BA thesis). Ohio State University. p. 14.