|Voiced uvular trill|
The voiced uvular trill is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ⟨ʀ⟩, a small capital letter R. This consonant is one of several collectively called guttural R.
Features of the voiced uvular trill:
There are two main theories regarding the origination of the uvular trill in European languages. According to one theory, the uvular trill originated in Standard French around the 17th century and spread to the standard varieties of German, Danish, Portuguese and some of those of Dutch, Norwegian and Swedish. It is also present in other areas of Europe, but it is not clear if such pronunciations are due to French influence. In most cases, varieties have shifted the sound to a voiced uvular fricative [ʁ] or a voiced uvular approximant [ʁ̞].
The other main theory is that the uvular R originated within Germanic languages by the weakening of the alveolar R, which was replaced by an imitation of the alveolar R (vocalisation). Against the "French origin" theory, it is said that there are many signs that the uvular R existed in some German dialects long before the 17th century.
Apart from modern Europe, uvular R also exists in some Semitic languages, including North Mesopotamian Arabic and probably Tiberian Hebrew.
|Afrikaans||Parts of the former Cape Province||rooi||[ʀoːi̯]||'red'||May be a fricative [ʁ] instead. See Afrikaans phonology|
|Arabic||North Mesopotamian||قمر||[ˈqʌmʌʀ]||'moon'||Corresponds to [r, ɾ] in most other varieties. See Arabic phonology|
|Catalan||Some northern dialects||córrer||[koˈʀe]||'to run'||See Catalan phonology|
|Dutch||Belgian Limburg||rood||[ʀoːt] (help·info)||'red'||More commonly a tap. Uvular pronunciations appear to be gaining ground in the Randstad. Realization of /r/ varies considerably among dialects. See Dutch phonology|
|Flemish Brabant||More commonly a tap. It is one of the least common realizations of /r/ in these areas. See Dutch phonology|
|English||Cape Flats||red||[ʀɛd]||'red'||Possible realization of /r/; may be [ɹ ~ ɹ̝ ~ ɾ ~ r] instead. See South African English phonology|
|Northumbrian dialect||More often a fricative. Dialectal "Northumbrian Burr", mostly found in eastern Northumberland, declining. See English phonology|
|Sierra Leonean||More often a fricative.|
|French||rendez-vous||[ʀɑ̃devu] (help·info)||'rendezvous', 'appointment'||Dialectal. More commonly an approximant or a fricative [ʁ]. See French phonology|
|German||Standard||rot||[ʀoːt] (help·info)||'red'||In free variation with a voiced uvular fricative and approximant. See Standard German phonology|
|Hebrew||ירוק||[jaˈʀok]||'green'||May also be a fricative or approximant. See Modern Hebrew phonology|
|Italian||Some speakers||raro||[ˈʀäːʀo]||'rare'||Rendition alternative to the standard Italian alveolar trill [r], due to individual orthoepic defects and/or regional variations that make the alternative sound more prevalent, notably in Alto Adige (bordering with German-speaking Austria), Val d'Aosta (bordering with France) and in parts of the Parma province, more markedly around Fidenza. Other alternative sounds may be a voiced uvular fricative [ʁ] or a labiodental approximant [ʋ]. See Italian phonology.|
|Low Saxon||Zwols||priezen/prysen||[pʀi:zn̩]||'prices'||Only in the city and its immediate surroundings, not in the area surrounding Zwolle.|
|Luxembourgish||Rou||[ʀəʊ̯]||'silence'||Prevocalic allophone of /ʀ/. See Luxembourgish phonology|
|Occitan||Eastern||garric||[ɡaʀi]||'oak'||Contrasts with alveolar trill ([ɡari] 'cured')|
|Provençal||parts||[paʀ]||'parts'||See Occitan phonology|
|Norwegian||Southern dialects||rar||[ʁ̞ɑːʁ̞]||'strange'||Either an approximant or a fricative. See Norwegian phonology|
|Portuguese||European||rarear||[ʀəɾiˈaɾ]||'to get scarcer'||Alternates with other uvular forms and the older alveolar trill. See Portuguese phonology|
|Fluminense||mercado||[me̞ʀˈkadu]||'market', 'fair'||Tendency to be replaced by fricative pronunciations. In coda position, it is generally in free variation with [x], [χ], [ʁ], [ħ] and [h] before non-voicing environments.|
|Sulista||repolho||[ʀe̞ˈpoʎ̟ʊ]||'cabbage'||Alternates with the alveolar trill and [h] depending on the region. Never used in coda.|
|Romani||Some dialects||rom||[ʀom]||'man'||Allophone of a descendant of the Indic retroflex set, so often transcribed /ɽ/. A coronal flap, approximant or trill in other dialects; in some it merges with /r/|
|Selkup||Northern dialects||ӄаӄри||[ˈqaʀlɪ̈]||'sledge'||Allophone of /q/ before liquids|
|Sioux||Lakota||ǧí||[ʀí]||'it's brown'||Allophone of /ʁ/ before /i/|
|Sotho||Regional variant||moriri||[moʀiʀi]||'hair'||Imported from French missionaries. See Sesotho phonology|
|Swedish||Southern||räv||[ʀɛːv]||'fox'||See Swedish phonology|
|Yiddish||Standard||בריק||[bʀɪk]||'bridge'||More commonly a flap [ʀ̆]; can be alveolar [ɾ ~ r] instead. See Yiddish phonology|