This article contains phonetic transcriptions in the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA). For an introductory guide on IPA symbols, see Help:IPA. For the distinction between [ ], / / and ⟨ ⟩, see IPA § Brackets and transcription delimiters.

The phonology of Catalan, a Romance language, has a certain degree of dialectal variation. Although there are two standard dialects, one based on Eastern Catalan and one based on Valencian, this article deals with features of all or most dialects, as well as regional pronunciation differences. Various studies have focused on different Catalan varieties; for example, Wheeler and Mascaró analyze Central Eastern varieties,[1][2] the former focusing on the educated speech of Barcelona and the latter focusing more on the vernacular of Barcelona, and Recasens does a careful phonetic study of Central Eastern Catalan.[3][4][5]

Catalan is characterized by final-obstruent devoicing, lenition, and voicing assimilation; a set of 7 or 8 phonemic vowels, vowel assimilations (including vowel harmony), many phonetic diphthongs, and vowel reduction, whose precise details differ between dialects. Several dialects have a dark l, and all dialects have palatal l (/ʎ/) and n (/ɲ/).

Consonants

Consonants of Catalan[6][7]
Labial Dental/
Alveolar
Palatal Velar Uvular
Nasal m n3 ɲ6 (ŋ)
Plosive voiceless p t1 k2
voiced b d1 ɡ2
Affricate voiceless t͡s5 t͡ʃ7
voiced d͡z5 d͡ʒ7
Fricative voiceless f s4 ʃ7
voiced (v) z4 ʒ7 (ʁ)
Approximant central j w
lateral l3 ʎ6
Trill r4
Tap ɾ3

Phonetic notes:

Obstruents

Voiced obstruents undergo final-obstruent devoicing so that fred ('cold', m. s.) is pronounced with [t], while fredes ('cold', f. pl.) is pronounced with [ð].[23]

Stops

Voiced stops become lenited to fricatives or approximants in syllable onsets, after continuants:[13] /b/[β], /d/[ð], /ɡ/[ɣ].

In Catalan (not in Valencian), /b/ and /ɡ/ may be geminated in certain environments (e.g. poble [ˈpɔbːɫə] 'village', regla [ˈreɡːɫə] 'rule').[26][27]

Affricates

The phonemic status of affricates is dubious; after other consonants, affricates are in free variation with fricatives, e.g. clenxa [ˈkɫɛnʃə] ~ [ˈkɫɛɲt͡ʃə] (E) / [ˈklɛɲt͡ʃa] (W) ('hair parting')[28] and may be analyzed as either single phonemes or clusters of a stop and a fricative.

There is dialectal variation in regards to affricate length, with long affricates occurring in both Eastern and Western dialects such as in Majorca and few areas in Southern Valencia.[36] Also, intervocalic affricates are predominantly long, especially those that are voiced or occurring immediately after a stressed syllable (e.g. metge [ˈmed͡ːʒə] (E) / [ˈmed͡ːʒe] (W) 'medic').[37] In modern Valencian [d͡ʒ] and [d͡ːʒ] have merged into /d͡ʒ/.

Fricatives

/v/ occurs in Balearic,[35] as well as in Alguerese, Standard Valencian and some areas in southern Catalonia.[38] Everywhere else, it has merged with historic /β/ so that [b] and [β] occur in complementary distribution.[39]

Sonorants

See also: Assimilations

While "dark (velarized) l", [ɫ], may be a positional allophone of /l/ in most dialects (such as in the syllable coda; e.g. l [ˈsɔɫ] 'ground'),[41] /l/ is dark irrespective of position in Eastern dialects like Majorcan[42] and standard Eastern Catalan (e.g. tela [ˈtɛɫə]).

The distribution of the two rhotics /r/ and /ɾ/ closely parallels that of Spanish.

In careful speech, /n/, /m/, and /l/ may be geminated (e.g. innecessari [inːəsəˈsaɾi] (E) / [inːeseˈsaɾi] (W) 'unnecessary'; emmagatzemar [əmːəɣəd͡zəˈma] (E) / [emːaɣad͡zeˈma(ɾ)] (W) 'to store'; il·lusió [ilːuziˈo] 'illusion'). A geminated /ʎː/ may also occur (e.g. ratlla [ˈraʎːə] (E) / [ˈraʎːa] (W) 'line').[35] Wheeler analyzes intervocalic [r] as the result of gemination of a single rhotic phoneme:[44] serra /ˈsɛɾɾə/ → [ˈsɛrə] (E) / /ˈsɛɾɾa/ → [ˈsɛra] (W) 'saw, mountains' (this is similar to the common analysis of Spanish and Portuguese rhotics).[45]

Vowels

Vowels of Catalan
Front Central Back
Close i u
Close-mid e (ə) o
Open-mid ɛ ɔ
Open a

Phonetic notes:

Stressed vowels

Vowels of Standard Eastern Catalan[54]
Vowels of Standard Eastern Catalan[54]
Vowels of Valencian[55]
Vowels of Valencian[55]

Most varieties of Catalan contrast seven stressed vowel phonemes.[56] However, some Balearic dialects have an additional stressed vowel phoneme (/ə/); e.g. sec /ˈsək/ ('dry, I sit').[57][25] The stressed schwa of these dialects corresponds to /ɛ/ in Central Catalan and /e/ in Western Catalan varieties (that is, Central and Western Catalan dialects differ in their incidence of /e/ and /ɛ/, with /e/ appearing more frequently in Western Catalan; e.g. Central Catalan sec /ˈsɛk/ vs. Western Catalan sec /ˈsek/ ('dry, I sit')).[56]

Contrasting series of the main Catalan dialects:

Central Catalan[25]
[Eastern Catalan]
LS IPA Gloss
sac a 'bag'
séc e 'fold'
sec ɛ 'dry'/'I sit'
sic i 'sic'
sóc o 'I am'
soc ɔ 'clog'
suc u 'juice'
Other contrast
LS IPA Gloss
*set ɛ 'seven'
'thirst'
Balearic[25]
[Eastern Catalan]
LS IPA Gloss
sac a 'bag'
séc e 'fold'
sec ə[57] 'dry'/'I sit'
sic i 'sic'
sóc o 'I am'
soc ɔ 'clog'
suc u 'juice'
Other contrast
LS IPA Gloss
*set ɛ 'seven'
ə 'thirst'
Northern Catalan[25]
[Eastern Catalan]
LS IPA Gloss
sac a 'bag'
séc e 'fold'
sec 'dry'/'I sit'
sic i 'sic'
sóc o 'I am'
soc 'clog'
suc u 'juice'
Other contrast
LS IPA Gloss
*set e 'seven'
'thirst'
Modern Alguerese[25]
[Eastern Catalan]
LS IPA Gloss
sac a 'bag'
séc e 'fold'
sec 'dry'/'I sit'
sic i 'sic'
sóc o 'I am'
soc 'clog'
suc u 'juice'
Other contrast
LS IPA Gloss
*set e 'seven'
'thirst'
Valencian[25]
[Western Catalan]
LS IPA Gloss
sac a 'bag'
séc e 'fold'
sec 'dry'/'I sit'
sic i 'sic'
sóc o 'I am'
soc ɔ 'clog'
suc u 'juice'
Other contrast
LS IPA Gloss
*set ɛ 'seven'
e 'thirst'

Unstressed vowels

In Eastern Catalan, vowels in unstressed position reduce to three : /a/, /e/, /ɛ/ → [ə] (phonetically [ɐ] in Barcelona); /o/, /ɔ/, /u/ → [u]; /i/ remains unchanged. However there are some dialectal differences: Alguerese merges /a/, /e/ and /ɛ/ with /a/; and in most areas of Majorca, [o] can appear in unstressed position (that is, /o/ and /ɔ/ are usually reduced to [o]).[58]

In Western Catalan, vowels in unstressed position reduce to five: /e/, /ɛ/ → [e]; /o/, /ɔ/ → [o]; /a/, /u/, /i/ remain unchanged.[59] However, in some Western dialects reduced vowels tend to merge into different realizations in some cases:

Central, Northern, General Balearic
& Alguerese[25] [Eastern Catalan]
Term IPA Gloss
parla ə[i] 'speech'
rere 'back'
lliri i 'lily'
ferro u 'iron'
mutu 'mutual'
Majorcan Balearic[25]
[Eastern Catalan]
Term IPA Gloss
parla ə 'speech'
rere 'back'
lliri i 'lily'
ferro o 'iron'
mutu u 'mutual'
Valencian[25]
[Western Catalan]
Term IPA Gloss
parla a 'speech'
rere e 'back'
lliri i 'lily'
ferro o 'iron'
mutu u 'mutual'
  1. ^ In Barcelona it is becomes open [ɐ], while in Alguer it goes one step beyond [a].

Diphthongs and triphthongs

There are also a number of phonetic diphthongs and triphthongs, all of which begin and/or end in [j] or [w].[63]

Falling diphthongs
IPA word gloss IPA word gloss
[aj] aigua 'water' [aw] taula 'table'
[əj] (E)
[aj] (W)
mainada 'children' [əw] (E)
[aw] (W)
caurem 'we will fall'
[ɛj] remei 'remedy' [ɛw] peu 'foot'
[ej] rei 'king' [ew] seu 'his/her'
[əj] (E)
[ej] (W)
Eivissa 'Ibiza' [əw] (E)
[ew] (W)
eufenisme 'eufenism'
[iw] niu 'nest'
[ɔj] noi 'boy' [ɔw] nou 'new'
[uj] (E)
[oj] (W)
Moisès 'Moses' [ow] pou 'well'
[uj] avui 'today' [uw] duu 's/he is carrying'
Rising diphthongs
IPA word gloss IPA word gloss
[ja] iaia 'grandma' [wa] guant 'glove'
[jə] (E)
[ja] (W)
feia 's/he was doing' [wə] (E)
[wa] (W)
aquarel·la 'watercolour painting'
[jɛ] veiem 'we see' [wɛ] seqüència 'sequence'
[je] seient 'seat' [we] ungüent 'ointment'
[jə] (E)
[je] (W)
gràcies 'thank you' [wə] (E)
[we] (W)
qüestió, diuen 'question', 'they say'
[wi] pingüí 'penguin'
[jɔ] iode 'iodine' [wɔ] quota 'payment'
[ju] (E)
[jo] (W)
iogurt 'yoghurt' [wo] ses 'greasy'
[ju] iugoslau 'Yugoslav'

In Standard Eastern Catalan, rising diphthongs (that is, those starting with [j] or [w]) are only possible in the following contexts:[64]

Processes

There are certain instances of compensatory diphthongization in Majorcan so that troncs /ˈtɾoncs/ ('logs') (in addition to deleting the palatal stop) develops a compensating palatal glide and surfaces as [ˈtɾojns] (and contrasts with the unpluralized [ˈtɾoɲc]). Diphthongization compensates for the loss of the palatal stop (segment loss compensation). There are other cases where diphthongization compensates for the loss of point of articulation features (property loss compensation) as in [ˈaɲ] ('year') vs. [ˈajns] ('years').[67]

The dialectal distribution of compensatory diphthongization is almost entirely dependent on the dorsal stop (/k~c/) and the extent of consonant assimilation (whether or not it is extended to palatals).[68]

Voiced affricates are devoiced after stressed vowels in dialects like Eastern Catalan where there may be a correlation between devoicing and lengthening (gemination) of voiced affricates: metge /ˈmed͡ːʒə/[ˈmet͡ːʃə] ('medic').[19] In Barcelona, voiced stops may be fortified (geminated and devoiced); e.g. poble [ˈpɔpːɫə] 'village').[35]

Assimilations

Nasal Lateral
word IPA gloss word IPA gloss
ínfim [ˈiɱfim] 'lowest'
anterior [ən̪təɾiˈo] (E)
[an̪teɾiˈoɾ] (W)
'previous' altes [ˈaɫ̪təs] (E)
[ˈaɫ̪tes] (W)
'tall' (f. pl.)
engegar [əɲʒəˈɣa] (E)
[eɲd͡ʒeˈɣa(ɾ)] (W)
'to start (up)' àlgid [ˈaʎʒit] (E)
[ˈaʎd͡ʒit] (W)
'decisive'
sang [saŋ] (E)
[saŋ(k)] (W)
'blood'
sagna [ˈsaŋnə] ~ [ˈsaɡnə] (E)
[ˈsaŋna] ~ [ˈsaɡna] (W)
'he bleeds'
cotna [ˈkonːə] (E)
[ˈkonːa] (W)
'rind' atles [ˈaɫːəs] ~ [ˈadɫəs] (E)
[ˈaɫːes] ~ [ˈadɫes] (W)
'atlas'
sotmetent [sumːəˈten] (E)
[somːeˈten(t)] (W)
'submitting' ratllar [rəˈʎːa] (E)
[raˈʎ(ː)a(ɾ)] (W)
'to grate'

Catalan denti-alveolar stops can fully assimilate to the following consonant, producing gemination; this is particularly evident before nasal and lateral consonants: e.g. cotna ('rind'), motlle/motle ('spring'), and setmana ('week'). Learned words can alternate between featuring and not featuring such assimilation (e.g. atles [ˈadɫəs] ~ [ˈaɫːəs] (E) / [ˈadɫas] ~ [ˈaɫːas] (W) 'atlas', administrar [ədminisˈtɾa] ~ [əmːinisˈtɾa] (E) / [adminisˈtɾa(ɾ)] ~ [amːinisˈtɾa(ɾ)] (W) 'to administer').[69][70]

Central Valencian features simple elision in many of these cases (e.g cotna [ˈkona], setmana [seˈmana]) though learned words don't exhibit either assimilation or elision: atles [ˈadles] and administrar [adminisˈtɾaɾ].[71]

Prosody

Stress

Stress most often occurs on any of the last three syllables of a word (e.g. brúixola [ˈbɾuʃuɫə] (E) / [ˈbɾujʃola] (W) 'compass', càstig [ˈkastik] 'punishment', pallús [pəˈʎus] (E) / [paˈʎus] (W) 'fool').

Compound words and adverbs formed with /ˈment/ may have a syllable with secondary stress (e.g. bonament [ˌbɔnəˈmen] (E) [ˌbɔnaˈmen(t)] (W) 'willingly'; parallamps [ˌpaɾəˈʎams] (E) [ˌpaɾaˈʎamps] (W) 'lightning conductor') but every lexical word has just one syllable with main stress.[72]

Phonotactics

Any consonant, as well as [j] and [w] may be an onset. Clusters may consist of a consonant plus a semivowel (C[j], C[w]) or an obstruent plus a liquid. Some speakers may have one of these obstruent-plus-liquid clusters preceding a semivowel, e.g. síndria [ˈsin.dɾjə] ('watermelon'); for other speakers, this is pronounced [ˈsin.dɾi.ə] (i.e. the semivowel must be syllabic in this context).[73]

Word-medial codas are restricted to one consonant + [s] (extra [ˈɛks.tɾə] (E) / [ˈɛks.tɾa] (W)).[74] In the coda position, voice contrasts among obstruents are neutralized.[75] Although there are exceptions (such as futur [fuˈtuɾ] 'future'), syllable-final rhotics are often lost before a word boundary or before the plural morpheme of most words: color [kuˈɫo] (E) / [koˈɫo(ɾ)] (W) ('color') vs. coloraina [kuɫuˈɾajnə] (E) / [koɫoˈɾajna] (W) ('bright color').[35]

In Central Eastern (and North-Western Catalan), obstruents fail to surface word-finally when preceded by a homorganic consonant (e.g. /nt/ → [n̪]). Complex codas simplify only if the loss of the segment doesn't result in the loss of place specification.[76]

Suffixation examples in Eastern Catalan
Final gloss Internal gloss
no cluster camp [ˈkam] 'field' camperol [kəmpəˈɾɔɫ] 'peasant'
punt [ˈpun] 'point' punta [ˈpuntə] 'tip'
banc [ˈbaŋ] 'bank' banca [ˈbaŋkə] 'banking'
malalt [məˈɫaɫ̪] 'ill' malaltia [məɫəɫˈti.ə] 'illness'
hort [ˈɔr] 'orchard' hortalissa [urtəˈɫisə] 'vegetable'
gust [ˈɡus] 'taste' gustar [ɡusˈta] 'to taste'
cluster serp [ˈserp] 'snake' serpentí [sərpənˈti] 'snake-like'
disc [ˈdisk] 'disk' disquet [disˈkɛt] 'diskette'
remolc [rəˈmɔɫk] 'trailer' remolcar [rəmuɫˈka] 'to tow'

When the suffix -erol [əˈɾɔɫ] is added to camp [ˈkam] it makes [kəmpəˈɾɔɫ], indicating that the underlying representation is /ˈkamp/ (with subsequent cluster simplification), however when the copula [ˈes] is added it makes [ˈkam ˈes]. The resulting generalization is that this underlying /p/ will only surface in a morphologically complex word.[77] Despite this, word-final codas are not usually simplified in most of Balearic and Valencian (e.g. camp [ˈkamp]).[78]

Word-initial clusters from Graeco-Latin learned words tend to drop the first phoneme: pneumàtic [nəwˈmatik] (E) / [newˈmatik] (W) ('pneumatic'), pseudònim [səwˈðɔnim] (E) / [sewˈðɔnim] (W) ('pseudonym'), pterodàctil [təɾuˈðaktiɫ] (E) / [teɾoˈðaktil] (W) ('pterodactylus'), gnom [ˈnom] ('gnome').[79]

Word-final obstruents are devoiced; however, they assimilate voicing of the following consonant, e.g. cuc de seda [ˈkuɡ‿də ˈsɛðə] (E) / [ˈkuɡ‿de ˈsɛða] (W) ('silkworm'). In regular and fast speech, stops often assimilate the place of articulation of the following consonant producing phonetic gemination: tot [ˈtod‿ˈbe] → [ˈtob‿ˈbe] ('all good').[80]

Word-final fricatives (except /f/) are voiced before a following vowel; e.g. bus enorme [ˈbuz‿əˈnormə] (E) / [ˈbuz‿eˈnorme] (W) ('huge bus').[81]

Dialectal variation

Dialectal Map of Catalan[82] Eastern dialects: .mw-parser-output .legend{page-break-inside:avoid;break-inside:avoid-column}.mw-parser-output .legend-color{display:inline-block;min-width:1.25em;height:1.25em;line-height:1.25;margin:1px 0;text-align:center;border:1px solid black;background-color:transparent;color:black}.mw-parser-output .legend-text{}  Northern Catalan   Central Catalan   Balearic and Alguerese Western dialects:   North-Western Catalan   Valencian
Dialectal Map of Catalan[82]
Eastern dialects: Western dialects:

The differences in the vocalic systems outlined above are the main criteria used to differentiate between the major dialects: Wheeler distinguishes two major dialect groups, western and eastern dialects; the latter of which only allow [i], [ə], and [u] to appear in unstressed syllables and include Northern Catalan, Central Catalan, Balearic, and Alguerese. Western dialects, which allow any vowel in unstressed syllables, include Valencian and North-Western Catalan.[83]

Regarding consonants, betacism and fricative–affricate alternations are the most prominent differences between dialects.

Other dialectal features are:

Historical development

Main article: Phonological history of Catalan

Catalan shares features with neighboring Romance languages (Occitan, Italian, Sardinian, French, Spanish).[103]

In contrast with other Romance languages, Catalan has many monosyllabic words; and those ending in a wide variety of consonants and some consonant clusters.[104] Also, Catalan has final obstruent devoicing, thus featuring many couplets like amic ('male friend') vs. amiga ('female friend').[104]

Phonological sample

Universal Declaration of Human Rights, Article 1
Original Tots els éssers humans neixen/naixen lliures i iguals en dignitat i en drets.
Són dotats de raó i de consciència, i han de comportar-se fraternalment els uns amb els altres.
Old Catalan (Around the 13th century) IPA [ˈtodz̺‿əlz̺‿ˈes̺əɾz̺‿uˈmanz̺ ˈnəjʃən ˈʎiwɾəz̺‿iːˈɣwalz̺‿ən digniˈtat‿j‿ən ˈdɾəts̺
s̺on dotats̺ ðə raˈo i ðə konˈs̺s̻jɛns̻ja,j‿an də kompoɾˈtaɾs̺ə fɾatəɾnalˈment‿əlz̺‿ˈunz̺‿amb‿əlz̺‿altɾəs̺]
Balearic Catalan IPA [ˈtodz‿əlz‿ˈesəz‿uˈmanz ˈnəʃən ˈʎiwɾəz‿iːˈɣwalz‿ən diŋniˈdat‿j‿ən ˈdɾəts
son dotats ðə rəˈo i ðə konˈsjɛnsjə, j‿an də kompoɾˈtasːə fɾətəɾnalˈment‿əlz‿ˈunz‿əmb‿əlz‿altɾəs]
Eastern Central Catalan IPA [ˈtodz‿əlz‿ˈesəz‿uˈmanz ˈnɛʃən ˈʎiwɾəz‿iːˈɣwalz‿ən diŋniˈtat‿j‿ən ˈdɾɛts
son dutats ðə rəˈo i ðə kunˈsjɛnsjə, j‿an də kumpurˈtasə fɾətərnalˈmen əlz‿ˈunz‿əmb‿əlz‿altɾəs]
Northern Catalan IPA [ˈtudz‿əlz‿ˈe̞səz‿uˈmanz ˈne̞ʃən ˈʎiwɾəz‿iːˈgwalz‿ən diŋniˈtat‿j‿ən ˈdɾe̞ts
sun dutats də rəˈu i də kunˈsjensjə, j‿an də kumpurˈtasə fɾətərnalˈme̞n‿əlz‿ˈunz‿əmb‿əlz‿altɾəs]
North-Western Catalan IPA [ˈtodz‿elz‿ˈesez‿uˈmanz ˈnajʃen ˈʎiwɾez‿iːˈɣwalz‿en diŋniˈtat‿j‿en ˈdɾets
son dotats ðe raˈo‿j ðe konˈsjɛnsja, j‿an de kompoɾˈtase fɾateɾnalˈmen‿elz‿ˈunz‿amb‿elz‿altɾes]
Valencian IPA [ˈtodz‿elz‿ˈeseɾz‿uˈmanz ˈnajʃen ˈʎiwɾez‿iːˈɣwalz‿en diŋniˈtat‿j‿en ˈdɾets
son dotats ðe raˈo‿j ðe konˈsjɛnsja, j‿an de kompoɾˈtaɾse fɾateɾnalˈment‿elz‿ˈunz‿en‿elz‿atɾes]

See also

References

  1. ^ Wheeler (1979)
  2. ^ Mascaró Altimiras (1976)
  3. ^ Recasens Vives (1986)
  4. ^ Hualde (1992:367)
  5. ^ For more information on dialectal variety, see Veny Clar (1989).
  6. ^ Carbonell Costa & Llisterri Boix (1999:62)
  7. ^ Recasens Vives (1996:172)
  8. ^ a b c d Recasens Vives & Pallarès Ramon (2001:288)
  9. ^ a b c d e Wheeler (2005:10–11)
  10. ^ "Voiceless dental plosive – Central". Els sons del català.
    "Voiceless dental plosive – Nord Occidental". Els sons del català.
    "Voiceless dental plosive – Valencià". Els sons del català.
    "Voiced dental plosive – Central". Els sons del català.
    "Voiced dental plosive – Nord Occidental". Els sons del català.
    "Voiced dental plosive – Valencià". Els sons del català.
  11. ^ a b c d e f g h Rafel Fontanals (1999:14)
  12. ^ "Voiceless velar plosive – Central". Els sons del català.
    "Voiceless velar plosive – Nord Occidental". Els sons del català.
    "Voiceless velar plosive – Valencià". Els sons del català.
    "Voiced Velar Plosive – Central". Els sons del català.
    "Voiced Velar Plosive – Nord Occidental". Els sons del català.
    "Voiced Velar Plosive – Valencià". Els sons del català.
  13. ^ a b c d Wheeler (2005:10)
  14. ^ "Voiced Alveolar Nasal – Central". Els sons del català.
    "Voiced Alveolar Nasal – Nord Occidental". Els sons del català.
    "Voiced Alveolar Nasal – Valencià". Els sons del català.
    "Voiced Alveolar Lateral – Central". Els sons del català.
    "Voiced Alveolar Lateral – Nord Occidental". Els sons del català.
    "Voiced Alveolar Flap – Central". Els sons del català.
    "Voiced Alveolar Flap – Nord Occidental". Els sons del català.
    "VOICED ALVEOLAR FLAP – Valencià". Els sons del català.
  15. ^ "Voiceless Alveolar Fricative – Central". Els sons del català.
    "Voiceless Alveolar Fricative – Nord Occidental". Els sons del català.
    "Voiceless Alveolar Fricative – Valencià". Els sons del català.
    "Voiced Alveolar Fricative – Central". Els sons del català.
    "Voiced Alveolar Fricative – Nord Occidental". Els sons del català.
    "Voiced Alveolar Fricative – Valencià". Els sons del català.
    "Voiced Alveolar Trill – Central". Els sons del català.
    "Voiced Alveolar Trill – Nord Occidental". Els sons del català.
    "Voiced Alveolar Trill – Valencià". Els sons del català.
  16. ^ a b c "Voiceless Alveolar Affricate – Central". Els sons del català.
    "Voiceless Alveolar Affricate – Nord-Occidental". Els sons del català.
    "Voiceless Alveolar Affricate – Valencià". Els sons del català.
    "Voiced Alveolar Affricate – Central". Els sons del català.
    "Voiced Alveolar Affricate – Nord-Occidental". Els sons del català.
    "Voiced Alveolar Affricate – Valencià". Els sons del català.
  17. ^ Wheeler (2005:11)
  18. ^ Recasens Vives, Fontdevila & Pallarès Ramon (1995:288)
  19. ^ a b c Recasens Vives & Espinosa (2007:145)
  20. ^ Recasens Vives (1993). Here Recasens labels these Catalan sounds as laminoalveolars palatalitzades 'palatalized lamino-alveolars'
  21. ^ Recasens Vives & Pallarès Ramon (2001). Here the authors label these Catalan sounds as "laminal postalveolar"
  22. ^ Carbonell Costa & Llisterri Boix (1992:53)
  23. ^ Lloret Romañach (2003:278)
  24. ^ Hualde (1992:368)
  25. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Recasens Vives & Espinosa (2005:1)
  26. ^ Carbonell Costa & Llisterri Boix (1992:53–55)
  27. ^ Recasens Vives (1996:190–191)
  28. ^ a b Wheeler (2005:11–12)
  29. ^ a b c Recasens Vives & Espinosa (2007:144)
  30. ^ a b Hualde (1992:370)
  31. ^ Institut d'Estudis Catalans. "tsar tsarina". Diccionari de la llengua catalana (in Catalan) (2nd ed.). Barcelona, Spain. Archived from the original on 14 August 2011.
  32. ^ Institut d'Estudis Catalans. "tsuga". Diccionari de la llengua catalana (in Catalan) (2nd ed.). Barcelona, Spain. Archived from the original on 14 August 2011.
  33. ^ Wheeler (2005:13–14)
  34. ^ Institut d'Estudis Catalans. "txec -a". Diccionari de la llengua catalana (in Catalan) (2nd ed.). Barcelona, Spain. Archived from the original on 14 August 2011.
  35. ^ a b c d e Carbonell Costa & Llisterri Boix (1992:53)
  36. ^ Recasens Vives & Espinosa (2007:148–149)
  37. ^ Wheeler (2005:12)
  38. ^ Veny Clar (2007:51)
  39. ^ Wheeler (2005:13)
  40. ^ a b Wheeler (2005:81)
  41. ^ a b Recasens Vives & Espinosa (2005:20)
  42. ^ Recasens Vives & Espinosa (2005:3)
  43. ^ Padgett (2009:432)
  44. ^ Wheeler (1979)
  45. ^ See Bonet Alsina & Mascaró Altimiras (1997) for more information.
  46. ^ Recasens Vives (1996:90–92)
  47. ^ Recasens Vives (1996:81)
  48. ^ Recasens Vives (1996:130–131)
  49. ^ Recasens Vives (1996:59)
  50. ^ a b Recasens Vives (1996:66, 141)
  51. ^ Recasens Vives (1996:69, 80–81)
  52. ^ Harrison (1997:2)
  53. ^ Recasens Vives (1996:70)
  54. ^ Carbonell Costa & Llisterri Boix (1999:62)
  55. ^ Saborit Vilar (2009:23)
  56. ^ a b Wheeler (2005:38)
  57. ^ a b Also represented as ê (/ə/) by some linguists (e.g. Antoni Febrer i Cardona).
  58. ^ Wheeler (2005:54)
  59. ^ Carbonell Costa & Llisterri Boix (1992:54–55)
  60. ^ Recasens Vives (1996:75–76)
  61. ^ Recasens Vives (1996:128–129)
  62. ^ Recasens Vives (1996:138)
  63. ^ Carbonell Costa & Llisterri Boix (1992:54)
  64. ^ Institut d'Estudis Catalans (2009). "I.5 Els diftongs, els triftongs i els hiats". Gramàtica de la llengua catalana (PDF) (in Catalan) (Provisional draft ed.). Archived from the original (PDF) on 14 January 2016.
  65. ^ e.g. Lleó Pujol (1970), Wheeler (1979)
  66. ^ Wheeler (2005:101)
  67. ^ Mascaró Altimiras (2001:580–581)
  68. ^ Mascaró Altimiras (2001:581)
  69. ^ Fabra Poch (2006:24)
  70. ^ Lacreu Cuesta (2002:53)
  71. ^ Wheeler (2005:36)
  72. ^ Carbonell Costa & Llisterri Boix (1999:63)
  73. ^ Wheeler (2005:78)
  74. ^ Wheeler (2005:166)
  75. ^ Wheeler (2005:145)
  76. ^ Herrick (2000:70)
  77. ^ Herrick (2000:72)
  78. ^ Recasens Vives (1996:192)
  79. ^ Recasens Vives (1996:175)
  80. ^ Badia i Margarit (1988:35)
  81. ^ Recasens Vives & Espinosa (2007)
  82. ^ Wheeler, Yates & Dols Salas (1999:xviii)
  83. ^ Wheeler (2005)
  84. ^ Recasens Vives (1996:99)
  85. ^ Recasens Vives (1996:68)
  86. ^ Recasens Vives (1996:131–132)
  87. ^ Recasens Vives (1996:138–139)
  88. ^ Recasens Vives (1996:311–312)
  89. ^ Recasens Vives (1996:266)
  90. ^ Recasens Vives (1996:321)
  91. ^ Recasens Vives (1996:307)
  92. ^ Wheeler (2005:34–35)
  93. ^ Wheeler (2005:22–23)
  94. ^ Wheeler (2005:15)
  95. ^ Wheeler (2005:22)
  96. ^ Recasens Vives (1996:91–92)
  97. ^ Wheeler (2005:24)
  98. ^ Saborit Vilar (2009:53)
  99. ^ Saborit Vilar (2009:57)
  100. ^ Rafel Fontanals (1981), cited in Recasens Vives & Espinosa (2007:147)
  101. ^ Recasens Vives & Espinosa (2007:147)
  102. ^ Wheeler (2005:23)
  103. ^ Wheeler (2005:1)
  104. ^ a b c d e f Ferrater Soler (1977:630)
  105. ^ Hall, Jacqueline (2001). Convivència in Catalonia: Languages Living Together. Barcelona, Spain: Fundació Jaume Bofill. p. 19.

Bibliography

Further reading