This article is about the phonology and phonetics of the Slovak language.

Vowels

Monophthongs of Slovak with their allophonic ranges, from Pavlík (2004:95). The short open front vowel /æ/ surfaces as an opening diphthong [ɛɐ], which is how it is transcribed in phonetic transcription.
Monophthongs of Slovak with their allophonic ranges, from Pavlík (2004:95). The short open front vowel /æ/ surfaces as an opening diphthong [ɛɐ], which is how it is transcribed in phonetic transcription.
Diphthongs of Slovak, from Pavlík (2004:97)
Diphthongs of Slovak, from Pavlík (2004:97)
Front Back
short long short long
Close i u
Mid e () ɔ (ɔː)
Open (æ) a
Diphthongs (ɪu)   ɪe   ɪɐ   ʊɔ

Phonetic realization

Transcriptions

Sources differ in the way they transcribe Slovak. The differences are listed below.

Transcription systems
This article Short 2002[11] Pavlík 2004[20] Krech et al 2009[21] Hanulíková & Hamann 2010[4]
i i i
i̞ː i̞ː
u u u
u̞ː u̞ː
e e ɛ ɛ
e̞ː ɛː ɛː
ɔ o ɔ̝ ɔ ɔ
ɔː ɔ̝ː ɔː ɔː
æ æ ɛ̠̆ɐ̟̆ æ æ
a a ɐ̞ a a
ɐ̞ː
ɪu iu ĭ̞ʊ ɪ̯u̞
ɪe ie ĭ̞e̞ i̯ɛ ɪ̯ɛ
ɪɐ ia ɪ̟̆a̽ i̯a ɪ̯a
ʊɔ uo ŭ̞o̞ u̯ɔ ʊ̯ɔ

Consonants

Slovak consonant phonemes[19]
Labial Alveolar Retroflex Palatal Velar Glottal
Nasal m n ɲ
Plosive voiceless p t c [22] k
voiced b d ɟ [22] ɡ
Affricate voiceless ts
voiced dz
Fricative voiceless f s ʂ x
voiced v z ʐ ɦ
Approximant plain j
lateral short l ʎ
geminated
Trill short r
geminated

Some additional notes includes the following (transcriptions in IPA unless otherwise stated):

Stress

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In the standard language, the stress is always on the first syllable of a word (or on the preceding preposition, see below). This is not the case in certain dialects. Eastern dialects have penultimate stress (as in Polish), which at times makes them difficult to understand for speakers of standard Slovak. Some of the north-central dialects have a weak stress on the first syllable, which becomes stronger and moves to the penultimate in certain cases. Monosyllabic conjunctions, monosyllabic short personal pronouns and auxiliary verb forms of the verb byť (to be) are usually unstressed.

Prepositions form a single prosodic unit with the following word, unless the word is long (four syllables or more) or the preposition stands at the beginning of a sentence.

Official transcriptions

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Slovak linguists do not usually use IPA for phonetic transcription of their own language or others, but have their own system based on the Slovak alphabet. Many English language textbooks make use of this alternative transcription system. In the following table, pronunciation of each grapheme is given in this system as well as in the IPA.

grapheme IPA transcr. example
a /a/ a mama ('mother')
á /aː/ á láska ('love')
ä /æ/ a, e, ä mäso ('meat, flesh')
b /b/ b brat ('brother')
c /ts/ c cukor ('sugar')
č /tʂ/ č čaj ('tea')
d /d/ d dom ('house')
ď /ɟ/ ď ďakovať ('to thank')
dz /dz/ ʒ bryndza ('sheep cheese')
/dʐ/ ǯ em ('jam')
e /e/ e meno ('name')
é /eː/ é bazén ('pool')
f /f/ f farba ('colour')
g /ɡ/ g egreš ('gooseberry')
h /ɦ/ h hlava ('head')
ch /x/ x chlieb ('bread')
i /i/ i pivo ('beer')
í /iː/ í gombík ('button')
j /j/ j jahoda ('strawberry')
k /k/ k kniha ('book')
l /l/, /l̩/ l plot ('fence')
ĺ /l̩ː/ ĺ mĺkvy ('prone to silence') [ˈml̩ːkʋi] 
ľ /ʎ/ ľ moľa ('clothes moth') [ˈmɔʎa] 
m /m/ m pomoc ('n. help')
n /n/ n nos ('nose')
ň /ɲ/ ň studňa ('n. well')
o /ɔ/ o kostol ('church')
ó /ɔː/ ó balón ('balloon')
ô /ʊɔ/ ŭo kôň ('horse') [ˈkʊɔɲ] 
p /p/ p lopta ('ball')
q /kv/ kv squash (squash)
r /r/, /r̩/ r more ('sea')
ŕ /r̩ː/ ŕ vŕba ('willow tree')
s /s/ s strom ('tree')
š /ʂ/ š myš ('mouse')
t /t/ t stolička ('chair')
ť /c/ ť ťava ('camel')
u /u/ u ruka ('arm')
ú /uː/ ú dúha ('rainbow')
v /v/ v veža ('tower')
w v whiskey ('whiskey')
x /ks/ ks xylofón ('xylophone')
y /i/ i syr ('cheese')
ý /iː/ í rým ('rhyme')
z /z/ z koza ('goat')
ž /ʐ/ ž žaba ('frog')

Sample

The sample text is a reading of the first sentence of The North Wind and the Sun. The transcription is based on a recording of a 28-year-old female speaker of standard Slovak from Bratislava.[41]

Phonemic transcription

/ˈras sa ˈseveraːk a ˈsl̩nkɔ ˈɦaːdali | ˈktɔ z ɲix je ˈsilɲejʂiː/

Phonetic transcription

[ˈras sa ˈseʋeraːk a ˈsl̩ŋkɔ ˈɦaːdali | ˈktɔ z ɲiɣ je ˈsilɲejʂiː][42]

Orthographic version

Raz sa severák a slnko hádali, kto z nich je silnejší.[43]

See also

Slovak orthography

References

  1. ^ a b Pavlík (2004), pp. 93–95.
  2. ^ Short (2002), p. 535.
  3. ^ a b c d Hanulíková & Hamann (2010), p. 375.
  4. ^ a b c d Hanulíková & Hamann (2010), p. 376.
  5. ^ Kráľ (1988), pp. 64–65.
  6. ^ Kráľ (1988), p. 64.
  7. ^ Kráľ (1988), pp. 57, 64–65, 103.
  8. ^ Short (2002), pp. 534–535.
  9. ^ a b Pavlík (2004), p. 94.
  10. ^ a b Kráľ (1988), p. 55.
  11. ^ a b Short (2002), p. 534.
  12. ^ Pavlík (2004), pp. 93, 95.
  13. ^ Pavlík (2004), pp. 94–95.
  14. ^ Kráľ (1988), pp. 54, 92.
  15. ^ Pavlík (2004), p. 95.
  16. ^ a b Pavlík (2004), pp. 96–97.
  17. ^ Pavlík (2004), pp. 95, 97.
  18. ^ a b Pavlík (2004), p. 105.
  19. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Hanulíková & Hamann (2010), p. 374.
  20. ^ Pavlík (2004), pp. 95–96.
  21. ^ Krech et al. (2009), p. 201.
  22. ^ a b c Pavlík (2004), pp. 99, 106.
  23. ^ Kráľ (1988:73). The author describes /n/ as apical alveolar, but the corresponding image shows a laminal denti-alveolar pronunciation (which he does not discuss).
  24. ^ Kráľ (1988), pp. 72, 74–75, 80–82.
  25. ^ Kráľ (1988), p. 72.
  26. ^ Pavlík (2004), pp. 98–99.
  27. ^ Kráľ (1988), pp. 74–75.
  28. ^ Pavlík (2004), pp. 103–104.
  29. ^ Dvončová, Jenča & Kráľ (1969:?), cited in Hanulíková & Hamann (2010:374)
  30. ^ Pauliny (1979), p. 112.
  31. ^ Kráľ (1988), pp. 80–82.
  32. ^ Pavlík (2004:99–100, 102). This author transcribes the fricative part with ç, ʝ, which is incorrect as alveolo-palatal fricatives can only be sibilant (thus [ɕ, ʑ]).
  33. ^ Recasens (2013), pp. 11, 13.
  34. ^ a b c Kráľ (1988), p. 82.
  35. ^ a b c Dvončová, Jenča & Kráľ (1969), pp. 94–95.
  36. ^ Kráľ (1988), pp. 78–79.
  37. ^ Kráľ (1988), p. 80.
  38. ^ Hanulíková & Hamann (2010), pp. 374, 376.
  39. ^ Recasens (2013), p. 15.
  40. ^ Pavlík (2004), p. 106.
  41. ^ Hanulíková & Hamann (2010), p. 373.
  42. ^ Based on the transcription in Hanulíková & Hamann (2010:377). Some symbols were changed to keep the article consistent – see the section above.
  43. ^ Hanulíková & Hamann (2010), p. 377.

Bibliography

  • Dvončová, Jana; Jenča, Gejza; Kráľ, Ábel (1969), Atlas slovenských hlások, Bratislava: Vydavateľstvo Slovenskej akadémie vied
  • Hanulíková, Adriana; Hamann, Silke (2010), "Slovak" (PDF), Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 40 (3): 373–378, doi:10.1017/S0025100310000162
  • Kráľ, Ábel (1988), Pravidlá slovenskej výslovnosti, Bratislava: Slovenské pedagogické nakladateľstvo
  • Krech, Eva Maria; Stock, Eberhard; Hirschfeld, Ursula; Anders, Lutz-Christian (2009), "7.3.15 Slowakisch", Deutsches Aussprachewörterbuch, Berlin, New York: Walter de Gruyter, ISBN 978-3-11-018202-6
  • Pauliny, Eugen (1979), Slovenská fonológia, Bratislava: Slovenské pedagogické nakladateľstvo
  • Recasens, Daniel (2013), "On the articulatory classification of (alveolo)palatal consonants" (PDF), Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 43 (1): 1–22, doi:10.1017/S0025100312000199, S2CID 145463946
  • Rubach, Jerzy (1993), The Lexical Phonology of Slovak, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0198240006
  • Short, David (2002), "Slovak", in Comrie, Bernard; Corbett, Greville G. (eds.), The Slavonic Languages, London and New York: Routledge, pp. 533–592, ISBN 9780415280785
  • Pavlík, Radoslav (2004), Bosák, Ján; Petrufová, Magdaléna (eds.), "Slovenské hlásky a medzinárodná fonetická abeceda" [Slovak Speech Sounds and the International Phonetic Alphabet] (PDF), Jazykovedný časopis [The Linguistic Journal] (in Slovak), Bratislava: Slovak Academic Press, spol. s r. o. (55/2): 87–109, ISSN 0021-5597

Further reading

  • Bujalka, Anton; Baláž, Peter; Rýzková, Anna (1996), Slovenský jazyk I. Zvuková stránka jazyka. Náuka o slovnej zásobe, Bratislava: Univerzita Komenského
  • Ďurovič, Ľubomír (1975), "Konsonantický systém slovenčiny", International Journal of Slavic Linguistics and Poetics, 19: 7–29
  • Hála, Bohuslav (1929), Základy spisovné výslovnosti slovenské a srovnání s výslovností českou, Prague: Universita Karlova
  • Isačenko, Alexandr Vasilievič (1968), Spektrografická analýza slovenských hlások, Bratislava: Vydavateľstvo Slovenskej akadémie vied
  • Pauliny, Eugen (1963), Fonologický vývin slovenčiny, Bratislava: Vydavateľstvo Slovenskej akadémie vied
  • Pauliny, Eugen; Ru̇žička, Jozef; Štolc, Jozef (1968), Slovenská gramatika, Slovenské pedagogické nakladateľstvo
  • Rendár, Ľubomír (2006), "Dištinkcia mäkkeho ľ" (PDF), in Olšiak, Marcel (ed.), Varia XIV: Zborník materiálov zo XIV. kolokvia mládych jazykovedcov, Bratislava: Slovenská jazykovedná spoločnosť pri SAV a Katedra slovenského jazyka FF UKF v Nitre., pp. 51–59, ISBN 80-89037-04-6
  • Rendár, Ľubomír (2008), "Hlasový začiatok v spravodajstve" (PDF), in Kralčák, Ľubomír (ed.), Hovorená podoba jazyka v médiách, Nitra: Univerzita Konštantína Filozofa v Nitre, pp. 184–191, ISBN 978-80-8094-293-9
  • Rendár, Ľubomír (2009), "Fonácia a hlasové začiatky" (PDF), in Ološtiak, Martin; Ivanová, Martina; Gianitsová-Ološtiaková, Lucia (eds.), Varia XVIII: zborník plných príspevkov z XVIII. kolokvia mladých jazykovedcov (Prešov–Kokošovce-Sigord 3.–5. 12. 2008)., Prešov: Prešovská univerzita v Prešove, pp. 613–625
  • Rubach, Jerzy (1995), "Representations and the organization of rules in Slavic phonology", in Goldsmith, John A. (ed.), The handbook of phonological theory (1st ed.), Oxford: Blackwell, pp. 848–866, ISBN 978-0631180623
  • Sabol, Ján (1961), "O výslovnosti spoluhlásky v", Slovenská reč, 6: 342–348
  • Tabačeková, Edita (1981), "Fonetická realizácia labiodentál v spisovnej slovenčine" (PDF), Slovenská reč, 46: 279–290
  • Zygis, Marzena (2003), "Phonetic and Phonological Aspects of Slavic Sibilant Fricatives" (PDF), ZAS Papers in Linguistics, 3: 175–213, doi:10.21248/zaspil.32.2003.191