|Open central unrounded vowel|
|IPA Number||304 415|
|Unicode (hex)||U+0061 U+0308|
Vowels beside dots are: unrounded • rounded
The open central unrounded vowel, or low central unrounded vowel, is a type of vowel sound, used in many spoken languages. While the International Phonetic Alphabet officially has no dedicated letter for this sound between front [a] and back [ɑ], it is normally written ⟨a⟩. If precision is required, it can be specified by using diacritics, typically centralized ⟨ä⟩. However, it has been argued[by whom?] that the purported distinction between a front and central open vowel is based on outdated phonetic theories, and that cardinal [a] is the only open vowel, while [ɑ], like [æ], is a near-open vowel.
It is usual to use plain ⟨a⟩ for an open central vowel and, if needed, ⟨æ⟩ for an open front vowel. Sinologists may use the letter ⟨ᴀ⟩ (small capital A). The IPA has voted against officially adopting this symbol in 1976, 1989, and 2012.
The Hamont-Achel dialect of Limburgish has been reported to contrast long open front, central and back unrounded vowels. This is extremely unusual.
Most languages have some form of an unrounded open vowel. Because the IPA uses ⟨a⟩ for both front and central unrounded open vowels, it is not always clear whether a particular language uses the former or the latter. However, there may not actually be a difference. (See Vowel#Acoustics.)
|Burmese||မာ / ma||[mä]||'hard'||Oral allophone of /a/ in open syllables; realized as near-open [ɐ] in other environments.|
|Catalan||sac||[säk]||'bag'||See Catalan phonology|
|See Standard Chinese phonology
The "a" of 他 is a nasal vowel such like nasal [ä], though both are same in most Romanize ways whatever as Latin alphabets or in the system of phonetic symbols called 注音符號 [ʈ͡ʂu˥˩ in˥˥ fu˧˥ xäu˥˩] or [ʈ͡ʂu˥˩ in˥˥ fu˧˥ häu˥˩] or ㄅㄆㄇㄈ [pə˥˥ pʰə˥˥ mə˥˥ fə˥˥] as informal name, which are used in Taiwan especially for child learning the sound of each words, or the other people finding out the difficults words they don't know about the sounds.
他、她、它、牠 are [tʰã˥˥], the others words often used and are wrote no different except the symbols of tones , any tones of those words are without the nasalization in the vowels, such like 塌 [tʰä˥˥], 塔 [tʰä˨˩˦], 踏 [tʰä˥˩].
嗎、媽 [mã˥˥], 麻、蔴 [mã˧˥], 馬、螞、碼、瑪 [mã˨˩˦], 罵 [mã˥˩]; 嘛 [mã] has a short cut at the end of sound.
拿 [nã˧˥], 哪 [nã˨˩˦], 那、納、那 [nã˥˩]. Canada as 加拿大 [t͡siä˥˥ nã˧˥ tä˥˩], Montana as 蒙大拿 [mə̃ŋ˧˥ tä˥˩ nã˧˥].
相 is [ɕiäŋ˥˥] or [ɕiäŋ˥˩], depends on the word in which expression. 相信 [ɕiäŋ˥˥ ɕin˥˩], believe; 相機 [ɕiäŋ˥˩ t͡si˥˥ ], the camera especially for taking the pictures.
|Czech||prach||[präx]||'dust'||See Czech phonology|
|Danish||Standard||barn||[ˈpɑ̈ːˀn]||'child'||Typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨ɑː⟩. See Danish phonology|
|Dutch||zaal||[zäːɫ]||'hall'||Ranges from front to central; in non-standard accents it may be back. See Dutch phonology|
|English||Australian||bra||[bɹɐ̞ː]||'bra'||Typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨ɐː⟩. See Australian English phonology|
|East Anglian||Used mostly by middle-class speakers; can be front [aː] instead.|
|General American||Can be back [ɑ̟ː] instead.|
|New Zealand||Can be more front [a̠ː] and/or higher [ɐ̟ː ~ ɐː] instead. It may be transcribed in IPA with ⟨ɐː⟩. See New Zealand English phonology|
|Some Canadian speakers||trap||[t̠ɹ̝̊äp̚]||'trap'||See Canadian Shift and English phonology|
|Some English English speakers||[t̠ɹ̝̊äʔp]||Used in Multicultural London English and Northern England English. More front [æ ~ a] in other dialects.|
|French||Parisian||patte||[pät̪]||'paw'||Older speakers have two contrastive open vowels: front /a/ and back /ɑ/. See French phonology|
|German||Katze||[ˈkʰät͡sə]||'cat'||Can be more front or more back in regional Standard German. See Standard German phonology|
|Hungarian||láb||[läːb]||'leg'||See Hungarian phonology|
|Italian||casa||[ˈkäːsä]||'home'||See Italian phonology|
|Japanese||蚊 / ka||[kä]||'mosquito'||See Japanese phonology|
|Limburgish||Hamont-Achel dialect||zaak||[ˈzǎ̠ːk]||'business'||Contrasts with front [aː] and back [ɑː].|
|Lithuanian||ratas||[räːtɐs̪]||'wheel'||See Lithuanian phonology|
|Malay||Standard||رق / rak||[räʔ]||'shelf'||See Malay phonology|
|Kelantan-Pattani||سست / sesat||[səˈsäʔ]ˈ||'lost'||See Kelantan-Pattani Malay|
|Polish||kat||[kät̪]||'executioner'||See Polish phonology|
|Portuguese||vá||[vä]||'go'||See Portuguese phonology|
|Romanian||cal||[käl]||'horse'||See Romanian phonology|
|Serbo-Croatian||пас / pas||[pâ̠s̪]||'dog'||See Serbo-Croatian phonology|
|Spanish||rata||[ˈrät̪ä]||'rat'||See Spanish phonology|
|Swedish||Central Standard||bank||[bäŋk]||'bank'||Also described as front [a]. See Swedish phonology|
|Thai||บางกอก / baang-gɔ̀ɔk||[bǟːŋ.kɔ̀ːk̚] (help·info)||'Bangkok'||See Thai phonology|
|Turkish||Standard||at||[ät̪]||'horse'||Also described as back [ɑ]. See Turkish phonology|
|Welsh||siarad||[ʃäräd]||'talk'||See Welsh phonology|
|Yoruba||àbá||[ä̀.bä́]||'idea'||See Yoruba phonology|