Close-mid central unrounded vowel
ɘ
IPA Number397
Audio sample
Encoding
Entity (decimal)ɘ
Unicode (hex)U+0258
X-SAMPA@\
Braille⠲ (braille pattern dots-256)⠑ (braille pattern dots-15)

The close-mid central unrounded vowel, or high-mid central unrounded vowel,[1] is a type of vowel sound used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ɘ. This is a mirrored letter e and should not be confused with the schwa ə, which is a turned e. It was added to the IPA in 1993; before that, this vowel was transcribed ë (Latin small letter e with diaeresis, not Cyrillic small letter yo). Certain older sources[2] transcribe this vowel ɤ̈.

The ɘ letter may be used with a lowering diacritic ɘ̞, to denote the mid central unrounded vowel.

Conversely, ə, the symbol for the mid central vowel may be used with a raising diacritic ə̝ to denote the close-mid central unrounded vowel, although that is more accurately written with an additional unrounding diacritic ə̝͑ to explicitly denote the lack of rounding (the canonical value of IPA ə is undefined for rounding).

Features

Occurrence

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Cotabato Manobo[3] [example needed] May be transcribed in IPA with ə.
Dinka Luanyjang[4] ŋeŋ [ŋɘ́ŋ] 'jawbone' Short allophone of /e/.[4]
English Australian[5][6] bird [bɘːd] 'bird' Typically transcribed in IPA with ɜː. See Australian English phonology
Cardiff[7] foot [fɘt] 'foot' Less often rounded [ɵ];[8] corresponds to [ʊ] in other dialects. See English phonology
New Zealand[9] bit [bɘt] 'bit' Merger of /ə/ and /ɪ/ found in other dialects. See New Zealand English phonology
Southern American[10] nut [nɘt] 'nut' Some dialects.[10] Corresponds to /ʌ/ in other dialects. See English phonology
Estonian[11] kõrv [kɘrv] 'ear' Typically transcribed in IPA with ɤ; can be close-mid back [ɤ] or close back [ɯ] instead, depending on the speaker.[11] See Estonian phonology
Irish Munster[12] sáile [ˈsˠɰaːlʲə̝] 'salt water' Usually transcribed in IPA with [ɪ̽]. It is an allophone of /ə/ next to non-palatal slender consonants.[12] See Irish phonology
Jebero[13] ɨx[e/ï][k/c/q] [ˈiʃɘk] 'bat'
Kaingang[14] me [ˈᵐbɘ] 'tail' Varies between central [ɘ] and back [ɤ].[15]
Kalagan Kaagan[16] [miˈwə̝ːʔ] 'lost' Allophone of /ɨ/ in word-final stressed syllables before /ʔ/; can be transcribed in IPA with ə.[16]
Kensiu[17] [ɟɚ̝h] 'to trim' Rhotacized; may be transcribed in IPA with ɚ.[17]
Kera[18] [t͡ʃə̝̄wā̠a̠] 'fire' Allophone of /a/; typically transcribed in IPA with ə.[18]
Korean[19] /ŏŏleun [ə̝ːɾɯ̽n] 'adult' May be transcribed in IPA with əː. See Korean phonology
Kurdish Kurmanji dil/دل [dɘl] 'heart' Allophone of /ɪ/. Sorani alphabet does not transcribe this vowel phoneme in text.
Sorani
Lizu[20] [Fkə̝][clarification needed] 'eagle' Allophone of /ə/ after velar stops.[20]
Mapudungun[21] elün [ë̝ˈlɘn] 'to give (something)'
Mongolian[22] үсэр [usɘɾɘ̆] 'jump'
Mono[23] dœ [də̝] 'be (equative)' May be transcribed in IPA with ə.[23]
Polish[24] mysz [mɘ̟ʂ] 'mouse' Somewhat fronted;[24] typically transcribed in IPA with ɨ. See Polish phonology
Romanian Moldavian dialect[25] casă [ˈkäsɘ] 'house' Corresponds to [ə] in standard Romanian. See Romanian phonology
Shiwiar[26] [example needed]
Temne[27] pər [pə̝́r] 'incite' Typically transcribed in IPA with ə.[27]
Vietnamese[28] v [vɘ˨˩ˀ] 'wife' Typically transcribed in IPA with ɤ. See Vietnamese phonology
Xumi Upper[29] [LPmɘ̃dɐ] 'upstairs' Nasalized; occurs only in this word.[29] It is realized as mid [ə̃] in Lower Xumi.[30]
Zapotec Tilquiapan[31] ne [nɘ] 'and' Most common realization of /e/.[31]

Notes

  1. ^ While the International Phonetic Association prefers the terms "close" and "open" for vowel height, many linguists use "high" and "low".
  2. ^ For example Collins & Mees (1990).
  3. ^ Kerr (1988:110)
  4. ^ a b Remijsen & Manyang (2009:117, 119)
  5. ^ Cox (2006:?)
  6. ^ Durie & Hajek (1994:?)
  7. ^ Collins & Mees (1990:93)
  8. ^ Collins & Mees (1990:92)
  9. ^ Bauer et al. (2007)
  10. ^ a b Roca & Johnson (1999:186)
  11. ^ a b Asu & Teras (2009), pp. 368–369.
  12. ^ a b Ó Sé (2000)
  13. ^ Valenzuela & Gussenhoven (2013:101)
  14. ^ Jolkesky (2009:676–677 and 682)
  15. ^ Jolkesky (2009:676 and 682)
  16. ^ a b Wendel & Wendel (1978:198)
  17. ^ a b Bishop (1996:230)
  18. ^ a b Pearce (2011:251)
  19. ^ Lee (1999:121)
  20. ^ a b Chirkova & Chen (2013a:79)
  21. ^ Sadowsky et al. (2013:92)
  22. ^ Iivonen & Harnud (2005:62, 66–67)
  23. ^ a b Olson (2004:235)
  24. ^ a b Jassem (2003:105) The source transcribes this sound with the symbol ɨ but one can see from the vowel chart at pag. 105 that the Polish sound is closer to [ɘ] than to [ɨ].
  25. ^ Pop (1938), p. 29.
  26. ^ Fast Mowitz (1975:2)
  27. ^ a b Kanu & Tucker (2010:249)
  28. ^ Hoang (1965:24)
  29. ^ a b Chirkova, Chen & Kocjančič Antolík (2013:389)
  30. ^ Chirkova & Chen (2013b:370)
  31. ^ a b Merrill (2008:109–110)

References

  • Asu, Eva Liina; Teras, Pire (2009), "Estonian", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 39 (3): 367–372, doi:10.1017/s002510030999017x
  • Bauer, Laurie; Warren, Paul; Bardsley, Dianne; Kennedy, Marianna; Major, George (2007), "New Zealand English", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 37 (1): 97–102, doi:10.1017/S0025100306002830
  • Bishop, Nancy (1996), "A preliminary description of Kensiu (Maniq) phonology" (PDF), Mon–Khmer Studies Journal, 25
  • Chirkova, Katia; Chen, Yiya (2013a), "Lizu", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 43 (1): 75–86, doi:10.1017/S0025100312000242
  • Chirkova, Katia; Chen, Yiya (2013b), "Xumi, Part 1: Lower Xumi, the Variety of the Lower and Middle Reaches of the Shuiluo River" (PDF), Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 43 (3): 363–379, doi:10.1017/S0025100313000157
  • Chirkova, Katia; Chen, Yiya; Kocjančič Antolík, Tanja (2013), "Xumi, Part 2: Upper Xumi, the Variety of the Upper Reaches of the Shuiluo River" (PDF), Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 43 (3): 381–396, doi:10.1017/S0025100313000169
  • Collins, Beverley; Mees, Inger M. (1990), "The Phonetics of Cardiff English", in Coupland, Nikolas; Thomas, Alan Richard (eds.), English in Wales: Diversity, Conflict, and Change, Multilingual Matters Ltd., pp. 87–103, ISBN 1-85359-032-0
  • Cox, F.M. (2006), "The acoustic characteristics of /hVd/ vowels in the speech of some Australian teenagers", Australian Journal of Linguistics, 26: 147–179, doi:10.1080/07268600600885494, S2CID 62226994
  • Durie, M.; Hajek, J. (1994), "A revised standard phonemic orthography for Australian English vowels", Australian Journal of Linguistics, 14 (1): 93–107, doi:10.1080/07268609408599503
  • Fast Mowitz, Gerhard (1975), Sistema fonológico del idioma achual, Lima: Instituto Lingüístico de Verano
  • Hoang, Thi Quynh Hoa (1965), A phonological contrastive study of Vietnamese and English (PDF), Lubbock, Texas: Texas Technological College, archived from the original (PDF) on 2015-10-01, retrieved 2015-09-30
  • Iivonen, Antti; Harnud, Huhe (2005), "Acoustical comparison of the monophthong systems in Finnish, Mongolian and Udmurt", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 35 (1): 59–71, doi:10.1017/S002510030500191X, S2CID 145733117
  • Jassem, Wiktor (2003), "Polish", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 33 (1): 103–107, doi:10.1017/S0025100303001191
  • Jolkesky, Marcelo Pinho de Valhery (2009), "Fonologia e prosódia do Kaingáng falado em Cacique Doble", Anais do SETA, 3, Campinas: Editora do IEL-UNICAMP: 675–685
  • Kanu, Sullay M.; Tucker, Benjamin V. (2010), "Temne", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 40 (2): 247–253, doi:10.1017/S002510031000006X
  • Kerr, Harland (1988), "Cotabato Manobo Grammar" (PDF), Studies in Philippine Linguistics, 7 (1): 1–123, archived from the original (PDF) on 2015-05-11
  • Krech, Eva Maria; Stock, Eberhard; Hirschfeld, Ursula; Anders, Lutz-Christian (2009), Deutsches Aussprachewörterbuch, Berlin, New York: Walter de Gruyter, ISBN 978-3-11-018202-6
  • Lee, Hyun Bok (1999), "Korean", Handbook of the International Phonetic Association, Cambridge University Press, pp. 120–122, ISBN 0-521-63751-1
  • Merrill, Elizabeth (2008), "Tilquiapan Zapotec" (PDF), Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 38 (1): 107–114, doi:10.1017/S0025100308003344
  • Mokari, Payam Ghaffarvand; Werner, Stefan (2016), Dziubalska-Kolaczyk, Katarzyna (ed.), "An acoustic description of spectral and temporal characteristics of Azerbaijani vowels", Poznań Studies in Contemporary Linguistics, 52 (3), doi:10.1515/psicl-2016-0019, S2CID 151826061
  • Olson, Kenneth S. (2004), "Mono" (PDF), Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 34 (2): 233–238, doi:10.1017/S0025100304001744
  • Ó Sé, Diarmuid (2000), Gaeilge Chorca Dhuibhne (in Irish), Dublin: Institiúid Teangeolaíochta Éireann, ISBN 0-946452-97-0
  • Pearce, Mary (2011), "Kera", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 41 (2): 249–258, doi:10.1017/S0025100311000168, S2CID 232344047
  • Pop, Sever (1938), Micul Atlas Linguistic Român, Muzeul Limbii Române Cluj
  • Remijsen, Bert; Manyang, Caguor Adong (2009), "Luanyjang Dinka", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 39 (1): 113–124, doi:10.1017/S0025100308003605, hdl:20.500.11820/ccca8aff-adb2-42c0-9daa-f1e5777ee69f
  • Roca, Iggy; Johnson, Wyn (1999), A Course in Phonology, Blackwell Publishing, ISBN 0-631-21345-7
  • Sadowsky, Scott; Painequeo, Héctor; Salamanca, Gastón; Avelino, Heriberto (2013), "Mapudungun", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 43 (1): 87–96, doi:10.1017/S0025100312000369, archived from the original on 2022-04-25, retrieved 2015-11-04
  • Valenzuela, Pilar M.; Gussenhoven, Carlos (2013), "Shiwilu (Jebero)" (PDF), Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 43 (1): 97–106, doi:10.1017/S0025100312000370
  • Wendel, Åsa; Wendel, Dag (1978), "Kaagan-Kalagan phonemic statement" (PDF), Studies in Philippine Linguistics, 2 (1): 191–203, archived from the original (PDF) on 2015-05-11