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Voiced retroflex affricate
IPA Number106 (137)
Audio sample
Entity (decimal)ɖ​͡​ʐ
Unicode (hex)U+0256 U+0361 U+0290

The voiced retroflex sibilant affricate is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ⟨d̠͡ʐ ⟩, sometimes simplified to ⟨dʐ ⟩ or ⟨ꭦ ⟩. It occurs in such languages as Polish (the laminal affricate ) and Northwest Caucasian languages (apical).


Features of the voiced retroflex affricate:


Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Asturian Some dialects ḷḷuna ['ɖ͡ʐunä] 'moon' Corresponds to /ʎ/ in other dialects. See Che Vaqueira
Belarusian джаз [ɖ͡ʐas] 'jazz' Laminal. See Belarusian phonology
Chinese Wu [ɖ͡ʐaŋ] 'to grow' Only found in a few Wu dialects.
Some Mandarin speakers 广州 [kwaŋ˨˩ ɖ͡ʐoʊ˥˥] 'Guangzhou'
Khowar[1] ݮـنـݮـیر [ɖ͡ʐanɖ͡ʐer] 'chain' -
Polish Standard[2][3] em [ɖ͡ʐɛm] 'jam' Laminal; it's transcribed /d͡ʒ/ by most Polish scholars. See Polish phonology
Southeastern Cuyavian dialects[4] dzwon [ɖ͡ʐvɔn̪] 'bell' Some speakers. It's a result of hypercorrecting the more popular merger of /ɖ͡ʐ/ and /d͡z/ into [d͡z].
Suwałki dialect[5]
Northern Qiang vvdhe [ʁɖ͡ʐə] 'star'
Serbo-Croatian[6][7] џеп/ep [ɖ͡ʐê̞p] 'pocket' Apical. It may be palato-alveolar instead, depending on the dialect. See Serbo-Croatian phonology
Slovak[8] ús [ɖ͡ʐu̞ːs] 'juice' Laminal.
Torwali[9] حؕـىگ [ɖ͡ʐiɡ̥] 'long' Contrasts with a palatal affricate.
Yi / rry [ɖ͡ʐɪ˧] 'tooth'

Voiced retroflex non-sibilant affricate

Voiced retroflex non-sibilant affricate



Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Malagasy[10] [example needed] Also described as regular plosives, trilled affricates and sibilant affricates.

See also


  1. ^ Farid Ahmad Raza Booni Chitral. "Preliminary Grapheme to Phoneme Khowar Alphabet Chart" (PDF).
  2. ^ Jassem (2003:103)
  3. ^ Hamann (2004:65)
  4. ^ "Gwary polskie - Gwara regionu". Archived from the original on 2013-11-13. Retrieved 2013-11-06.
  5. ^ "Gwary polskie - Szadzenie". Archived from the original on 2013-11-13. Retrieved 2013-11-06.
  6. ^ Kordić (2006), p. 5.
  7. ^ Landau et al. (1999), p. 67.
  8. ^ Hanulíková & Hamann (2010:374)
  9. ^ Lunsford (2001:16–20)
  10. ^ Ladefoged, Peter; Maddieson, Ian (1996). The Sounds of the World's Languages. Oxford: Blackwell. p. 131. ISBN 0-631-19815-6.