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Voiced retroflex affricate
IPA Number106 (137)
Audio sample
Entity (decimal)ɖ​͡​ʐ
Unicode (hex)U+0256 U+0361 U+0290

The voiced retroflex sibilant affricate is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ⟨ɖ͡ʐ⟩, sometimes simplified to ⟨⟩ or ⟨⟩. It occurs in such languages as Polish (the laminal affricate ) and Northwest Caucasian languages (apical).


Features of the voiced retroflex affricate:


Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Asturian Some dialects ḷḷuna ['ɖ͡ʐunä] 'moon' Corresponds to /ʎ/ in other dialects. See Che Vaqueira
Belarusian лічба [lʲiɖ͡ʐbä] 'number' Laminal. See Belarusian phonology
Chinese Wu [ɖ͡ʐaŋ] 'to grow' Only found in a few Wu dialects.
Polish Standard[1][2] em [ɖ͡ʐɛm]  'jam' Laminal; it's transcribed /d͡ʒ/ by most Polish scholars. See Polish phonology
Southeastern Cuyavian dialects[3] dzwon [ɖ͡ʐvɔn̪] 'bell' Some speakers. It's a result of hypercorrecting the more popular merger of /ɖ͡ʐ/ and /d͡z/ into [d͡z].
Suwałki dialect[4]
Northern Qiang vvdhe [ʁɖ͡ʐə] 'star'
Serbo-Croatian[5][6] џеп / ep [ɖ͡ʐê̞p] 'pocket' Apical. It may be palato-alveolar instead, depending on the dialect. See Serbo-Croatian phonology
Slovak[7] ús [ɖ͡ʐu̞ːs] 'juice' Laminal.
Torwali[8] حؕىگ [ɖ͡ʐiɡ̥] 'long' Contrasts with a palatal affricate.
Yi / rry [ɖ͡ʐɪ˧] 'tooth'

See also


  1. ^ Jassem (2003:103)
  2. ^ Hamann (2004:65)
  3. ^ "Gwary polskie - Gwara regionu". Archived from the original on 2013-11-13. Retrieved 2013-11-06.
  4. ^ "Gwary polskie - Szadzenie". Archived from the original on 2013-11-13. Retrieved 2013-11-06.
  5. ^ Kordić (2006), p. 5.
  6. ^ Landau et al. (1999), p. 67.
  7. ^ Hanulíková & Hamann (2010:374)
  8. ^ Lunsford (2001:16–20)