|Voiced pharyngeal fricative|
|Voiced pharyngeal approximant|
The voiced pharyngeal approximant or fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ⟨ʕ⟩, and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is
?\. Epiglottals and epiglotto-pharyngeals are often mistakenly taken to be pharyngeal.
Although traditionally placed in the fricative row of the IPA chart, [ʕ] is usually an approximant. The IPA symbol itself is ambiguous, but no language is known to make a phonemic distinction between fricatives and approximants at this place of articulation. The approximant is sometimes specified as [ʕ̞] or as [ɑ̯], because it is the semivocalic equivalent of [ɑ].
Features of the voiced pharyngeal approximant fricative:
Pharyngeal consonants are not widespread. Sometimes, a pharyngeal approximant develops from a uvular approximant. Many languages that have been described as having pharyngeal fricatives or approximants turn out on closer inspection to have epiglottal consonants instead. For example, the candidate /ʕ/ sound in Arabic and standard Hebrew (not modern Hebrew – Israelis generally pronounce this as a glottal stop) has been variously described as a voiced epiglottal fricative, an epiglottal approximant, or a pharyngealized glottal stop.
|Arabic||عَقْرَب/ʿaqrab||[ʕaqrab]||'scorpion'||See Arabic phonology|
The majority of the speakers will pronounce the word as [tʌrɑ].
|Chechen||Ӏан / jan||[ʕan] (help·info)||'winter'|
|Danish||Standard||ravn||[ʕ̞ɑ̈wˀn]||'raven'||An approximant; also described as uvular [ʁ]. See Danish phonology|
|Dutch||Limburg||rad||[ʕ̞ɑt]||'wheel'||An approximant; a possible realization of /r/. Realization of /r/ varies considerably among dialects. See Dutch phonology|
|French||Some speakers||rue||[ʕyː]||'street'||A possible allophone of /ʀ/.|
|German||Some speakers||Mutter||[ˈmutɔʕ̞]||'mother'||An approximant; occurs in East Central Germany, Southwestern Germany, parts of Switzerland and in Tyrol. See Standard German phonology|
|Swabian dialect||ändard||[ˈend̥aʕ̞d̥]||'changes'||An approximant. It's an allophone of /ʁ/ in nucleus and coda positions; pronounced as a uvular approximant in onsets.|
|Hebrew||Iraqi||עברית/i'vrit||[ʕibˈriːθ]||'Hebrew language'||See Modern Hebrew phonology|
|Kabyle||ɛemmi||[ʕəmːi]||'my (paternal) uncle'|
|Kurdish||Kurmanji||ewr||[ʕɜwr]||'cloud'||The sound is usually not written in the Latin alphabet, but ' can be used.|
|Luwati||قلعة||[qilʕa]||'castle'||Used in Arabic loanwords|
|Malay||Kedah||باکر / bakar||[ba.kaʕ]||'burn'||Allophone of /r/ as word-final coda. Could be voiced velar fricative [ɣ] for some speakers.|
|Occitan||Southern Auvergnat||pala||[ˈpaʕa]||'shovel'||See Occitan phonology|
|Somali||cunto||[ʕuntɔ]||'food'||See Somali phonology|
|Ukrainian||голос||[ˈʕɔlos]||'voice'||Also described as glottal [ɦ]. See Ukrainian phonology|