|Voiced velar approximant|
The voiced velar approximant is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ⟨ɰ⟩, and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is
The consonant is absent in English, but may be approximated by making [ɡ] but with the tongue body lowered or [w] but with the lips apart. The voiced velar approximant can in many cases be considered the semivocalic counterpart of the close back unrounded vowel [ɯ]. ⟨ɰ⟩ and ⟨ɯ̯⟩ with the non-syllabic diacritic are used in different transcription systems to represent the same sound.
In some languages, such as Spanish, the voiced velar approximant appears as an allophone of /ɡ/ – see below.
The symbol for the velar approximant originates from ⟨ɯ⟩, but with a vertical line. Compare ⟨u⟩ and ⟨ɥ⟩ for the labio-palatal approximant.
Features of the voiced velar approximant:
|Aragonese||caixigo||[kajˈʃiɣ̞o̞]||'oak tree'||Approximant consonant unspecified for rounding; allophone of /ɡ/.|
|Astur-Leonese||Asturian||[example needed]||Approximant consonant unspecified for rounding; allophone of /ɡ/.|
|Catalan||aigua||[ˈajɣ̞wə]||'water'||Approximant consonant unspecified for rounding; allophone of /ɡ/. See Catalan phonology|
|Cherokee||ᏩᏥ wa-tsi||[ɰad͡ʒi]||'watch'||Found only in the Western dialect. Its equivalent in other dialects is [w]. Also represented by Ꮺ, Ꮻ, Ꮼ, Ꮽ, and Ꮾ|
|Danish||Older speakers||talg||[ˈtsʰalˀɣ̞]||'tallow'||Approximant consonant unspecified for rounding. Still used by some older speakers in high register, much more commonly than a fricative [ɣ]. Depending on the environment, it corresponds to [w] or [j] in young speakers of contemporary Standard Danish. See Danish phonology|
|Dutch||Western East Flemish||Approximant consonant unspecified for rounding. Corresponds to a fricative [ɣ] in other dialects.|
|French||Belgian||ara||[aɰa]||'macaw'||Intervocalic allophone of /ʀ/ for some speakers, unless /ʀ/ is realized as a liaison consonant – then, most often, it is realized as a trill [ʀ]. See French phonology|
|Galician||auga||[ˈɑwɣ̞ɑ]||'water'||Approximant consonant unspecified for rounding; allophone of /ɡ/. See Galician phonology|
|Greek||Cypriot||μαγαζί||[maɰaˈzi]||'shop'||Allophone of /ɣ/.|
|Guarani||gotyo||[ɰoˈtɨo]||'near, close to'||Contrasts with [w]|
|Ñandewa Paulista-Paranaense||[adʒaˈɰa]||'I cut'||Contrasts with [g].|
|Hiw||ter̄og||[təɡ͡ʟɔɣ̞]||'peace'||Contrasts with /w/ and with /ɡ͡ʟ/.|
|Ibibio||ufokọ||[úfʌ̟̀ɰɔ̞]||[translation needed]||Intervocalic allophone of /k/; may be a uvular tap [ɢ̆] instead.|
|Icelandic||saga||[ˈs̺äːɣ̞ä]||'saga'||Approximant consonant unspecified for rounding. See Icelandic phonology|
|Irish||naoi||[n̪ˠɰiː]||'nine'||Occurs only between broad consonants and front vowels. See Irish phonology|
|Korean||의사 / uisa||[ɰisɐ]||'doctor'||Occurs only before /i/. See Korean phonology|
|Mwotlap||haghag||[haɣ̞haɣ̞]||'sit'||Contrasts with [w].|
|Shipibo||igi||[i̞ɣ̞i̞]||[translation needed]||Continuant consonant with variable frication and unspecified rounding; allophone of /k/ in certain high-frequency morphemes.|
|Spanish||pagar||[päˈɣ̞äɾ]||'to pay'||Approximant consonant unspecified for rounding; allophone of /ɡ/. See Spanish phonology|
|Swedish||Central Standard||agronom||[äɣ̞ɾʊˈn̪oːm]||'agronomist'||Approximant consonant unspecified for rounding; allophone of /ɡ/ in casual speech. See Swedish phonology|
|Tagalog||igriega||[iːɡɾɪˈje̞ɣ̞ɐ]||'y (letter)'||Approximant consonant unspecified for rounding; intervocalic allophone of /ɡ/. See Tagalog phonology|
|Venetian||góndoƚa||[ˈɡoŋdoɰa]||'gondola'||See Venetian language|
|Vietnamese||Southern||gà||[ɣ̞a:˨˩]||'chicken'||Typical realization of /ɡɣ/ or /ɣ/ in other dialects. Variant is in complementary distribution before open vowels.|
|Voiced pre-velar approximant|
|Spanish||seguir||[se̞ˈɣ̞iɾ]||'to follow'||Approximant consonant. Lenited allophone of /ɡ/ before front vowels; typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨ɣ⟩. See Spanish phonology|
|Turkish||Standard prescriptive||düğün||[ˈd̪y̠jy̠n̪]||'marriage'||Either post-palatal or palatal; phonetic realization of /ɣ/ (also transcribed as /ɰ/) before front vowels. See Turkish phonology|
|Voiced velar bunched approximant|
Some languages have a velar approximant that is produced with the body of the tongue bunched up at the velum and simultaneous pharyngealization. This gives rise to a type of retroflex resonance resembling [ɻ]. The extension to the IPA recommends the use of the "centralized" diacritic combined with the IPA sign for the alveolar approximant (as in ⟨ɹ̈⟩) to distinguish the bunched realization from the prototypical apical [ɹ], which may be specified as ⟨ɹ̺⟩. Typically, the diacritic is omitted, so that the sound is transcribed simply with ⟨ɹ⟩ or ⟨ɻ⟩ (in broader transcriptions: ⟨r⟩), as if it were a coronal consonant.
In ordinary IPA, this sound can be transcribed with ⟨ɰˤ⟩ or ⟨ɣ̞ˤ⟩, depending on whether it can be labialized (see below). This captures pharyngealization (uncommon in velar approximants) but not bunching of the tongue, which can be transcribed by adding a superscript retroflex approximant: ⟨ɰˤʵ⟩, ⟨ɣ̞ˤʵ⟩ (see International Phonetic Alphabet § Diacritics and prosodic notation).
In Dutch, this type of r is called Gooise r [ˌɣoːisə ˈʔɛr] 'Gooi r'. It is named after het Gooi, a region of the Netherlands where Hilversum (the main centre for television and radio broadcasting) is located.
Features of the voiced velar bunched approximant:
|Dutch||Randstad varieties||maar||[ˈmaːɰ̟ˤʵ]||'but'||Pre-velar. Common allophone of /r/ in the syllable coda. The bunching and pharyngealization may be lost in connected speech, resulting in a semivowel such as [j] or [ə̯]. See Dutch phonology|
|Standard Northern||Pre-velar. Common allophone of /r/ in the syllable coda. See Dutch phonology|
|English||American||red||[ɣ̞ˤʵʷɛd]||'red'||Labialized approximant consonant. Possible realization of /r/. Contrasts with /w/. See Pronunciation of English /r/|
|Received Pronunciation||curious||[ˈkj̊ʊːɣ̞ˤʵiəs]||'curious'||Approximant consonant, may be labialized. Possible allophone of /r/ before front vowels. Contrasts with /w/. See Pronunciation of English /r/|
Some languages have a voiced velar approximant that is unspecified for rounding, and therefore cannot be considered the semivocalic equivalent of either [ɯ] or its rounded counterpart [u]. Examples of such languages are Catalan, Galician and Spanish, in which the approximant consonant (not semivowel) unspecified for rounding appears as an allophone of /ɡ/.
Eugenio Martínez Celdrán describes the voiced velar approximant consonant as follows:
As for the symbol ⟨ɰ⟩, it is quite evidently inappropriate for representing the Spanish voiced velar approximant consonant. Many authors have pointed out the fact that [ɰ] is not rounded; for example, Pullum & Ladusaw (1986:98) state that 'the sound in question can be described as a semi-vowel (glide) with the properties "high", "back", and "unrounded"'. They even establish an interesting parallelism: 'the sound can be regarded as an unrounded [w]'. It is evident, then, that ⟨ɰ⟩ is not an adequate symbol for Spanish. First of all, because it has never been taken into consideration that there is a diphthong in words like paga 'pay', vago 'lazy', lego 'lay', etc., and, secondly, because this sound is rounded when it precedes rounded vowels. Besides, it would be utterly wrong to transcribe the word jugo 'juice' with ⟨ɰ⟩ *[ˈχuɰo], because the pronunciation of that consonant between two rounded vowels is completely rounded whereas [ɰ] is not. [...]
The symbol I have always proposed is ⟨ɣ̞⟩, the correlate to the other central approximants in Spanish, [β̞ ð̞] (Martínez Celdrán 1991, 1996:47). This coincides with Ball & Rahilly (1999:90), whose example for the three approximants is the Spanish word abogado 'lawyer'[...]. Ball & Rahilly too criticise in a footnote the confusion between these symbols: 'The difference between an approximant version of the voiced velar fricative [ɣ̞], and the velar semi-vowel [ɰ] is that the latter requires spread lips, and must have a slightly more open articulatory channel so that it becomes [ɯ] if prolonged' (p. 189, fn. 1).
There is a parallel problem with transcribing the palatal approximant.
The symbol ⟨ɣ̞⟩ may not display properly in all browsers. In that case, ⟨ɣ˕⟩ should be substituted. In broader transcriptions, the lowering diacritic may be omitted altogether, so that the symbol is rendered ⟨ɣ⟩, i.e. as if it represented the corresponding fricative.
The velar bunched approximant is typically written with ⟨ɹ⟩ or ⟨ɻ⟩ (in broader transcriptions: ⟨r⟩), none of which capture its place of articulation. The prototypical [ɹ], [ɻ] and [r] are all unspecified for rounding like [ɣ̞].