Voiced retroflex velar click
ɡ͡𝼊   ɡ͡‼
ᶢ𝼊   ᶢ‼
𝼊̬   ‼̬
Voiced retroflex uvular click
ɢ͡𝼊   ɢ͡‼
𐞒𝼊   𐞒‼

The voiced retroflex click is a rare click consonant. In practical orthography, an ad hoc symbol is used for the retroflex clicks; a voiced click with a velar rear articulation is ɡ͡‼ or ɡ͜‼, commonly abbreviated to ɡ‼, ᶢ‼ or ‼̬. The implicit symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet is ɡ͡𝼊 or ɡ͜𝼊, abbreviated ɡ𝼊, ᶢ𝼊 or 𝼊̬.[1] Linguists who prefer the old IPA letters use the analogous Doke convention[2] of ɡ͡ψ or ɡ͜ψ, abbreviated ɡψ, ᶢψ or ψ̬. For a click with a uvular rear articulation, the equivalents are ɢ͡‼, ɢ͜‼, ɢ‼, 𐞒‼, ɢ͡𝼊, ɢ͜𝼊, ɢ𝼊, 𐞒𝼊 and ɢ͡ψ, ɢ͜ψ, ɢψ, 𐞒ψ. Sometimes the accompanying letter comes after the click letter, e.g. 𝼊ɡ or 𝼊ᶢ; this may be a simple orthographic choice, or it may imply a difference in the relative timing of the releases.[3]


Features of the voiced retroflex click:


The voiced retroflex click is only confirmed from a single language, Central !Kung.[4]

Language Word IPA Meaning
Central !Kung g‼ú [ɡ͡‼ú] = [ɡ͜𝼊ú] = [ᶢψú] 'water'


  1. ^ Kirk Miller; Bonny Sands (1 July 2020). "Unicode proposal L2/20-115R: Unicode request for additional phonetic click letters" (PDF).
  2. ^ Doke, Clement M. (1925). "An outline of the phonetics of the language of the ʗhũ: Bushman of the North-West Kalahari". Bantu Studies. 2: 129–166. doi:10.1080/02561751.1923.9676181.
  3. ^ Afrika und Übersee. D. Reimer. 2005. pp. 93–94.
  4. ^ Scott, Abigail; Miller, Amanda; Namaseb, Levi; Sands, Bonny; Shah, Sheena (June 2, 2010). "Retroflex Clicks in Two Dialects of ǃXung". University of Botswana, Department of African Languages.