Voiceless velar lateral affricate
kʟ̝̊
k𝼄
Audio sample

The voiceless velar lateral affricate is an uncommon speech sound found as a phoneme in the Caucasus and as an allophone in several languages of eastern and southern Africa.

Archi, a Northeast Caucasian language of Dagestan, has two such affricates, plain [k͡ʟ̝̊] and labialized [k͡ʟ̝̊ʷ], though they are further forward than velars in most languages, and might better be called prevelar. Archi also has ejective variants of its lateral affricates, several voiceless lateral fricatives, and a voiced lateral fricative at the same place of articulation, but no alveolar lateral fricatives or affricates.[1]

Zulu and Xhosa have a voiceless lateral affricate as an allophone of their voiceless velar affricate. Hadza has an ejective velar lateral affricate as an allophone of its velar ejective affricate. Indeed, in Hadza this [k͡ʟ̝̊ʼ] contrasts with a palatal lateral ejective affricate, [c͡ʎ̝̊ʼ]. ǁXegwi is reported to have contrasted velar /k͡ʟ̝̊/ from alveolar /t͜ɬ/.

Laghuu, a Loloish language of Vietnam, contrasts four velar lateral affricates, /k͡ʟ̝̊ʰ, k͡ʟ̝̊, ɡ͡ʟ̝, ᵑɡ͡ʟ̝/.

In pure IPA, these can be transcribed with diacritics, but a proper letter exists in extIPA, ⟨k𝼄⟩. (SIL International has added this symbol, ⟨⟩, to the Private Use Areas of their Gentium, Charis and Doulos fonts, at U+F268.)

Features

Features of the voiceless velar lateral affricate:

Occurrence

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Archi[1] лӀон/ƛon [k͡ʟ̝̊on] 'a flock' Pre-velar.[1]

References

  1. ^ a b c The Archi Language Tutorial. The source uses the symbol for the voiceless alveolar lateral fricative for the fricative part of this sound ([k͡ɬ]), but also indicates the sound to be prevelar.