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Extremaduran
estremeñu
Native toSpain
RegionExtremadura
Castile and León (southern Salamanca province)
EthnicityExtremadurans (1.1 million)[1]
Native speakers
(200,000 cited 1994)[2]
Language codes
ISO 639-3ext
Glottologextr1243
This article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode characters. For an introductory guide on IPA symbols, see Help:IPA.
An Extremaduran speaker, recorded in the Netherlands.
An Extremaduran speaker, recorded in the Netherlands.

Extremaduran (Extremaduran: estremeñu [eʰtːɾeˈmeɲʊ], Spanish: extremeño) is a group of vernacular Romance dialects, related to the Asturleonese language, spoken in Extremadura and adjoining areas in the province of Salamanca.[3][4] It is difficult to establish the exact boundary between Extremaduran and the Spanish varieties spoken in most of Extremadura.

Dialects

The linguistic varieties of Extremadura are usually classified in three main branches: Northern or "High" (artu estremeñu), Central or "Middle" (meyu estremeñu), and Southern or "Low" (baju estremeñu).[4] The northern branch is usually considered to be the language proper,[5] and is spoken in the north-west of the autonomous region of Extremadura, and the south-west of Salamanca, a province of the autonomous region of Castile and León. The central and southern branches are spoken in the rest of Extremadura, and are not different enough from standard Spanish to be considered anything but dialects of the language, since at least the 18th century.

Northern Extremaduran is also spoken in a few villages of southern Salamanca, being known there as the "palra d'El Rebollal", which is now almost extinct.

History

The late 19th century saw the first serious attempt to write in Extremaduran, until then an oral language,[6] with the poet José María Gabriel y Galán. Born in Salamanca, he lived most of his life in the north of Cáceres, Extremadura. He wrote in a local variant of Extremaduran, full of dialectal remains, but always with an eye on Spanish usage.

After that, localisms are the pattern in the attempts to defend the Extremaduran language to the extent that today only a few people are trying to revive the language and make northern Extremadura a bilingual region,[7] whereas the government and official institutions seem to think the best solution is for northwestern Extremadurans to speak a Castilian dialect without any kind of protection.[8]

There are also attempts to transform the southern Castilian dialects ("castúo", as some people named them using the word which appeared in Luis Chamizo Trigueros's poems) into a language, which makes it even harder to defend High Extremaduran, considered more frequently a "real" language and makes it easier for the administration to reject co-officiality and the normalisation of Extremaduran.[9] It is in serious danger of extinction, with only the oldest people speaking it at present, while most of the Extremaduran population ignores the language, since the majority of Extremadurans, and even its own speakers, regard it as a poorly spoken Spanish.[10]

In 2013, the people of Serradilla created the first feature film in Extremaduran, Territoriu de bandolerus.

Phonology

Morphology

Vocabulary

This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (November 2009)

Comparative tables

Latin Italian Romanian Catalan Gascon Spanish Judezmo Portuguese Galician Andalusian Extremaduran Leonese English
altus alto (în)alt alt haut alto alto alto alto arto artu [11] altu high/tall
quasi quasi (aproape) quasi quasi casi kaji quase case caçi cuasi, abati cuasi almost
dicere dire zice dir díser decir [deˈθir] dizir dizer dicir deçîh izil [iˈðil] dicire to say
facere fare face fer har hacer

[aˈθer]

(f)azer fazer facer haçêh hazel [haˈðel] facere to do
focus fuoco foc foc huec fuego fuego,huego fogo fogo fuego hueu fueu fire
flamma fiamma (flamă) flama ehlama llama yama chama chama yama/flama flama chama flame
legere leggere (citi) llegir léger leer meldar ler ler leêh leel lliere to read
lingua lingua limbă llengua lengua lengua elguenga língua lingua lengua luenga/léngua llingua tongue
lumbum lombo ((zona) lombară) llom lom lomo lombo lombo lombo lomo lombu llombu loin
mater madre (mamă) mare mair madre madre mãe nai mae mairi mai mother
merula merlo mierlă merla mèrlo mirlo melro merlo mîl-lo mielru mielru blackbird
monstrare mostrare mustra mostrar muishar mostrar amostrar mostrar mostrar môttrâh muestral amuesare to show
noster nostro nostru nostre noste nuestro muestro,muesho nosso noso muêttro/nuêttro muestru/nuestru nuesu ours
tussis tosse tuse tos tos tos toz tosse tose tôh tossi tose cough

* The words in this table refer only to High Extremaduran.

** Extremaduran words in this table are spelled according to Ismael Carmona García's orthography.

Organizations

There is a regional organization in Extremadura, OSCEC Estremaúra,[12] that tries to defend the language, one journal (Belsana) and one cultural newspaper, Iventia,[13] written in the new unified Extremaduran and the old dialect "palra d'El Rebollal".

Textual example

Portuguese Galician Leonese Asturian Extremaduran Andalusian Spanish English
O estremenho é uma língua falada no noroeste da comunidade autónoma da Estremadura. O estremeño é unha lingua falada no noroeste da comunidade autónoma de Estremadura. L'estremennu yía una llingua falada nel noruesti la comunidá autónoma Estremadura. L'estremeñu ye una llingua falada nel noroeste de la comunidá autónoma d'Estremadura. El estremeñu es una luenga palrá nel noroesti de la comuniá autónoma d'Estremaúra. L'êttremeño êh una lengua ablá ner noroêtte de la comunidá autónoma d'Êttremaúra. El extremeño es una lengua hablada en el noroeste de la comunidad autónoma de Extremadura. Extremaduran is a language spoken in the northwest of the autonomous community of Extremadura.

Writers

See also

References

  1. ^ Extremaduran at Ethnologue (13th ed., 1996).
  2. ^ Extremaduran at Ethnologue (14th ed., 2000).
  3. ^ Extremaduran language at Ethnologue (20th ed., 2017)
  4. ^ a b "Lengua Extremeña". Proel.
  5. ^ Españolsinfronteras
  6. ^ Congrese about the Extremaduran language[permanent dead link]
  7. ^ Gutierro Rodriguez, Bienvenido (2008-03-17), "En defensa del habla extremeña", Hoy (in Spanish)
  8. ^ Viudas Camarasa, Antonio (2008). "Agenda de APLEX" (Interview). Interviewed by Concha Llamazares.
  9. ^ González Salgado, José Antonio (2003). "La conciencia lingüística de los hablantes extremeños". In C. Alemany Bay (ed.). Actas del Congreso Internacional "La lengua, la Academia, lo popular, los clásicos, los contemporáneos...". 2. pp. 725–735. ISBN 84-7908-731-5. Archived from the original on 2003-04-18.
  10. ^ Congrese about the Extremaduran in Serradilla
  11. ^ a b Ismael Carmona García's dictionary 2005 Izionariu castellanu-estremeñu
  12. ^ see "OSCEC Estremaúra".
  13. ^ see "Inventia".