This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.Find sources: "Campidanese Sardinian" – news · newspapers · books · scholar · JSTOR (December 2009) (Learn how and when to remove this message)
.mw-parser-output .hidden-begin{box-sizing:border-box;width:100%;padding:5px;border:none;font-size:95%}.mw-parser-output .hidden-title{font-weight:bold;line-height:1.6;text-align:left}.mw-parser-output .hidden-content{text-align:left}@media all and (max-width:500px){.mw-parser-output .hidden-begin{width:auto!important;clear:none!important;float:none!important))You can help expand this article with text translated from the corresponding article in Italian. (January 2012) Click [show] for important translation instructions. View a machine-translated version of the Italian article. Machine translation, like DeepL or Google Translate, is a useful starting point for translations, but translators must revise errors as necessary and confirm that the translation is accurate, rather than simply copy-pasting machine-translated text into the English Wikipedia. Do not translate text that appears unreliable or low-quality. If possible, verify the text with references provided in the foreign-language article. You must provide copyright attribution in the edit summary accompanying your translation by providing an interlanguage link to the source of your translation. A model attribution edit summary is Content in this edit is translated from the existing Italian Wikipedia article at [[:it:Sardo campidanese]]; see its history for attribution. You may also add the template ((Translated|it|Sardo campidanese)) to the talk page. For more guidance, see Wikipedia:Translation.
Campidanese Sardinian
sardu campidanesu
campidanesu
Native toItaly
RegionSardinia
(Metropolitan City of Cagliari;
Central-southern part of the Province of Oristano;
Province of South Sardinia;
Southern part of the Province of Nuoro)
EthnicitySardinians
Native speakers
500,000 (2007)[1]
Language codes
ISO 639-1sc
ISO 639-2srd
ISO 639-3sro
Campidanese Sardinian
Glottologcamp1261 
Campidanese Sardinian
ELPCampidanese Sardinian
Linguasphere51-AAA-sd
Languages and dialects of Sardinia
This article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode characters. For an introductory guide on IPA symbols, see Help:IPA.

Campidanese Sardinian[1][2] (Sardinian: sardu campidanesu, Italian: sardo campidanese) is one of the two written standards of the Sardinian language, which is often considered one of the most, if not the most conservative of all the Romance languages. The orthography is based on the spoken dialects of central southern Sardinia, identified by certain attributes which are not found, or found to a lesser degree, among the Sardinian dialects centered on the other written form, Logudorese. Its ISO 639-3 code is sro.

Traditionally the name Campidanu (Campidano in Italian) refers to the fertile area located around the towns of Guspini and Villacidro. Campidanese dialects can be found across the entire Province of Cagliari and not just the Province of Medio Campidano area. Campidanese also extends into parts of the Province of Nuoro, notably the Ogliastra area and in the southern half of the Province of Oristano, the capital included. However, it is at this point that the dialects merge into Logudorese.

Subvariants

There are seven main subdialects of Campidanese Sardinian, namely Western Campidanese, Sarrabese (sarrabesu), Southern Barbagian, and Oristano's ('aristanesu or also arborensi), Ogliastra's (ollastrinu), Cagliari's (casteddaju), and the varieties of Sulcis (meurreddinu). Casteddaju is the dialect spoken in the island's capital; however, it extends to most of the neighbouring towns and villages within a 15 km radius of Cagliari. In 2009, the provincial administration of Cagliari approved the spelling, phonetics, morphology, and vocabulary rules for Standard Campidanese Sardinian.[3]

Vocabulary

Campidanese Sardinian has some borrowed words from Aragonese, Catalan and Spanish. Since the early 20th century, there has been an increase in lexical borrowing from Italian as well; that is particularly evident with technological words for which there is no Campidanese equivalent. However, many words that are from Italian have been changed phonetically so that they sound Sardinian. Italian loan words that end in an o are often substituted with a u. The strong Campidanese accent also changes the sound of the word.

Characteristics

  1. Singular nouns descending from 3rd declension Latin nouns ending in "-i" (Campidanese pisci vs Logudorese pische)
  2. Plural definite article of "is" (Campidanese is terras vs Logudorese sas terras)
  3. Gerund in "-endi" (Campidanese èssendi vs Logudorese èssende)
  4. Conservation of the Latin phoneme <qu> and <gu> (/kʷ/ and /ɡʷ/) in words such as akua (water) and sànguni (blood).
  5. Palatalisation of Latin word-initial /k/ before /e/ and /i/ (Lat. centum > centu cf. Logudorese chentu). In medial positions, /k/ becomes /-ʒ-/ (Lat. decem > dexi cf. Logudorese deghe) or /-ʃʃ-/ (Lat. piscem > pisci)
  6. Transformation of /rj/ to /rɡ/, /nj/ to /nɡ/, /lj/ to /ll/, and /ti/, /te/ into /tz/
  7. Epenthetic /a/ before word-initial /r/ (Lat. rubeum > arrubiu)
  8. Metathesis (Logudorese Carbonia vs Campidanese Crabonia)
  9. Catalan influence (Words such as seu "cathedral" loaned from Catalan)

Campidanese Sardinian is intelligible to those from the central to southern part of Sardinia, where Logudorese Sardinian is spoken,[4] but it is not to those from the extreme north of the island, where Corsican–Sardinian dialects are spoken.

Italian speakers do not understand Campidanese, like any other dialect of the Sardinian language:[5] Sardinian is an autonomous linguistic group rather than an Italian dialect[6] as it is often noted because of its morphological, syntactic, and lexical differences from Italian.

Writing system

This article may require cleanup to meet Wikipedia's quality standards. The specific problem is: Letters are used without indicating whether they are intended to be graphemes, phonemes or phones. Please help improve this article if you can. (March 2023) (Learn how and when to remove this message)

Campidanese is written using the Latin alphabet. Like Italian, Campidanese does not use ⟨w⟩ or ⟨y⟩. Campidanese also uses the digraphs ⟨gh⟩, representing /g/, ⟨ch⟩ representing /k/ before e and i vowels, ⟨tz⟩ representing /ts/ and ⟨x⟩, representing /ʒ/.

In phonetic syntax, final or intervocalic ⟨t⟩ is pronounced as a /d/ (es: issu andat, meaning "he goes", is pronounced issu andada) and ⟨s⟩ is pronounced as a //,[clarification needed] (es. sa mesa, meaning "the table", is pronounced sa mez̪a). When there are consonants like s, t or nt at the end of the word, a helping vowel is usually added (es. sa domu, is domus(u), the house, the houses). If preceded by a consonant, an "i" is inserted before the normally-initial s (es: sa scala, is (i)scalas(a), the staircase, the staircases). The spelling rules were established by the Province of Cagliari with a deliberation on March 17, 2010.[7]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b Campidanese Sardinian at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015) (subscription required)
  2. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forke, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin; Bank, Sebastian, eds. (2020). "Campidanese Sardinian". Glottolog 4.3.
  3. ^ Comitau Scientìficu po sa Norma Campidanesa de su Sardu Standard (2009). Arrègulas po ortografia, fonètica, morfologia e fueddàriu de sa Norma Campidanesa de sa Lìngua Sarda/Regole per ortografia, fonetica, morfologia e vocabolario della Norma Campidanese della Lingua Sarda [Rules for spelling, phonetics, morphology and vocabulary of the Campidanese standard of the Sardinian language] (PDF) (in Sardinian and Italian) (1 ed.). Quartu S. Elena: Alfa Editrice. ISBN 978-88-85995-47-5. OCLC 422688646.
  4. ^ Vanrell, Maria Del Mar; Ballone, Francesc; Schirru, Carlo; Prieto, Pilar, Sardinian Intonational Phonology: Logudorese and Campidanese Varieties (PDF)
  5. ^ Posner, Rebecca; Sala, Marius. "Sardinian Language". Encyclopedia Britannica.
  6. ^ De Mauro, Tullio (1979). L'Italia delle Italie. Florence: Nuova Guaraldi Editrice. p. 89.
  7. ^ "Leggi il contenuto". Provincia di Cagliari. Archived from the original on 2015-09-24. Retrieved 2015-10-22.