Peruvian Spanish
Español peruano
Pronunciation[espaˈɲol peˈɾwano]
Native toPeru
Native speakers
29 million (2018)[1]
2,060,000 as L2 in Peru (2018)
Early forms
Latin (Spanish alphabet)
Official status
Official language in
 Peru
Regulated byPeruvian Academy of Language
Language codes
ISO 639-1es
ISO 639-2spa[2]
ISO 639-3
GlottologNone
IETFes-PE
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Dialect map of Peru (in Spanish)

Peruvian Spanish (castellano peruano) is a family of dialects of the Spanish language that have been spoken in Peru since brought over by Spanish conquistadors in 1532. There are five varieties spoken in the country, by about 94.4% of the population.[citation needed] The five Peruvian dialects are Andean Spanish, Peruvian Coastal Spanish, Andean-Coastal Spanish, Equatorial Spanish, and Amazonic Spanish.

History

The Spanish language first arrived in Peru in 1532. During colonial and early republican times, the Spanish spoken colloquially in the coast and in the cities of the highland possessed strong local features, but as a result of dialect leveling in favor of the standard language, the language of urban Peruvians today is more or less uniform in pronunciation throughout most of the country.[3] Vestiges of the older dialect of the coast can be found in the speech of Afro-Peruvians, which retains Andalusian features such as the aspiration or deletion of final /s/ and the deletion of final /r/. The dialect of Arequipa, Loncco, in its pure form is now extinct, although some elders are familiar with it.

Throughout most of the highland, Quechua continued to be the language of the majority until the mid 20th century.[4] Mass migration (rural exodus) into Lima starting in the 1940s, and into other major cities and regional capitals later on, accompanied by discrimination and the growth of mass media, have reconfigured the linguistic demography of the country in favor of Spanish. The poor urban masses originating in this migration adopted the standardized dialect spoken in the cities, however with traces of Andean pronunciation and a simplified syntax.

Peruvian dialects

Andean Spanish

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Main article: Andean Spanish

Andean Spanish the most common dialect in the Andes (more marked in rural areas) and has many similarities with the "standard" dialect of Ecuador and Bolivia.

Characteristics

Phonology

The phonology of Andean Peruvian Spanish is distinguished by its slow time and unique rhythm (grave accent), assibilation of /r/ and /ɾ/, and an apparent confusion of the vowels /e/ with /i/ and /o/ with /u/. (In reality, they are producing a sound between /e/ and /i/, and between /o/ and /u/.[5]) Furthermore, the "s" (originally apical and without aspiration) is produced with more force than that of the coast; this is also generally true of the other consonants, at the loss of the vowels. Other distinctive features are the preservation of /ʎ/, sometimes hypercorrective realization of /ʝ/ as [ʎ], and the realization of velar plosives as a fricative [x]. Also, the intonation patterns of some Andean accents, such as that of Cusco, is influenced by Quechua intonation.[6][7]

The morphosyntactic characteristics are typical:

A ellas lo recibí bien. - La revista es caro.
esa es su trenza del carlos.
Vente aquicito. - Sí, señorita, ahí están sus hijos.
Lo echan la agua. Lo pintan la casa
Su casa de Pepe.. Lo conozco a ella.
Plaza de Armas es acá. La María está loca.
Todo caerá en su encima
Dile nomás pues.
Está enojada dice.

Peruvian Coastal Spanish

Main article: Peruvian Coastal Spanish

Coastal Spanish is spoken throughout the coast. It has the reputation (in pronunciation) of being one of the "purest" dialects in all of coastal Latin America because it does not debuccalize /s/ between vowels[is "in syllable coda" what is meant?] and retains the fricatives [x] and [χ].[8][9][10] It is the characteristic dialect as perceived abroad and has the reputation of being the base of "normal" or standard Peruvian Spanish.[11]

Characteristics

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Phonology

General Spanish phrases from the Americas are common but there are also phrases that originate in the Lima coastal area, such as frequent traditional terms and expressions; the most ingrained "quechuaism" in common speech is the familiar calato, meaning "naked".

Syntax

Andean-Coastal Spanish

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Originated in the last 30 to 50 years with a mixture of the speech of Andean migrants and the speech of Lima. This dialect is the speech that is most typical in the outskirts of the city, but also serves as a transitional dialect between Coastal and Andean Spanish spoken in between the coast and the highlands.

Characteristics

Phonology

Characteristics Example Coastal/Lima Spanish Coastal-Andean Spanish
No assibilation of /r/ and /ɾ/ except in the older generations, but the articulation of these two sounds is weakened, and the final syllable is silent[clarification needed] in internal contexts.
Closed and lax emission of vowels in general.[clarification needed]
Confusion between /e/ and /i/ as well as /o/ and /u/ in casual speech.
Weakening, sometimes to the point of elimination, of the consonant sounds /b/, /d/, /ɡ/ and /ʝ/ when in intervocalic contexts. aguanta [aˈɣwaŋta] [aˈwaŋta]
dado [ˈdaðo] [ˈdao]
mantequilla [maŋteˈkiʝa] [maŋteˈki.a]
baboso [baˈβoso] [βaˈoso]
Strong pronunciation of "s", or with a weak whistling;[clarification needed] less aspiration before consonants (articulated more like /x/ in front of /k/) asco [ahˈko] [axˈko]
Voicing of voiceless consonants. pasajes [paˈsaxes] [paˈsaɣes]
fósforo [ˈfosfoɾo] [ˈfosβoɾo]
época [ˈepoka] [ˈeβoka]
Accelerated speech and with varied intonation based on Andean Spanish.

This dialect has the usual Andean syntactics, like lack of agreement in gender and number, the frequent use of diminutives or augmentatives, loísmo, double possessives and ending phrases with "pues", "pe" or "pue".

As far as the lexicon is concerned, there are numerous neologisms, influences from Quechua, and slang among the youth often heard in the streets.

Amazonic Spanish

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Main article: Amazonic Spanish

This dialect has developed uniquely, with contact from Andean Spanish and the Spanish of Lima with the Amazonian languages. It has a distinctive tonal structure.

Phonetically it is characterized by:

For example, San Juan becomes San Fan

On the other hand, the syntactic order most recognized is the prefixation of the genitive:

De Antonio sus amigas

There are also disorders of agreement, gender, etc.

Equatorial Spanish

Main article: Equatorial Spanish

This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (January 2019)

This dialect is spoken in the region of Tumbes.

References

  1. ^ Spanish → Peru at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015) (subscription required)
  2. ^ "ISO 639-2 Language Code search". Library of Congress. Retrieved 21 September 2017.
  3. ^ Garatea Grau, Carlos (2010). Tras una lengua de Papel. El español del Perú. Lima: Fondo Editorial Pontificia Universidad Católica del Perú. p. 281. ISBN 978-9972-42-923-1.
  4. ^ Miranda Esquerre, Luis (1998). La entrada del español en el Perú. Lima: Juan Brito/ Editor. pp. 101, 111. ISBN 9972-702-00-6.
  5. ^ Jorge Pérez et al., Contra el prejuico lingüístico de la motosidad: un estudio de las vocales del castellano andino desde la fonética acústica, Lima: Instituto Riva Agüero. PUCP, 2006
  6. ^ Lipski, John M. (2011). "Socio-Phonological Variation in Latin American Spanish". In Díaz-Campos, Manuel (ed.). The handbook of Hispanic sociolinguistics. Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell. pp. 72–97. doi:10.1002/9781444393446.ch4. ISBN 9781405195003.
  7. ^ O'Rourke, Erin (2004). "Peak placement in two regional varieties of Peruvian Spanish intonation". In Auger, Julie; Clements, J. Clancy; Vance, Barbara (eds.). Contemporary approaches to Romance linguistics: selected papers from the 33rd Linguistic Symposium on Romance Languages (LSRL), Bloomington, Indiana, April 2003. Amsterdam: J. Benjamins. pp. 321–342. ISBN 9789027247728.
  8. ^ Cerrón Palomino, Rodolfo (2003). Castellano Andino Aspectos sociolingüísticos, pedagógicos y gramaticales. Lima: Fondo Editorial Pontificia Universidad Católica del Perú y GTZ Cooperación Técnica Alemana. p. 118. ISBN 9972-42-528-2.
  9. ^ Tadeo Hanke, Carácter, genio y costumbres de los limeños, 1801, Concejo Provincial de Lima, 1959, p.50
  10. ^ Rafael Lapesa, Historia de la lengua española, Editorial Gredos, 1981
  11. ^ Hildebrandt, Martha (2003). El habla culta (o lo que debiera serlo). Lima. p. 8. ISBN 9972-9454-1-3.((cite book)): CS1 maint: location missing publisher (link)