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Dialect map of Peru and Ecuador. Andean Spanish is in purple.

Andean Spanish is a dialect of Spanish spoken in the central Andes, from southern Colombia, with influence as far south as northern Chile and Northwestern Argentina, passing through Ecuador, Peru, and Bolivia. While similar to other Spanish dialects, Andean Spanish shows influence from Quechua, Aymara, and other indigenous languages, due to prolonged and intense language contact. This influence is especially strong in rural areas.[1]


Syntax and morphology

Voseo is common in the Bolivian and Ecuadorian Andes, largely among rural and poorer speakers. It is nearly extinct in Peru. Some speakers tend towards pronominal voseo, using vos with the conjugations of verbs, whereas more indigenous speakers tend to use the vos conjugations.[1]

Words like pues, pero and nomás are often used similarly to the modal suffixes of Quechua and Aymara. They can be stacked at the end of a clause:

Dile nomás pues pero. "Just go ahead and tell him."[1]

Andean Spanish also widely uses redundant "double possessives" as in:

De María en su casa estoy yendo. "I'm going to Maria's house."[1]

This also shows how en can indicate "motion towards" in the Andes. En may also be used "before a locative adverb, as in Vivo en acá 'I live here' or En allá sale agua 'Water is coming out there.'"[1]

Due to Aymara and Quechua influence, Andean Spanish often uses the pluperfect tense or clause-final dice "he/she says" to indicate evidentiality.[1] Evidential dice is more common in monolingual Peruvian Spanish.[1]

In upper Ecuador, a dar + gerund construction is common, ie:

Pedro me dio componiendo mi reloj. "Pedro fixed my watch."[1]


Andean Spanish typically uses more loans from Aymara and Quechua than other Spanish varieties.[1] In addition, some common words have different meanings. Pie, meaning "foot," can refer to the whole leg, due to Aymara influence. Siempre ("always") can mean "still."[1]


  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p Mackenzie, Ian (1999–2020). "Andean Spanish". The Linguistics of Spanish. Archived from the original on 2022-06-10. Retrieved April 3, 2021.
  2. ^ a b Lipski, John (1994). Latin American Spanish. New York: Longman Publishing. p. 320.
  3. ^ Alonso (1967), p. 102, cited in Cotton & Sharp (1988), p. 147
  4. ^ Church, Meredith (2019-04-01). "Influencia del quechua en el castellano andino del Cusco, Perú". Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection (3110).
  5. ^ Caravedo, Rocío (1992-12-30). "¿Restos de la distinción /s/ /Ɵ/ en el español del Perú?". Revista de Filología Española. 72 (3/4): 639–654. doi:10.3989/rfe.1992.v72.i3/4.586.
  6. ^ a b c Klee & Lynch (2009), p. 136.
  7. ^ Argüello, Fanny M. (December 1980). "El Rehilamiento en el español hablado en la región andina de Ecuador". Lexis (in Spanish). IV (2). Retrieved 22 May 2021.
  8. ^ Klee & Lynch (2009), pp. 136–7.
  9. ^ Lipski, John M. (2011). "Socio-Phonological Variation in Latin American Spanish". In Díaz-Campos, Manuel (ed.). The handbook of Hispanic sociolinguistics. Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell. pp. 72–97. doi:10.1002/9781444393446.ch4. ISBN 9781405195003.
  10. ^ O'Rourke, Erin (2004). "Peak placement in two regional varieties of Peruvian Spanish intonation". In Auger, Julie; Clements, J. Clancy; Vance, Barbara (eds.). Contemporary approaches to Romance linguistics: selected papers from the 33rd Linguistic Symposium on Romance Languages (LSRL), Bloomington, Indiana, April 2003. Amsterdam: J. Benjamins. pp. 321–342. ISBN 9789027247728.


  • Alonso, Amado (1967). De la pronunciación medieval a la moderna en español (in Spanish).
  • Cotton, Eleanor Greet; Sharp, John (1988), Spanish in the Americas, Georgetown University Press, ISBN 978-0-87840-094-2
  • Escobar, Alberto: Variaciones sociolingüísticas del castellano en el Perú.- Lima 1978.-
  • Granda, German: Estudios de lingüística andina.- Lima Pontificia Universidad Católica del Perú, 2001.-
  • Klee, Carol A.; Lynch, Andrew (2009). El español en contacto con otras lenguas. Washington, D.C.: Georgetown University Press. ISBN 9781589012653.
  • Lapesa, Rafael.: Historia de la lengua española.- Madrid, 1986.-
  • Canfield, Delos Lincoln.: La pronunciación del español de América.- Chicago, The University of Chicago, 1981.-
  • Mackenzie, Ian: A Linguistic Introduction to Spanish.- University of Newcastle upon Tyne, LINCOM Studies in Romance Linguistics 35.- ISBN 3-89586-347-5.