Barbacoan
Geographic
distribution
Colombia and Ecuador
Linguistic classificationOne of the world's primary language families
Subdivisions
Glottologbarb1265
Barbacoan languages.png
Barbacoan language at present, and probable areas in the 16th century:
1 Guambiano
2 Totoró
3 Barbacoa (†)
4 Sindagua (†?)
5 Awá Pit
6 Pasto-Muellama (†?)
7 Cha'palaachi
8 Tsáfiki
9 Caranqui (†?)

Barbacoan (also Barbakóan, Barbacoano, Barbacoana) is a language family spoken in Colombia and Ecuador.

Genealogical relations

The Barbacoan languages may be related to the Páez language. Barbacoan is often connected with the Paezan languages (including Páez); however, Curnow (1998) shows how much of this proposal is based on misinterpretation of an old document of Douay (1888). (See: Paezan languages.)

Other more speculative larger groupings involving Barbacoan include the Macro-Paesan "cluster", the Macro-Chibchan stock, and the Chibchan-Paezan stock.

Language contact

Jolkesky (2016) notes that there are lexical similarities with the Atakame, Cholon-Hibito, Kechua, Mochika, Paez, Tukano, Umbra, and Chibchan (especially between Guaymí and Southern Barbacoan branches) language families due to contact.[1]

Languages

Barbacoan consists of 6 languages:

  • Awan (also known as Awa or Pasto)
  • Awa Pit (also known as Cuaiquer, Coaiquer, Kwaiker, Awá, Awa, Telembi, Sindagua, Awa-Cuaiquer, Koaiker, Telembí)
  • Pasto–Muellama
  • Pasto (also known as Past Awá) (†)
  • Muellama (also known as Muellamués, Muelyama) (†)
  • Coconucan (also known as Guambiano–Totoró)
  • Guambiano (also known as Mogües, Moguez, Mogés, Wam, Misak, Guambiano-Moguez, Wambiano-Mogés, Moguex)
  • Totoró (also known as Polindara)
  • Coconuco (also known as Kokonuko, Cauca, Wanaka) (†)
  • Caranqui (also known as Cara, Kara, Karanki, Imbaya) (†)
  • Cha’palaa (also known as Cayapa, Chachi, Kayapa, Nigua, Cha’palaachi)
  • Tsafiki (also known as Colorado, Tsafiqui, Tsáfiki, Colorado, Tsáchela, Tsachila, Campaz, Colima)

Pasto, Muellama, Coconuco, and Caranqui are now extinct.

Pasto and Muellama are usually classified as Barbacoan, but the current evidence is weak and deserves further attention. Muellama may have been one of the last surviving dialects of Pasto (both extinct, replaced by Spanish) — Muellama is known only by a short wordlist recorded in the 19th century. The Muellama vocabulary is similar to modern Awa Pit. The Cañari–Puruhá languages are even more poorly attested, and while often placed in a Chimuan family, Adelaar (2004:397) thinks they may have been Barbacoan.

The Coconucan languages were first connected to Barbacoan by Daniel Brinton in 1891. However, a subsequent publication by Henri Beuchat and Paul Rivet placed Coconucan together with a Paezan family (which included Páez and Paniquita) due a misleading "Moguex" vocabulary list. The "Moguex" vocabulary turned out to be a mix of both Páez and Guambiano languages (Curnow 1998). This vocabulary has led to misclassifications by Greenberg (1956, 1987), Loukotka (1968), Kaufman (1990, 1994), and Campbell (1997), among others. Although Páez may be related to the Barbacoan family, a conservative view considers Páez a language isolate pending further investigation. Guambiano is more similar to other Barbacoan languages than to Páez, and thus Key (1979), Curnow et al. (1998), Gordon (2005), and Campbell (2012)[2] place Coconucan under Barbacoan. The moribund Totoró is sometimes considered a dialect of Guambiano instead of a separate language, and, indeed, Adelaar & Muysken (2004) state that Guambiano-Totoró-Coconuco is best treated as a single language.

The Barbácoa (Barbacoas) language itself is unattested, and is only assumed to be part of the Barbacoan family. Nonetheless, it has been assigned an ISO code, though the better-attested and classifiable Pasto language has not.

Loukotka (1968)

Below is a full list of Barbacoan language varieties listed by Loukotka (1968), including names of unattested varieties.[3]

Barbacoa group
Coconuco group

Vocabulary

Loukotka (1968) lists the following basic vocabulary items.[3]

gloss Cuaiquer Telembi Cayápa Colorado Cara Muellama
one marabashpá tumuni main manga
two pas pas pályo paluga pala
three kotiá kokia péma paiman
ear kail puːngi punki
tongue maulcha nigka ohula
hand chitoé chʔto fiapapa tädaʔé
foot mitá mito rapapa medaʔé mit
water pil pil pi pi bi pi
stone uʔúk shúpuga chu su pegrané
maize piaʔá pishu piox pisa
fish shkarbrodrúk changúko guatsá guasa kuas
house yaʔál yal ya ya

Proto-language

Proto-Barbacoan
Reconstruction ofBarbacoan languages

Proto-Barbacoan reconstructions and reflexes (Curnow & Liddicoat 1998):[4]

no. gloss Proto-Barbacoan Guambiano Totoró Awapit Cha’palaachi Tsafiqui
1 be *i- i- i-
2 blow *ut- utʂ- otʂ- us-
3 come *ha- a- ha- ha-
4 cook *aj- aj- (a-) aj-
5 corn *pijo pija pijo
6 do *ki- ki- ki- ki-
7 dry *pur pur pul
8 eye *kap kap kap-[tʂul] (kasu) ka-[puka] ka-[’ka]
9 feces *pi pe pe
10 firewood *tɨ tʂɨ te te
11 flower *uʃ u o
12 fog *waniʃ waɲi wapi waniʃ
13 get up *kus- ku̥s- kuh- (ku’pa-)
14 go *hi- i- hi- hi-
15 go up *lo- nu- lu- lo-
16 hair *aʃ a
17 house *ja ja ja (jal) ja ja
18 I *la na na na la
19 land *to su tu to
20 lie down *tso tsu tsu tu tsu tso
21 listen *miina- mina- meena-
22 louse *mũũ (mũi) muuŋ mu mu
23 mouth *ɸit pit fiʔ-[paki] ɸi-[’ki]
24 no/negative *ti ʃi ti
25 nose *kim-ɸu kim kim kimpu̥ kinɸu
26 path *mii mii mi-[ɲu] mi-[nu]
27 river, water *pii pi pi pii pi pi
28 rock *ʃuk ʂuk ʂuk uk ʃu-[puka] su
29 smoke *iʃ
30 sow *wah- waa- wah- wa’-[ke-]
31 split *paa- paa- paa-
32 tear ("eye-water") *kap pi kappi kappi kapi ka’pĩ
33 that *sun sun hun hun
34 thorn *po pu pu pu po
35 tree, stick *tsik tsik tʃi tsi-[de]
36 two *paa pa pa (paas) paa (palu)
37 what? *ti tʃi (tʃini) ʃi ti-[n] ti
38 who? *mo mu mu-[n] mo
39 wipe clean *kis- ki̥s- kih-
40 yellow *lah- na-[tam] lah-[katata] (la’ke)
41 you (sg.) *nu (ɲi) (ɲi) nu ɲu nu
42 armadillo *ʃul ? ʂulə ʂolɨ ulam
43 dirt *pil ? pirə pirɨ pil
44 moon *pɨ ? pəl pɨl pe
45 suck *tsu- ? tuk- tsu-
46 tail *mɨ ? məʃ, mətʂ mɨʂ mɨta me
47 three *pɨ ? pən pɨn pema pemã
48 tooth *tu ? tʂukul tʂokol sula

See also

References

  1. ^ Jolkesky, Marcelo Pinho de Valhery (2016). Estudo arqueo-ecolinguístico das terras tropicais sul-americanas (Ph.D. dissertation) (2 ed.). Brasília: University of Brasília.
  2. ^ Campbell, Lyle (2012). "Classification of the indigenous languages of South America". In Grondona, Verónica; Campbell, Lyle (eds.). The Indigenous Languages of South America. The World of Linguistics. Vol. 2. Berlin: De Gruyter Mouton. pp. 59–166. ISBN 9783110255133.
  3. ^ a b Loukotka, Čestmír (1968). Classification of South American Indian languages. Los Angeles: UCLA Latin American Center.
  4. ^ Curnow, Timothy J.; Liddicoat, Anthony J. (1998). The Barbacoan languages of Colombia and Ecuador. Anthropological Linguistics, 40 (3).

Bibliography