Mande
Western Sudanic
EthnicityMandé peoples
Geographic
distribution
West Africa
Linguistic classificationNiger–Congo?
  • Mande
Proto-languageProto-Mande
Subdivisions
  • Western Mande
  • Eastern Mande
ISO 639-5dmn
Linguasphere00- (phylozone)
Glottologmand1469


The Mande languages (Mandén, Manding;[needs IPA]) are a group of languages spoken in several countries in West Africa by the Mandé peoples. These include; Maninka, Mandinka, Soninke, Bambara, Kpelle, Jula, Bozo, Mende, Susu, and Vai. There are around 60 to 75 languages spoken by 30 to 40 million people,[1] chiefly in; Burkina Faso, Mali, Senegal, the Gambia, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Sierra Leone, Liberia, Ivory Coast, Mauritania, Ghana and also in northwestern Nigeria and northern Benin.

The Mande languages show a few lexical similarities with the Atlantic–Congo language family, so together they have been proposed as parts of a larger Niger–Congo language family since the 1950s. However, the Mande languages lack the noun-class morphology that is the primary identifying feature of the Atlantic–Congo languages. Accordingly, linguists increasingly treat Mande and Atlantic–Congo as independent language families.[2][3]

History

Various opinions exist as to the age of the Mande languages.

Valentin Vydrin concluded that "the Mande homeland at the second half of the 4th millennium BC was located in Southern Sahara, somewhere to the North of 16° or even 18° of Northern latitude and between 3° and 12° of Western longitude.".[4] That is now Mauritania and southern Western Sahara.

If Mande's linguistic affiliation were clearer that would help inform its history. For example, Joseph Greenberg suggested that the Niger-Congo group, which in his view includes the Mande language family, began to break up at around 7000 years BP. Its speakers would have practised a Neolithic culture, as indicated by the Proto-Niger-Congo words for "cow", "goat" and "cultivate".[5]

Early scholarship

The group was first recognized in 1854 by Sigismund Wilhelm Koelle, in his Polyglotta Africana. He mentioned 13 languages under the heading North-Western High-Sudan Family, or Mandéga Family of Languages. In 1901, Maurice Delafosse made a distinction of two groups.[6] He speaks of a northern group mandé-tan and a southern group mandé-fu. The distinction was basically done only because the languages in the north use the expression tan for ten, and the southern languages use fu. In 1924, Louis Tauxier noted that the distinction is not well founded and there is at least a third subgroup he called mandé-bu. It was not until 1950 that André Prost supported that view and gave further details.

In 1958, Welmers published an article called "The Mande Languages," where he divided the languages into three subgroups: North-West, South and East.[7] His conclusion was based on lexicostatistic research. Joseph Greenberg followed that distinction in his The Languages of Africa (1963). Long (1971) and Gérard Galtier (1980) follow the distinction into three groups but with notable differences.

Classification

Relation to Niger-Congo

Mande does not share the morphology characteristic of most of the Niger–Congo family, such as the noun-class system. Nor are there many recognized cognates in core vocabulary between Mande and Niger-Congo. Accordingly, Dimmendaal (2008) argues that the evidence for inclusion is slim, and that for now Mande is best considered an independent family.[2][8] The same view is held by Güldemann (2018).[3]

Without definitively concluding that Mande is or is not a member of Niger–Congo, Vydrin (2016) notes that proto-Mande basic vocabulary fits relatively well with Niger–Congo, and that typological criteria such as the absence of a noun-class system should not be taken as probative; he notes that "If the position of Mande within Niger-Congo is confirmed... Mande will certainly represent the most ancient branching of the phylum".[9] Blench regards it as an early branch that diverged before the noun-class morphology developed. Dwyer (1998) compared it with other branches of Niger–Congo and finds that they form a coherent family, with Mande being the most divergent of the branches he considered.

Internal classification

The diversity and depth of the Mande family is comparable to that of Indo-European. Eleven low-level branches of Mande are nearly universally accepted: Southern Mande (Dan etc.), Eastern Mande (Bisa, Boko etc.), Samogo, Bobo, Soninke–Bozo, Southwestern Mande (Mende, Kpelle, Loma etc.), Soso–Jalonke, Jogo, Vai–Kono, Mokole and Manding (Bambara, Djula etc.). It is also widely accepted that these form two primary branches, the first two as Southeastern Mande and the rest as Western Mande.[1]

Most internal Mande classifications are based on lexicostatistics, for example, that based on the Swadesh list.[10] An alternative classification from Kastenholz (1996) is based on lexical innovations and comparative linguistics. Kastenholz warns however that this is not based on objective criteria and thus is not a genealogical classification in the narrow sense.[11] The following classification is a compilation of both.

Vydrin (2009) differs somewhat from this: he places Soso-Jalonke with Southwestern (a return to André Prost 1953); Soninke-Bozo, Samogho and Bobo as independent branches of Western Mande, and Mokole with Vai-Kono. Most classifications place Jo within Samogo.

Morphosyntactic features

Mande languages do not have the noun-class system or verbal extensions of the Atlantic–Congo languages and for which the Bantu languages are so famous, but Bobo has causative and intransitive forms of the verb. Southwestern Mande languages and Soninke have initial consonant mutation. Plurality is most often marked with a clitic; in some languages, with tone, as for example in Sembla. Pronouns often have alienable–inalienable and inclusive–exclusive distinctions. Word order in transitive clauses is subjectauxiliaryobjectverbadverb. Mainly postpositions are used. Within noun phrases, possessives come before the noun, and adjectives and plural markers after the verb; demonstratives are found with both orders.[12]

Comparative vocabulary

Below is a sample basic vocabulary of reconstructed proto-forms:

Language eye ear nose tooth tongue mouth blood bone tree water eat name
Proto-Mande[9] *ɲíŋ *lɛɓ̰́ Ṽ *yíti
Proto-West Mande[11] *túli *sʸúN *ɲíN **nɛ̌N *dá ~ ɗá *jío ~ yío *gúri ~ wúri *jío ~ yío *tɔ́ko
Proto-Manding (Mandekan)[13] *nya *tulo *nun *nyin *nɛn(e) *da *joli *kolo *yiri *ji *domo(n) *tɔgɔ
Proto-East Mande (Niger-Volta)[14] *jɛN (< *gɛN) *toro *N-jẽ *soN(-ka) *N-lɛ *lɛ *(N-)wa(-ru) *(N-)gero *li/*da *jiN *be(-le) *tɔ
Proto-South Mande[15] *yũ̀ã́ *tɔ́lɔ́ŋ *yṹã̄ *sɔ̃̀ɛ̃́ *nã̄nɛ̃́ *ɗé *yɔ̃̀mũ̄ *wɔ̃́nɛ̃́ *yílí *yí *ɓɪ̀lɪ̀ *tɔ́

Below are some cognates from D. J. Dwyer (1988) (⟨j⟩ is [dʲ] or [d͡ʒ]):[16]

GLOSS PROTO-
MANDÉ
Manding Kono-Vai Susu Mandé (SW) Soninké Sembla Bobo San Busa Mano Dan Guro Mwa
'mouth' *da da da la laqqe jo do le le le Di le le, di
'saliva' *da-yi da-ji da- sɛ-ye la-yi laxan-ji jon-fago dibe se le-i le-yi Di-li leri liri
'water' *yi je yi yi ya ji jo ji, zio mun i yi yi yi yi
'breast' *n-koŋ sin susu sisi ŋeni konbe kye ɲiŋi ɲo ɲo ɲoŋ ɲoŋ ɲoŋ ɲoŋ
'milk' *n-kon-yi nɔnɔ susu-ji xin-yɛ gen-iya -xatti kye-n-dyo n-yan-niŋi n-yo- n-yoŋ-yi n-yoŋ-yi
'goat' *bo(re) ba ba ɓoli sugo bi gwa bwe ble bori
'buck' *bore-guren ba-koro diggeh gu-gura ble-sa bɔ-gon bɔ-gon gyagya bɔ-guren
'sheep' *saga saga bara-wa yexe ɓara jaxe sega sɛge sere sa baa bla bera bla
'ram' *saga-guren saga-koro jaxampade kekyere si-gula da-gu bla-gon bra-gon bla-gure
'head' * Koun-kolo yin-kola

Note that in these cognates:

Numerals

Comparison of numerals in individual languages:[17]

Classification Language 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Bissa Bissa (Bisa) díí píjà kakʊ́ sɪ̀ sɔ́ɔ̀ sòàtɪ (5 + 1) sáápra (5 + 2) síɲe (2 x 4) ? nɛfʊ̀ (10 -1) ? bʊ̀
Busa Boko do pla ʔààɔ̃ sííɔ̃ sɔ́o soolo (5 + 1) sopla (5 + 2) swaàɔ̃ (5 + 3) kɛ̃̀okwi [ litː tear away 1 (from) 10 ] kwi
Busa Bokobaru (Zogbẽ) do pláa ʔààɡɔ̃ sííɡɔ̃ sɔ́ɔ́ro swɛ́ɛ̀do (5 + 1) swɛ́ɛ̀pláa (5 + 2) sɔ́rààɡɔ̃ (5 + 3) kɛ̃́ndo (10–1) kurì
Busa Illo Busa do pia ʔààkɔ̃ ʃííkɔ̃ sɔ́o sóodo (5 + 1) soopia (5 + 2) swààkɔ̃ (5 + 3) kĩ́ṇdokwi [litː tear away 1 (from) 10] kwi
Busa Busa do pla ʔààkɔ̃ sííkɔ̃ sɔ́ɔ́ro súddo (5 + 1) súppla (5 + 2) sɔ́rààkɔ̃ (5 + 3) kɛ̃́ndo (10–1) kurì
Kyanga Kyanga (Kyenga) (1) dúú fʸáā ˀāàː ʃíí sɔ́ɔ́rū sɔ̄ɔ̄dū (5 + 1) sʷāhʸáā (5 + 2) sōōwà (5 + 3) sòòʃí (5 + 4) kōōrì
Kyanga Kyanga (Kyenga) (2) dūː fʲâː ʔàː ʃíː sɔ̂ːwû sɔ̂ːdū (5 + 1) sɔ̂ːfʲá (5 + 2) sōːuwà (5 + 3) sōwēʃíː (5 + 4) kōːlì
Kyanga Kyenga (3) do hia / fia ʔà ʃí sɔɔlu sɔɔdu (5 + 1) sɔɔhia (5 + 2) soowà (5 + 3) sooʃí (5 + 4) korì
Kyanga Shanga do ʍa ʔà ʃí sɔ́ɔ sɔbodo (5 + 1) sɔhia (5 + 2) sɔboʔà (5 + 3) sɔdoʃí (5 + 4) wókòì
Samo Matya Samo ɡɔ̀rɔ́ prá tjɔwɔ sɔ́rɔ́ sɛ̀rɛ́ (5 + 1) tjʊ́sʊ́ (5 + 2) tjisí (2 x 4) ménaŋɡɔrɔ (10–1) flè / fʊ̀
Samo Maya Samo dɛ́nɛ́ fúrá kàakú síirí sɔ́ɔrɔ́ sɔ̀rɔ̀ (5 + 1) sɔ̀frá (5 + 2) cíɡísí (2 x 4 ) ? sóosí (5 + 4) ?
Guro-Tura Guro fíé yaá zĩ̀ɛ̃́ sólú sʊɛdʊ / sʊɛlʊ (5 + 1) sʊlàyíé (5 + 2) sʊlaá (5 + 3) sʊlàzĩ̀ɛ̃́ (5 + 4) vu
Guro-Tura Yaouré tʊ̀ fli̋ yaaɡa sĩjɛ̃ = sĩɟɛ̃ or sĩd͡ʒɛ̃ sóolu ʃɛ́dʊ (5 + 1) sɔ́ravli (5 + 2) sɔ́ra (5 + 3) sɔ́rasiɛ̃ (5 + 4)
Guro-Tura Mann (Mano) doó pèèlɛ yààka yììsɛ sɔ́ɔ́li sáláádo (5 + 1) sálápèèlɛ (5 + 2) sálàka (5 + 3) sɛ́lɛ̀ìsɛ (5 + 4) vũ̀
Nwa-Ben Beng do plaŋ ŋaŋ siéŋ sɔ́ŋ sɔ́do (5 + 1) sɔ́pla (5 + 2) sɔ́wa (5 + 3) sisi (5 + 4) ebu
Nwa-Ben Gagu fɪ́n yía zié súu sɛ́dò (5 + 1) sɛ́fɪ́n (5 + 2) sɛà (5 + 3) tízie (5 + 4)
Nwa-Ben Mwan (Muan) do plɛ yaɡa yiziɛ sóó srɔádo (5 + 1) srɔáplɛ (5 + 2) srɔ́a (5 + 3) srɔáyiziɛ (5 + 4) vu
Nwa-Ben Wan do pilɔŋ ʔã́ sijá sɔ̀lú wáŋ́ séaʔã́ (5 + 2) séjãŋ́ (5 + 3) sɔlásijá (5 + 4) sɔ́jɔlú
Jogo-Jeri Jalkunan dúlì fìlɑ̀ siɡ͡bù nɑ̄ːnī sōːlō mìːlù mɑ̀ɑ́lɑ̀ mɑ̀sīɡ͡bū (5 + 3) mɑ́nɑ̄nì (5 + 4) tɑ̄
Jogo-Jeri Ligbi díén / díyé fàlà / fàlá sèɡ͡bá / siɡ͡bá náánè / náani sóólò / sóolo mɔ̀ɔ̀dó / mooró (5 + 1) màúlà / mafála (5 + 2) másèɡ͡bá / masiɡ͡bá (5 + 3) màdááné / maráni (5 + 4) táàn / táa
Manding Marka (Dafing) kyen / kyeren fila / fila saba / saba nɛi / naani luu / luuru[check spelling] wɔɔ / wɔɔrɔ wəna / wonla sii / siɡi konon / kondon tan / tan
Manding Bambara kélen [kélẽ́] fìla [fìlá] sàba [sàbá] náani [náːní] dúuru [dúːrú] wɔ́ɔrɔ [wɔ́ːrɔ́] wólonwula [wólṍwulá] sèɡin [sèɡĩ́] kɔ̀nɔntɔn [kɔ̀nɔ̃̀tɔ̃́] tán [tã́]
Manding Jula (1) kelen [ké.lẽ́] filà [fì.là] ~ [flà] sàbà [sà.bà] nàànìn [nàːnĩ̀] dùùrù [dù.ɾù] wɔ̀ɔ̀rɔ̀ [wɔ̀ːɾɔ́] wolon fìlà [wò.lṍ.fi.̀là] sieɡi [sí.é.ɡí] kɔ̀nɔ̀ndon [kɔ.̀nɔ̃.ⁿdṍ] tan [tã́]
Manding Jula (2) kelen [kélẽ́] fila [fìlá] / fla [flá] saba [sàbá] naani [náːní] looru [lóːrú] wɔɔrɔ [wɔ́ːrɔ́] wolonfila [wólṍfìlá] / wolonfla seɡin [sèɡĩ́] / seeɡi [sèːɡí] kɔnɔntɔn [kɔ̀nɔ̃̀tɔ̃́] tan [tã́]
Manding Sankaran Maninka kɛlɛn fila sawa naani loolu / looli wɔɔrɔn wɔɔrɔn (fi)la sen konondo tan
Manding Mahou kéléŋ fyàà sàwà náání lóó wɔ́ɔ́lɔ́ wóóŋvyàà sɛ́ɲíŋ kɔ̀ɔ̀nŋdɔ́ŋ táŋ
Manding Mandinka kíliŋ fula saba náani lúulu wóoro wórówula sáyi konónto táŋ
Manding Xaasonga kilin fula saba naani luulu wooro woorowula saɡi xononto tan
Mokole Kakabe kélen fìla sàba náani lɔ́ɔlu wɔ́ɔrɔ wɔ́rɔwila (6 + 1) sáɡin kɔ̀nɔntɔ tán
Mokole Kuranko kelen fila sawa / saba nani loli wɔrɔ wɔrɔnfila (6 + 1) ? seɡin kɔnɔnt tan
Mokole Lele kelɛŋ fela sawa nani luuli wɔɔrɔ wɔrɔŋ kela (6 + 1) seŋ kɔnɔndɔ taŋ
Vai-Kono Kono ncélen / ncéle, dɔ́ndo fèa sàwa náani dúʔu wɔ́ɔlɔ wɔ́nfèa / ɔ́ɱfèa séi / séin kɔ̀nɔ́ntɔn tán
Vai-Kono Vai lɔ̀ndɔ́ fɛ̀(ʔ)á sàk͡pá náánì sóó(ʔ)ú sɔ̂ŋ lɔ̀ndɔ́ (5 + 1) sɔ̂ŋ fɛ̀(ʔ)á (5 + 2) sɔ̂ŋ sàk͡pá (5 + 3) sɔ̂ŋ náánì (5 + 4) tâŋ
Susu-Yalunka Susu kérén [kɛ́rɛ̃́] fìrín [fìrĩ́] sàxán [sàxã́] náání súlí sénní [sẽní] (5 + 1) sólófèré (5 + 2) sólómásàxán (5 + 3) sólómánáání (5 + 4) fuú
Susu-Yalunka Yalunka (1) kèdé fìríŋ sàkáŋ nànì sùlù sènì (5 + 1) fòlófɛ̀rɛ́ (5 + 2) fòlòmàsàkáŋ (5 + 3) fòlòmànànì (5 + 4)
Susu-Yalunka Yalunka (Jalonke) (2) keden fidin saxan naani suuli sɛnni (5 + 1) solofɛdɛ (5 + 2) solomasɛɡɛ (5 + 3) solomanaani (5 + 4) fuu
Kpelle Guinea Kpelle tááŋ hvèèlɛ̌ / hvèèlɛ́ hààbǎ / hààbá nááŋ́ lɔ́ɔ́lí mɛ̀í dà (5 + 1) mɛ̀ì hvéélɛ̀ (5 + 2) mɛ̀ì háábà (5 + 3) mɛ̀ì nááŋ́ (5 + 4) pòǔ
Kpelle Liberia Kpelle taaŋ / tɔnɔ / dɔnɔ feerɛ saaɓa náaŋ nɔ́ɔlu / lɔ́ɔlu mɛi da (5 + 1) mɛi feerɛ (5 + 2) mɛi saaɓa (5 + 3) mɛi náaŋ (5 + 4) puu
Mende-Loma Looma (Toma) (1) ɡílàɡ félé(ɡɔ̀) sáwà(ɡɔ̀) náánĩ̀(ɡɔ̀) dɔ́ɔ́lù̀(ɡɔ̀) dòzìtà (5 + 1) dɔ́fèlà (5 + 2) dɔ́sáwà (5 + 3) tàwù̀(ɡɔ̀) (10–1) ? pù̀(ɡɔ̀)
Mende-Loma Loma (2) ɡila feleɡɔ saaɡɔ naaɡɔ dooluo dɔzita (5 + 1) dɔfela (5 + 2) dɔsava (5 + 3) taawu (10–1) ? puu
Mende-Loma Bandi (1) ìtá(ŋ), hítà(ŋ) fèlé(ŋ) sàwá(ŋ), sàá(ŋ) náánì(ŋ) ndɔ̀ɔ́lú(ŋ) nɡɔ̀hítá(ŋ) (5 + 1) ŋɡɔ̀félà(ŋ) (5 + 2) ŋɡɔ̀hák͡pá(ŋ), ŋɡwahák͡pá(ŋ) (5+ 4) tààwú(ŋ), tààvú(ŋ) (10–1) ? pû(ŋ), púù(ŋ)
Mende-Loma Bandi (2) iitá feelé saawá naáni ndɔɔ́lu nɡɔhíta (5 + 1) nɡɔféla (5 + 2) nɡwahák͡pa (5 + 3) taávu (10–1) ? púu
Mende-Loma Loko (1) íla(ŋ) félé(ŋ), féé(ŋ) sáwá(ŋ), cáwá(ŋ) nááí(ŋ) ńdɔu(ŋ) ŋɡɔhita (5 + 1) ŋɡɔfɛla (5 + 2) ŋɡɔsaak͡pa karaabu, raabu puu(ŋ), kapuu(ŋ)
Mende-Loma Loko (2) ila fele itʃawa naiŋ ndɔu nɡɔita (5 + 1) nɡɔfla (5 + 2) nɡɔsaɡ͡ba (5 + 3) karabu (10–1) ? kapu
Mende-Loma Mende yilá / itáá felé sawá nááni lɔ́ɔ́lu wɔ́íta (5 + 1) wɔ́fíla (5 + 2) wáyák͡pá (5 + 3) táálú (10–1) ? puú
Samogo Duungooma sɔʔi fíʔi ʒiʔi naai tũmɛ̃ ɲɛ̃ːnũ ŋaai kleːlo ceũ
Samogo Dzùùngoo sōː ́ / sōːrē fíː / fíːkí ʒìːɡī ́ nàːlẽ́ nũ̀ tsũ̀mɛ̃̄ ́ ɲɛ̃̀ːnṹ ŋáːlõ̀ kjèːrṍ tsjéù
Samogo Jowulu (Jo) tẽẽna fuuli bʒei pʃɪrɛᶦ tãã tãmãnɪ (5 + 1) dʒɔ̃mpʊn (3 + 4) fulpʊn (2 x 4) tẽmpʊn (5 + 4) bʒĩĩ
Samogo Seeku swɛ̃̄ fĩ́ ʃwɛ̀ nàà nɔ̄ tsìì ɲɛ̀ɛ̀ kàà kùòmɛ̀
Soninke-Bobo Konabéré tálɪ̄ pálà nìã̄ kʊ̄ kʊ̀tã́nɪ̀ (5 + 1) kʊ̀rʊ̀párá (5 + 2) kʊ̀rʊ̀sɔ̄ʊ̀ (5 + 3) kʊ̀rʊ̀nɔ̂ŋ (5 + 4) m̥ḿ̩
Soninke-Bobo Southern Bobo Madare tèlé plá sáà náà kóò kònálá (5 + 1) kòk͡pùrá (5 + 2) kórósɔ̃̌ (5 + 3) kórónɔ̃̌ (5 + 4) fʊ̃̀
Soninke-Bobo Hainyaxo Bozo (Kelenga) sâ:nà fíenù sí:yù ná:nà kɔ́lɔ́hɔ̀ tú:mì dʒíenì sɛ́kì káfì tã̄
Soninke-Bobo Tièmà-Cièwè Bozo sàn:á pẽ̀ːndé sì:yé nà:rá kɔ̀lɔ́ tù:mì dʒiènĩ́ tʃèkí kìáwí
Soninke-Bobo Tiéyaxo Bozo (Tigemaxo) (1) sáná fẽ́:ndè sí:yò kɔ́lɔ̀ kɔ́lɔ̀ tú:mĩ̀ dʒê:nì sɛ̄kī kìáwì tã́
Soninke-Bobo Tiéyaxo Bozo (2) sanna / kuɔn fendeen / pendeen siiyon naaran kɔlɔn tuumi jeeni sekiin kiawi tan
Soninke-Bobo Jenaama Bozo (1) sànːá pẽ̀ndéː síkɛ̃̀ũ nàtã́ kɔ̀ːɡṍ tǔːmí yíèní sèkːí kàpːí tʃɛ́mí
Soninke-Bobo Jenaama Bozo (2) sanna pende sikɛũ / siɡɛũ nataũ kɔɡõ tuumi yeeni seki kapi tʃɛmi / tʃami
Soninke-Bobo Soninke bàanè fíllò / filːi síkkò / sikːi náɣátò / naɣati káráɡò / karaɡi tṹmù / tũmi ɲérù / ɲeri séɡù / seɡi kábù / kabi tã́mú / tãmi

See also

References

  1. ^ a b Vydrin, Valentin (2018). "Mande Languages". Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Linguistics. doi:10.1093/acrefore/9780199384655.013.397. ISBN 978-0-19-938465-5.
  2. ^ a b Dimmendaal, Gerrit J. (2008). "Language Ecology and Linguistic Diversity on the African Continen t". Language and Linguistics Compass. 2 (5): 840–858. doi:10.1111/j.1749-818x.2008.00085.x. ISSN 1749-818X.
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  10. ^ "Mande language family". mandelang.kunstkamera.ru. Retrieved 2019-03-25.
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  12. ^ . ISBN 0521661781. ((cite book)): Missing or empty |title= (help)
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  14. ^ Schreiber, Henning (2008). Eine historische Phonologie der Niger-Volta-Sprachen: Ein Beitrag zur Erforschung der Sprachgeschichte der östlichen Ost-Mandesprachen. R. Köppe. ISBN 978-3-89645-076-0.
  15. ^ Vydrin, Valentin (2007). "South Mande reconstruction: Initial consonants". Аспекты компаративистики 2. Orientalia et classica. Vol. XI. Труды Института восточных культур и античн.
  16. ^ Dwyer, David J. (1988). "Towards Proto-Mande phonology" (PDF). Mandenkan. 14/15: 139–152. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2022-04-09.
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Further reading