Native toColombia, Venezuela
Ethnicity7,000 (ca. 2007)[1]
Native speakers
3,000 (2001–2008)[1]
Language codes
ISO 639-3pui
This article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode characters. For an introductory guide on IPA symbols, see Help:IPA.

Puinave, Waipunavi (Guaipunabi) or Wanse (Wã́nsöjöt [ˈw̃ã́nsɤhɤt ];[2] Puinave: Wãnsöhöt) is an indigenous language of Colombia and Venezuela. It is generally considered to be an unclassified language.


There are about 6,800 people in 32 communities along the banks of the Inírida River in Guainía Department, Colombia. Additionally, there are 470 people in 10 communities along the Orinoco River, in the Colombia–Venezuela border region.[2]: 1143 

Other names for the language include Camaku del Guaviare or Camaku del Inírida.[2]: 1143 


Varieties listed by Mason (1950):[3]

Alternate names of Puinave are Puinabe, Puinavis, Uaipunabis, Guaipunavos, Uaipis.[3]


Puinave is sometimes linked to other poorly attested languages of the region in various Macro-Puinavean proposals, but no good evidence has ever been produced. The original motivation seems to simply be that all of these languages were called Maku "babble" by Arawakans.[4] Ongoing work on Puinave by Girón Higuita at the University of Amsterdam will hopefully clarify the situation.



Labial Coronal Dorsal Glottal
Plosive Oral p t k ʔ
Nasal m n
Fricative s h
Glide (w) (j)


Front Back
Close i ĩ ɯ u
Mid e ɤ ɤ̃ o õ
Open a ã

Syllable structure is (C)V(C); nasal syllabic nuclei cause allophonic variation of consonantal segments in the same syllable. The phonemes /m n/ have oral, non-sonorant allophones [b d] in the onsets of syllables with oral nuclei.

The high vowel [u], when occurring in onset or coda position, is realized as a glide [w]. When the high vowel /i/ is in coda position, it is also realized as a glide [j], but in onset position, it is realized as a palatal stop matching in nasality with the nucleus, either [ɟ] or [ɲ], in the same way that /m n/ match the following vowel's nasality. Any glides [w] occurring before or [j w] occurring after a nasalized nucleus are also realized as nasal [j̃ w̃].


Puinave distinguishes four surface (phonetic) tones: two simple (H and L) and two contour (HL and LH); these are analyzed as being composed of two phonemic tone values, H and L. Girón Higuita and Wetzels (2007) note that speakers seem to associate H with prominence, rather than increased duration or intensity (the typical correlates of prominence in languages like English).

Morphology and syntax

Jesús Mario Girón's description of the morphology and the function of nominalized constructions in this language can be found in The Linguistics of Endangered Languages (edited by Leo Wetzels).



  1. ^ a b Puinavé at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015) (subscription required)
  2. ^ a b c Epps, Patience; Michael, Lev, eds. (2023). Amazonian Languages: Language Isolates. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter. ISBN 978-3-11-043273-2.
  3. ^ a b Mason, John Alden (1950). "The languages of South America". In Steward, Julian (ed.). Handbook of South American Indians. Vol. 6. Washington, D.C., Government Printing Office: Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology Bulletin 143. pp. 157–317.
  4. ^ Patience Epps, 2008. A Grammar of Hup. Mouton de Gruyter.