[Superseded in Glottolog: Coropo removed, Puri split]

Purian
Puri-Coroado
Geographic
distribution
East Brazil
Linguistic classificationMacro-Gê?
  • Purian
Glottologpuri1261

Purian (also Purían) is a pair of extinct languages of eastern Brazil:

Coropó (Koropó), once spoken in Minas Gerais and Rio de Janeiro, was added by Campbell (1997), but removed again by Ramirez et al. (2015).[1]

Purian is part of the Macro-Jê proposal. However, when Coropó is removed, there are not sufficient lexical connections to maintain this classification.[2]

Attestation

The Purian languages are only attested by a few word lists from the 19th century. The lists are:[1]

Puri:

Coroado:

Koropó is attested by two word lists:

Distribution

The Purian languages were spoken in a continuous region stretching from the Preto River to the Paraíba River (from Queluz, São Paulo to Paraibuna, São Paulo). The Puri occupied the Upper Paraíba do Sul River up to Queluz, São Paulo, and the Coroado from the Pomba River to the Doce River in Minas Gerais.[1]

Dialects

Mason (1950) lists the following dialects of Coroado and Purí:[9]

Other languages

Extinct and unknown languages that may have been Purian languages:[10]

Vocabulary

Loukotka (1968) lists the following basic vocabulary items.[10]

gloss Puri Coroado Koropó
one omi shombiuan ipáĩn
two kuriri chiri alinkrin
three pátapakon patepakon
tongue an-gué topé pitao
foot cha-peré txa-peré cham-brim
fire pothe poté
tree mpó ambó mebm
jaguar paüan pauan
house ngguára guar sheume
white begotara katáma guatháma

Proto-language

Proto-Purian
Reconstruction ofPurian languages

Silva Neto (2007) reconstructs 47 Proto-Purian forms.[11]: 39–41  Reconstituted forms by Silva Neto (2007) for Puri, Coroado, and Koropó synthesized from historical sources are also provided.

no. English gloss
(translated)
Portuguese gloss
(original)
Proto-Purian Puri Coroado Koropó
1 water água *yaman yaman yaman
2 you (sg.) você *gá
3 tapir anta *painan penán painá
4 here aqui *kará kará kra
5 tree árvore *mpó mpo ãmpo
6 drink beber *mpa mpa pa
7 mouth boca *čore čore čore šore, čore
8 hair cabelo *ké ke gué iče, ke
9 head cabeça *kwe kwe ke
10 eat comer *maše paše maše makšina, maše
11 finger dedo *šapere šabrera šapere
12 day dia *opé opé ope
13 tooth dente *če uče če
14 star estrela *yuri šuri yuri dzuri, yuri
15 arrow flecha *apon apon apon
16 fire fogo *poté poté poté
17 cat gato *šapé šapi šapé
18 brother irmão *čatay šatã čatay šatay, čatay
19 daughter filha *šampe šampe-mpayma šãpe boema
20 leaf folha *čope dzoplé čope čupe
21 man homem *kwayman kuayma, hakorema kwayman kwayman
22 moon lua *petara petara petara
23 mother mãe *ayan ayan ayan ayan
24 maize milho *makπ makπ makπ
25 hand mão *šapore kore, šapeprera šapore, kokor¤e
26 mountain monte *pré pré pre pré
27 large mountain monte grande *pré-heroyma pré deka pré-heroyma pré-heroyma
28 much, very muito *purika prika purika
29 woman mulher *poyman mpayma poyman boeman
30 nose nariz *ni ni yẽ
31 boy menino *šapoma šapona šapoma
32 night noite *miriponan miriponan maripoyan merĩdan
33 eye olho *merĩ miri merĩ šwarĩ
34 ear orelha *pepéna bipina pepéna
35 father pai *are are uaré
36 bird pássaro *šipu šipu šapu
37 foot *čapere šaprera čapere čamprĩ
38 feather pluma *pé šipupé pe
39 pig porco *šorã sotanšira šorã
40 river rio *rorá mñama róra yamã rora kwã
41 sun sol *opé opé ope
42 afternoon tarde *tušahi tošora, tušahi šare
43 earth terra *oše guašé, ušó oše
44 trunk tronco *pranü pon-réna põ pranü
45 wind vento *džota džota nan dota narã dzota
46 belly ventre, barriga *tikĩ tikĩ tekĩ ičĩ
47 herb, plant, grass erva, planta, capim *šapuko šapúko, spangué šapuko šapuka

However, similarities in Koropó were later found to be loanwords by Ramirez et al. (2015), who classifies Koropó as Maxakalían.[1] Nikulin (2020) also classifies Koropó as Macro-Jê (Maxakalían branch).[12]

References

  1. ^ a b c d Ramirez, H., Vegini, V., & França, M. C. V. de. (2015). Koropó, puri, kamakã e outras línguas do Leste Brasileiro. LIAMES: Línguas Indígenas Americanas, 15(2), 223 - 277. doi:10.20396/liames.v15i2.8642302
  2. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forke, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin; Bank, Sebastian, eds. (2020). "Puri-Coroado". Glottolog 4.3.
  3. ^ Martius, Karl Friedrich Philip von. 1863. Glossaria linguarum Brasiliensium: glossarios de diversas lingoas e dialectos, que fallao os Indios no imperio do Brazil. Erlangen: Druck von Jange.
  4. ^ Eschwege, Wilhelm Ludwig von. 2002. Journal do Brasil 1811-1817. Belo Horizonte: Fundação João Pinheiro.
  5. ^ Torrezão, Alberto Noronha. 1889. "Vocabulario puri". Revista trimensal do Instituto Histórico e Geográfico Brazileiro, Rio de Janeiro, t. LII, parte Ia, pp.511-514.
  6. ^ Marlière, Guido Thomaz. 1906. "Escritos avulsos, correspondência" Revista do Arquivo Público Mineiro, Belo Horizonte, Ano X, fascículos III e IV, pp. 383-668.
  7. ^ Saint-Hilaire, Auguste de. 2000. Viagem pelas províncias do Rio de Janeiro e Minas Gerais. Belo Horizonte: Editora Itatiaia.
  8. ^ Schott, Heinrich Wilhelm. 1822. Tagebücher des K.K. Gärtners in Brasilien. vol. 2. Brünn.
  9. ^ Mason, John Alden (1950). "The languages of South America". In Steward, Julian (ed.). Handbook of South American Indians. Vol. 6. Washington, D.C., Government Printing Office: Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology Bulletin 143. pp. 157–317.
  10. ^ a b Loukotka, Čestmír (1968). Classification of South American Indian languages. Los Angeles: UCLA Latin American Center.
  11. ^ Silva Neto, Ambrósio Pereira da Silva. 2007. Revisão da classificação da família lingüística Puri. M.A. dissertation, University of Brasília.
  12. ^ Nikulin, Andrey. 2020. Proto-Macro-Jê: um estudo reconstrutivo. Doctoral dissertation, University of Brasília.

Bibliography