.mw-parser-output .hidden-begin{box-sizing:border-box;width:100%;padding:5px;border:none;font-size:95%}.mw-parser-output .hidden-title{font-weight:bold;line-height:1.6;text-align:left}.mw-parser-output .hidden-content{text-align:left}You can help expand this article with text translated from the corresponding article in Portuguese. (May 2022) Click [show] for important translation instructions. View a machine-translated version of the Portuguese article. Machine translation, like DeepL or Google Translate, is a useful starting point for translations, but translators must revise errors as necessary and confirm that the translation is accurate, rather than simply copy-pasting machine-translated text into the English Wikipedia. Consider adding a topic to this template: there are already 1,498 articles in the main category, and specifying|topic= will aid in categorization. Do not translate text that appears unreliable or low-quality. If possible, verify the text with references provided in the foreign-language article. You must provide copyright attribution in the edit summary accompanying your translation by providing an interlanguage link to the source of your translation. A model attribution edit summary is Content in this edit is translated from the existing Portuguese Wikipedia article at [[:pt:Língua movima]]; see its history for attribution. You should also add the template ((Translated|pt|Língua movima)) to the talk page. For more guidance, see Wikipedia:Translation.
Movima
Chosineɬ di' mowi:maj [1]
Native toBolivia
RegionBeni Department
Native speakers
1,000 (2012)[2]
Official status
Official language in
Bolivia[3]
Language codes
ISO 639-3mzp
Glottologmovi1243
ELPMovima
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Movima is a language that is spoken by about 1,400 (nearly half) of the Movima, a group of Native Americans that resides in the Llanos de Moxos region of the Bolivian Amazon, in northeastern Bolivia. It is considered a language isolate, as it has not been proven to be related to any other language.

Locations

Movima is spoken in the locations of 18 de Noviembre, 20 de Enero, Bella Flor, Buen Día, Carmen de Iruyañez, Carnavales, Ipimo, Miraflores, Navidad, San Lorenzo, and the town of Santa Ana del Yacuma.[2] The Movima community reported that there are approximately 500 adult speakers as of 2012.[4]: 807 

Phonology

Movima has five vowels:

The vowels of Movima
  Front Central Back
Close i u
Mid e o
Open a

/e/ and /o/ more closely resemble [ɛ] and [ɔ], respectively, than the close-mid vowels [e] and [o]. Vowels have a phonemic length distinction, although some prosodic processes can lengthen otherwise short vowels. Movima does not have tone.[5]

The consonants of Movima
  Labial Alveolar Palatal Velar Glottal
central lateral plain lab.
Nasal m n
Stop pulmonic p t k (ɡ) (ʔ)
implosive ɓ ɗ
Fricative (f) β s ɬ h
Approximant l j w
Trill r

The plosive /p/ is realized as [p] in the syllable onset but as [pʔᵐ] (which contrasts with the simple nasal phoneme /m/) in the coda. Similarly, /t/ and /k/ are realized as [tʔⁿ] and ɤ] (i.e., as a glottal stop with a vocalic release), respectively, in the syllable coda.[1] In vowel-initial words and between adjacent vowels, an epenthetic glottal stop appears.

The phonemes /f/ and /ɡ/ are only present in Spanish loanwords.

Morphology

In Movima, compounding and incorporation are productive derivational processes. Reduplication and affixation, including some processes (such as the irrealis marker (k)a') that resemble infixation, are also common. Typical examples of inflection, such as number, case, tense, mood, and aspect, are not obligatorily marked in Movima.[1] Many derivational processes can be applied to a single Movima word. The same morpheme may appear multiple times in one word this way, for instance, tikoy-na-poj-na "I make X kill Y."

Vocabulary

Loukotka (1968) lists the following basic vocabulary items.[6]

gloss Movima
one sotaru
two oira
three taxra
tooth söichlan
tongue rulkua
hand chopa
woman kukya
water tomi
fire
moon yekcho
maize kuaxta
jaguar rulrul
house roya

Further vocabulary:

gloss Movima
to sit as
to stand en
to come jiwa
dust vuskwa
Movima mowi:maj
language chonsineɬ
of di'

See also

Further reading

References

  1. ^ a b c Katharina Haude (2006). "A grammar of Movima" (PDF). Radboud Universiteit Nijmegen. Retrieved 2008-10-22.
  2. ^ a b Movima at Ethnologue (25th ed., 2022) Closed access icon
  3. ^ "Constitution of Bolivia, Article 5. I." (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2009-05-21.
  4. ^ Epps, Patience; Michael, Lev, eds. (2023). Amazonian Languages: Language Isolates. Volume II: Kanoé to Yurakaré. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter. ISBN 978-3-11-043273-2.
  5. ^ "WALS – Movima". World Atlas of Language Structures Online. Retrieved 2008-10-24.
  6. ^ Loukotka, Čestmír (1968). Classification of South American Indian languages. Los Angeles: UCLA Latin American Center.