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A grammatical case is a category of nouns and noun modifiers (determiners, adjectives, participles, and numerals) that corresponds to one or more potential grammatical functions for a nominal group in a wording.[1] In various languages, nominal groups consisting of a noun and its modifiers belong to one of a few such categories. For instance, in English, one says I see them and they see me: the nominative pronouns I/they represent the perceiver and the accusative pronouns me/them represent the phenomenon perceived. Here, nominative and accusative are cases, that is, categories of pronouns corresponding to the functions they have in representation.

English has largely lost its inflected case system but personal pronouns still have three cases, which are simplified forms of the nominative, accusative (including functions formerly handled by the dative) and genitive cases. They are used with personal pronouns: subjective case (I, you, he, she, it, we, they, who, whoever), objective case (me, you, him, her, it, us, them, whom, whomever) and possessive case (my, mine; your, yours; his; her, hers; its; our, ours; their, theirs; whose; whosever).[2][3] Forms such as I, he and we are used for the subject ("I kicked John"), and forms such as me, him and us are used for the object ("John kicked me").

As a language evolves, cases can merge (for instance, in Ancient Greek, the locative case merged with the dative), a phenomenon known as syncretism.[4]

Languages such as Sanskrit, Kannada, Latin, Tamil, and Russian have extensive case systems, with nouns, pronouns, adjectives, and determiners all inflecting (usually by means of different suffixes) to indicate their case. The number of cases differs between languages: Persian has two; modern English has three but for pronouns only; Torlakian dialects, Classical and Modern Standard Arabic have three; German, Icelandic, Modern Greek, and Irish have four; Romanian and Ancient Greek have five; Bengali, Latin, Russian, Slovak, Kajkavian, Slovenian, and Turkish each have at least six; Armenian, Czech, Georgian, Latvian, Lithuanian, Polish, Serbian, Croatian, Bosnian, Montenegrin and Ukrainian have seven; Mongolian, Marathi, Sanskrit, Kannada, Tamil, Telugu, Malayalam, Assamese and Greenlandic have eight; Old Nubian had nine; Basque has 13; Estonian has 14; Finnish has 15; Hungarian has 18; and Tsez has at least 36 cases.[citation needed]

Commonly encountered cases include nominative, accusative, dative and genitive. A role that one of those languages marks by case is often marked in English with a preposition. For example, the English prepositional phrase with (his) foot (as in "John kicked the ball with his foot") might be rendered in Russian using a single noun in the instrumental case, or in Ancient Greek as τῷ ποδί (tôi podí, meaning "the foot") with both words (the definite article, and the noun πούς (poús) "foot") changing to dative form.

More formally, case has been defined as "a system of marking dependent nouns for the type of relationship they bear to their heads".[5]: p.1  Cases should be distinguished from thematic roles such as agent and patient. They are often closely related, and in languages such as Latin, several thematic roles are realised by a somewhat fixed case for deponent verbs, but cases are a syntagmatic/phrasal category, and thematic roles are the function of a syntagma/phrase in a larger structure. Languages having cases often exhibit free word order, as thematic roles are not required to be marked by position in the sentence.


It is widely accepted that the Ancient Greeks had a certain idea of the forms of a name in their own language. A fragment of Anacreon seems to prove this. Grammatical cases were first recognized by the Stoics and from some philosophers of the Peripatetic school.[6][7] The advancements of those philosophers were later employed by the philologists of the Library of Alexandria.[1][6]


The English word case used in this sense comes from the Latin casus, which is derived from the verb cadere, "to fall", from the Proto-Indo-European root *ḱad-.[8] The Latin word is a calque of the Greek πτῶσις, ptôsis, lit. "falling, fall".[9] The sense is that all other cases are considered to have "fallen" away from the nominative. This imagery is also reflected in the word declension, from Latin declinere, "to lean", from the PIE root *ḱley-.

The equivalent to "case" in several other European languages also derives from casus, including cas in French, caso in Italian, caso in Spanish, caso in Portuguese and Kasus in German. The Russian word паде́ж (padyézh) is a calque from Greek and similarly contains a root meaning "fall", and the German Fall and Czech pád simply mean "fall", and are used for both the concept of grammatical case and to refer to physical falls. The Dutch equivalent naamval translates as 'noun case', in which 'noun' has the older meaning of both 'adjective (noun)' and '(substantive) noun'. The Finnish equivalent is sija, whose main meaning is "position" or "place".

Indo-European languages

On this sign in Russian memorializing an anniversary of the city of Balakhna, the word Balakhna (Russian: Балахна) on the right is in the nominative case, whereas the word Balakhne (Russian: Балахне) is in the dative case in Balakhne 500 Let ('Balakhna is 500 years old', literally '[There is] 500 years to Balakhna') on the front of the sign. Furthermore, let is in the genitive (plural) case.

Although not very prominent in modern English, cases featured much more saliently in Old English and other ancient Indo-European languages, such as Latin, Old Persian, Ancient Greek, and Sanskrit. Historically, the Indo-European languages had eight morphological cases, although modern languages typically have fewer, using prepositions and word order to convey information that had previously been conveyed using distinct noun forms. Among modern languages, cases still feature prominently in most of the Balto-Slavic languages (except Macedonian and Bulgarian[10]), with most having six to eight cases, as well as Icelandic, German and Modern Greek, which have four. In German, cases are mostly marked on articles and adjectives, and less so on nouns. In Icelandic, articles, adjectives, personal names and nouns are all marked for case, making it the most conservative Germanic language.

The eight historical Indo-European cases are as follows, with examples either of the English case or of the English syntactic alternative to case:

Case Indicates Sample case words Sample sentence Interrogative Notes
Nominative Subject of a finite verb we We went to the store. Who or what? Corresponds to English's subject pronouns.
Accusative Direct object of a transitive verb us,
for us,
the (object)
The clerk remembered us.

John waited for us at the bus stop.

Obey the law.

Whom or what? Corresponds to English's object pronouns and preposition for construction before the object, often marked by a definite article the. Together with dative, it forms modern English's oblique case.
Dative Indirect object of a verb us,
to us,
to the (object)
The clerk gave us a discount.

The clerk gave a discount to us.

According to the law...

Whom or to what? Corresponds to English's object pronouns and preposition to construction before the object, often marked by a definite article the. Together with accusative, it forms modern English's oblique case.
Ablative Movement away from from us The pigeon flew from us to a steeple. Whence? From where/whom?
Genitive Possessor of another noun 's,

of (the)

John's book was on the table.

The pages of the book turned yellow.

The table is made out of wood.

Whose? From what or what of? Roughly corresponds to English's possessive (possessive determiners and pronouns) and preposition of construction.
Case Indicates Sample case words Sample sentence Interrogative Notes
Vocative Addressee John John, are you all right?

Hello, John!

O John, how are you! (archaic)

Roughly corresponds to the archaic use of "O" in English.
Locative Location, either physical or temporal in Japan,

at the bus stop,

in the future

We live in Japan.

John is waiting for us at the bus stop.

We will see what will happen in the future.

Where or wherein? When? Roughly corresponds to English prepositions in, on, at, and by and other less common prepositions.
Instrumental A means or tool used or companion present in/while performing an action with a mop,

by hand

with John

We wiped the floor with a mop.

This letter was written by hand.

I took a trip there with John.

How? With what or using what? By what means? With whom? Corresponds to English prepositions by, with and via as well as synonymous constructions such as using, by use of and through.

All of the above are just rough descriptions; the precise distinctions vary significantly from language to language, and as such they are often more complex. Case is based fundamentally on changes to the noun to indicate the noun's role in the sentence – one of the defining features of so-called fusional languages. Old English was a fusional language, but Modern English does not work this way.

Modern English

Modern English has largely abandoned the inflectional case system of Proto-Indo-European in favor of analytic constructions. The personal pronouns of Modern English retain morphological case more strongly than any other word class (a remnant of the more extensive case system of Old English). For other pronouns, and all nouns, adjectives, and articles, grammatical function is indicated only by word order, by prepositions, and by the "Saxon genitive" (-'s).[a]

Taken as a whole, English personal pronouns are typically said to have three morphological cases:

Most English personal pronouns have five forms: the nominative case form, the oblique case form, a distinct reflexive or intensive form (such as myself, ourselves) which is based upon the possessive determiner form but is coreferential to a preceding instance of nominative or oblique, and the possessive case forms, which include both a determiner form (such as my, our) and a predicatively-used independent form (such as mine, ours) which is distinct (with two exceptions: the third person singular masculine he and the third person singular neuter it, which use the same form for both determiner and independent [his car, it is his]). The interrogative personal pronoun who exhibits the greatest diversity of forms within the modern English pronoun system, having definite nominative, oblique, and genitive forms (who, whom, whose) and equivalently-coordinating indefinite forms (whoever, whomever, and whosever).

Although English pronouns can have subject and object forms (he/him, she/her), nouns show only a singular/plural and a possessive/non-possessive distinction (e.g. chair, chairs, chair's, chairs'); there is no manifest difference in the form of chair between "The chair is here." (subject) and "I own the chair." (direct object), a distinction made instead by word order and context.

Hierarchy of cases

Main article: Case hierarchy

Cases can be ranked in the following hierarchy, where a language that does not have a given case will tend not to have any cases to the right of the missing case:[5]: p.89 

nominativeaccusative or ergativegenitivedativelocative or prepositionalablative and/or instrumentalothers.

This is, however, only a general tendency. Many forms of Central German, such as Colognian and Luxembourgish, have a dative case but lack a genitive. In Irish nouns, the nominative and accusative have fallen together, whereas the dative–locative has remained separate in some paradigms; Irish also has genitive and vocative cases. In many modern Indo-Aryan languages, the accusative, genitive, and dative have merged to an oblique case, but many of these languages still retain vocative, locative, and ablative cases. Old English had an instrumental case, but neither a locative nor a prepositional case.

Case order

The traditional case order (nom-gen-dat-acc) was expressed for the first time in The Art of Grammar in the 2nd century BC:

Latin grammars, such as Ars grammatica, followed the Greek tradition, but added the ablative case of Latin. Later other European languages also followed that Graeco-Roman tradition.

However, for some languages, such as Latin, due to case syncretism the order may be changed for convenience, where the accusative or the vocative cases are placed after the nominative and before the genitive. For example:

aqua, aquae
water f.
bellum, bellī
war n.
Singular Plural Singular Plural
Nominative aqua aquae bellum bella
Accusative aquam aquās
Genitive aquae aquārum bellī bellōrum
Dative aquīs bellō bellīs
Ablative aquā

For similar reasons, the customary order of the four cases in Icelandic is nominative–accusative–dative–genitive, as illustrated below:

number case masculine feminine neuter neuter
singular nom. hattur borg glas gler
acc. hatt
dat. hatti glasi gleri
gen. hatts borgar glass glers
plural nom. hattar borgir glös gler
acc. hatta
dat. höttum borgum glösum gler(j)um
gen. hatta borga glasa gler(j)a

Case concord systems

In the most common[5] case concord system, only the head-word (the noun) in a phrase is marked for case. This system appears in many Papuan languages as well as in Turkic, Mongolian, Quechua, Dravidian, Indo-Aryan, and other languages. In Basque and various Amazonian and Australian languages, only the phrase-final word (not necessarily the noun) is marked for case. In many Indo-European, Finnic, and Semitic languages, case is marked on the noun, the determiner, and usually the adjective. Other systems are less common. In some languages, there is double-marking of a word as both genitive (to indicate semantic role) and another case such as accusative (to establish concord with the head noun).[18]

Declension paradigms

Main article: Declension

Declension is the process or result of altering nouns to the correct grammatical cases. Languages with rich nominal inflection (using grammatical cases for many purposes) typically have a number of identifiable declension classes, or groups of nouns with a similar pattern of case inflection or declension. Sanskrit has six declension classes, whereas Latin is traditionally considered to have five, and Ancient Greek three.[19] For example, Slovak has fifteen noun declension classes, five for each gender (the number may vary depending on which paradigms are counted or omitted, this mainly concerns those that modify declension of foreign words; refer to article).

In Indo-European languages, declension patterns may depend on a variety of factors, such as gender, number, phonological environment, and irregular historical factors. Pronouns sometimes have separate paradigms. In some languages, particularly Slavic languages, a case may contain different groups of endings depending on whether the word is a noun or an adjective. A single case may contain many different endings, some of which may even be derived from different roots. For example, in Polish, the genitive case has -a, -u, -ów, -i/-y, -e- for nouns, and -ego, -ej, -ich/-ych for adjectives. To a lesser extent, a noun's animacy or humanness may add another layer of complexity. For example, in Russian:










Кот ловит мышей

Kot-∅ lóvit myshéy.

cat-NOM.AN. catches mice

(The) cat catches mice.










Столб держит крышу

Stolb-∅ dérzhit krýshu.

pillar-NOM.INAN holds roof

(The) pillar holds a/the roof)











Пётр гладит кота

Pyotr gládit kot-á

Peter strokes cat-ACC.AN

Peter strokes a/the cat











Пётр ломает столб

Pyotr lomáyet stolb-∅

Peter breaks pillar-ACC.INAN

Peter breaks a/the pillar


Australian Aboriginal languages

Australian languages represent a diversity of case paradigms in terms of their alignment (i.e. nominative-accusative vs. ergative-absolutive) and the morpho-syntactic properties of case inflection including where/how many times across a noun phrase the case morphology will appear. For typical r-expression noun phrases, most Australian languages follow a basic ERG-ABS template with additional cases for peripheral arguments; however, many Australian languages, the function of case marking extends beyond the prototypical function of specifying the syntactic and semantic relation of an NP to a predicate.[20] Dench and Evans (1988)[21] use a five-part system for categorizing the functional roles of case marking in Australian languages. They are enumerated below as they appear in Senge (2015):[20]

  1. Relational: a suffix which represents syntactic or semantic roles of a noun phrase in clauses.
  2. Adnominal: a suffix which relates a noun phrase to another within the one noun phrase.
  3. Referential: a suffix which attaches to a noun phrase in agreement with another noun phrase which represents one of the core arguments in the clause.
  4. Subordinating: a suffix which attaches to elements of a subordinate clause. Its functions are: (i) specifying temporal or logical (typically, causal and purposive) relationships between two clauses (Temporal-subordinator); (ii) indicating coreferential relationships between arguments in the two clauses (Concord-subordinator).
  5. Derivational: a suffix which attaches to a bare stem before other case suffixes and create a new lexical item.

To illustrate this paradigm in action, take the case-system of Wanyjirra for whose description Senge invokes this system. Each of the case markers functions in the prototypical relational sense, but many extend into these additional functions:

Derivational Adnominal Relational Referential Subordinator
Ergative + + +
Dative + + + +
Locative + + +
Allative + +
Purposive + +
Ablative +
Elative + + + + +
Comitative +
Originative + +
Proprietive + + +
Privative + + +

Wanyjirra is an example of a language in which case marking occurs on all sub-constituents of the NP; see the following example in which the demonstrative, head, and quantifier of the noun phrase all receive ergative marking:













yalu-nggu mawun-du gujarra-lu ngu=wula yunbarn-ana junba

DIST-ERG man-ERG two-ERG REAL=3.AUG.SBJ sing-PRES corroboree.ABS

Those two men are singing corroboree.

However, this is by no means always the case or even the norm for Australian languages. For many, case-affixes are considered special-clitics (i.e. phrasal-affixes, see Anderson 2005[22]) because they have a singular fixed position within the phrase. For Bardi, the case marker usually appears on the first phrasal constituent[23] while the opposite is the case for Wangkatja (i.e. the case marker is attracted to the rightmost edge of the phrase).[24] See the following examples respectively:












Boordiji-nim niiwandi aamba i-na-m-boo-na aril

fat-ERG tall man 3-TR-PST-poke-REM.PST fish

The tall fat man speared a fish.










tjitji warta purlkana-ngka nyinarra-nyi

child tree big-LOC sitting-?

'The child is sitting in the big tree.'


Basque has the following cases, with examples given in the indefinite, definite singular, definite plural, and definite close plural of the word etxe, "house", "home":

Some of them can be re-declined, even more than once, as if they were nouns (usually, from the genitive locative case), although they mainly work as noun modifiers before a noun clause:


In German, grammatical case is largely preserved in the articles and adjectives, but nouns have lost many of their original endings. Below is an example of case inflection in German using the masculine definite article and one of the German words for "sailor".

An example with the feminine definite article with the German word for "woman".

An example with the neuter definite article with the German word for "book".

Proper names for cities have two genitive nouns:


Hindi-Urdu (Hindustani) has three noun cases, the nominative, oblique, and vocative cases. The vocative case is now obsolete (but still used in certain regions[citation needed]) and the oblique case doubles as the vocative case. The pronoun cases in Hindi-Urdu are the nominative, ergative, accusative, dative, and two oblique cases.[26][27] The case forms which do not exist for certain pronouns are constructed using primary postpositions (or other grammatical particles) and the oblique case (shown in parentheses in the table below).

The other cases are constructed adpositionally using the case-marking postpositions using the nouns and pronouns in their oblique cases. The oblique case is used exclusively with these 8 case-marking postpositions of Hindi-Urdu forming 10 grammatical cases, which are: ergative ने (ne), dative and accusative को (ko), instrumental and ablative से (se), genitive का (kā), inessive में (mẽ), adessive पे (pe), terminative तक (tak), semblative सा (sā).[28]

Masculine Feminine
boy tree girl mother
Singular Nominative लड़का








Oblique लड़के


Plural Nominative लड़कियाँ




Oblique लड़कों








Vocative माताओ


1st Person 2nd Person
Singular Plural Singular Singular & Plural
Intimate Familiar Formal
Nominative मैं









Ergative मैंने










Accusative मुझे










Oblique मुझ


















(आप ही)

āp hī

Demonstrative Relative Interrogative
Proximal Distal Singular Plural Singular Plural
Singular Plural Singular Plural






कौन, क्या1

kaun, kyā









Ergative इसने
















Accusative इसे
















Oblique इस
























(जिस भी)

jis bhī

(जिन भी)

jin bhī





1 कौन (kaun) is the animate interrogative pronoun and क्या (kyā) is the inanimate interrogative pronoun.
Note: Hindi lacks 3rd person personal pronouns and to compensate the demonstrative pronouns are used as 3rd person personal pronouns.


An example of a Latin case inflection is given below, using the singular forms of the Latin term for "cook", which belongs to Latin's second declension class.

For some toponyms, a seventh case, the locative, also exists, such as Mediolānī (in Mediolanum).

The Romance languages have largely abandoned or simplified the grammatical cases of Latin. Much like English, most Romance case markers survive only in pronouns.


Typically in Lithuanian, only the inflection changes for the seven different grammatical cases:


Hungarian declension is relatively simple with regular suffixes attached to the vast majority of nouns. The following table lists all of the cases used in Hungarian.

ház – house, kettő – two
Case Meaning Suffix Example Meaning of the example
Nominative case subject ház house (as a subject)
Accusative case direct object -ot/(-at)/-et/-öt/-t házat house (as an object)
Dative case indirect object -nak/-nek háznak to the house
Genitive case possession házé of the house (belonging to)
Instrumental-comitative case with -val/-vel (Assim.) házzal with the house
Causal-final case for, for the purpose of -ért házért for the house
Translative case into (used to show transformation) -vá/-vé (Assim.) házzá [turn] into a house
Terminative case as far as, up to -ig házig as far as the house
Illative case into (location) -ba/-be házba into the house
Adessive case at -nál/-nél háznál at the house
Ablative case from (away from) -tól/-től háztól (away) from the house
Elative case from (out of) -ból/-ből házból from the inside of the house
Sublative case onto (movement towards a thing) -ra/-re házra onto the house
Superessive case on/upon (static position) -n/-on/-en/-ön házon on top of the house
Delative case from (movement away from a thing) -ról/-röl házról from on top of the house, about the house
Temporal case at (used to indicate time or moment) -kor kettőkor at two (o'clock)
Sociative case with (archaic) -stul/-stül házastul with the house
Locative case in -ban/-ben házban in the house, inside the house
Types of types or variants of a thing -féle kettőféle ház two types of houses


Main article: Russian declension

An example of a Russian case inflection is given below (with explicit stress marks), using the singular forms of the Russian term for "sailor", which belongs to Russian's first declension class.

Up to ten additional cases are identified by linguists, although today all of them are either incomplete (do not apply to all nouns or do not form full word paradigm with all combinations of gender and number) or degenerate (appear identical to one of the main six cases). The most recognized additional cases are locative (в лесу́, на мосту́, в слеза́х), partitive (ча́ю, са́хару, песку́), and two forms of vocative — old (Го́споди, Бо́же, о́тче) and neo-vocative (Маш, пап, ребя́т). Sometimes, so called count-form (for some countable nouns after numerals) is considered to be a sub-case.


Grammatical case was analyzed extensively in Sanskrit. The grammarian Pāṇini identified six semantic roles or kāraka,[29] which are related to the following eight Sanskrit cases in order:[30]

Case Root word: वृक्ष (vṛ́kṣa) [Tree]
Singular Dual Plural


Nominative वृक्षः




वृक्षाः / वृक्षासः¹

vṛkṣāḥ / vṛkṣāsaḥ¹



Vocative वृक्ष




Accusative वृक्षम्






Instrumental वृक्षेण




वृक्षैः / वृक्षेभिः¹

vṛkṣaiḥ / vṛkṣebhiḥ¹



Dative वृक्षाय






Ablative वृक्षात्




Genitive वृक्षस्य








Locative वृक्षे




¹ Vedic

For example, in the following sentence leaf is the agent (kartā, nominative case), tree is the source (apādāna, ablative case), and ground is the locus (adhikaraṇa, locative case). The declensions are reflected in the morphemes -āt, -am, and -au respectively.


from the tree


a leaf


on the ground



vṛkṣ-āt parṇ-am bhūm-au patati

{from the tree} {a leaf} {on the ground} falls

However, the cases may be deployed for other than the default thematic roles. A notable example is the passive construction. In the following sentence, Devadatta is the kartā, but appears in the instrumental case, and rice, the karman, object, is in the nominative case (as subject of the verb). The declensions are reflected in the morphemes -ena and -am.


by Devadatta


the rice


is cooked

devadatt-ena odan-am pacyate

{by Devadatta} {the rice} {is cooked}


The Tamil case system is analyzed in native and missionary grammars as consisting of a finite number of cases.[31][32] The usual treatment of Tamil case (Arden 1942)[33] is one in which there are seven cases: nominative (first case), accusative (second case), instrumental (third), dative (fourth), ablative (fifth), genitive (sixth), and locative (seventh). In traditional analyses, there is always a clear distinction made between post-positional morphemes and case endings. The vocative is sometimes given a place in the case system as an eighth case, but vocative forms do not participate in usual morphophonemic alternations and do not govern the use of any postpositions. Modern grammarians, however, argue that this eight-case classification is coarse and artificial[32] and that Tamil usage is best understood if each suffix or combination of suffixes is seen as marking a separate case.[34]

Case Suffixes Example: மன்னன் (mannan) [king]
First case Nominative
  • மன்னன் (mannan)
Second case Accusative
  • ai
  • மன்னனை (mannanai)
Third case Instrumental
  • al
  • udan,
  • kondu
  • ஆல், உடன்
  • கொண்டு
  • மன்னனால் (mannanaal)
  • மன்னனுடன் (mannanudan)
  • மன்னனோடு (mannanOdu)
Fourth case Dative
  • (u)kku
  • poruttu
  • aaga
  • கு
  • பொருட்டு
  • ஆக
  • மன்னனுக்கு (mannanukku)
  • மன்னனின் பொருட்டு (mannanin poruttu)
  • மன்னனுக்காக (mannanukkaaga)
Fifth case Ablative
  • in
  • il
  • ilrundu
  • இன்
  • இல்
  • இருந்து
  • மன்னனின் (mannanin)
  • மன்னனில் (mannanil)
  • மன்னனிலிருந்து (mannanilirundu)
Sixth case Genitive
  • athu
  • udaiya
  • அது
  • உடைய
  • மன்னனது (mannanadu)
  • மன்னனுடைய (mannanudaiya)
Seventh case Locative
  • il
  • idam
  • kaṇ (Old Tamil)
  • இல்
  • இடம்
  • கண் (Old Tamil)
  • வீட்டில் (vīṭṭil)
  • மன்னனிடம் (mannanidam)
Eighth case Vocative
  • e
  • a
  • மன்னனே (mannanE)
  • மன்னவா(mannavaa)


Modern Turkish has six cases (In Turkish İsmin Hâlleri).

What? Who?
What? Who?
To whom?
Where? Whom?
Where from? From whom? Why?
Whose? What's wrong?
Singular çiçek / (a/the) flower (nom) çiçeği / (a/the) flower (acc) çiçeğe / to (a/the) flower çiçekte / in (a/the) flower çiçekten / from (a/the) flower çiçeğin / of (a/the) flower
Plural çiçekler / (the) flowers (nom) çiçekleri / (the) flowers (acc) çiçeklere / to (the) flowers çiçeklerde / in (the) flowers çiçeklerden / from (the) flowers çiçeklerin / of (the) flowers

The accusative can exist only in the noun(whether it is derived from a verb or not). For example, "Arkadaşlar bize gelmeyi düşünüyorlar." (Friends are thinking of coming to us).

The dative can exist only in the noun (whether it is derived from a verb or not). For example, "Bol bol kitap okumaya çalışıyorum." (I try to read a lot of books).[35]


As languages evolve, case systems change. In early Ancient Greek, for example, the genitive and ablative cases of given names became combined, giving five cases, rather than the six retained in Latin. In modern Hindi, the cases have been reduced to three: a direct case (for subjects and direct objects) and oblique case, and a vocative case.[36][37] In English, apart from the pronouns discussed above, case has vanished altogether except for the possessive/non-possessive dichotomy in nouns.

The evolution of the treatment of case relationships can be circular.[5]: pp.167–174  Postpositions can become unstressed and sound like they are an unstressed syllable of a neighboring word. A postposition can thus merge into the stem of a head noun, developing various forms depending on the phonological shape of the stem. Affixes are subject to various phonological processes such as assimilation, vowel centering to the schwa, phoneme loss, and fusion, and these processes can reduce or even eliminate the distinctions between cases. Languages can then compensate for the resulting loss of function by creating postpositions, thus coming full circle.

Recent experiments in agent-based modeling have shown how case systems can emerge and evolve in a population of language users.[38] The experiments demonstrate that language users may introduce new case markers to reduce the cognitive effort required for semantic interpretation, hence facilitating communication through language. Case markers then become generalized through analogical reasoning and reuse.

Linguistic typology

Morphosyntactic alignment

Main article: Morphosyntactic alignment

Languages are categorized into several case systems, based on their morphosyntactic alignment—how they group verb agents and patients into cases:

The following are systems that some languages use to mark case instead of, or in addition to, declension:

Language families

The lemma form of words, which is the form chosen by convention as the canonical form of a word, is usually the most unmarked or basic case, which is typically the nominative, trigger, or absolutive case, whichever a language may have.

See also


  1. ^ The status of the possessive as an affix or a clitic is the subject of debate.[11][12] It differs from the noun inflection of languages such as German, in that the genitive ending may attach to the last word of the phrase. To account for this, the possessive can be analysed, for instance as a clitic construction (an "enclitic postposition"[13]) or as an inflection[14][15] of the last word of a phrase ("edge inflection").[16]
  2. ^ Yaşamı sevmek, gazeteyi okumak, camları silmek, ödevini yapmak, sesini duymak, kapıyı açmak, üzümü toplamak. Not: Saat yediyi beş geçiyor. Üçü çeyrek geçiyor.
  3. ^ Saat dokuza on var. On ikiye çeyrek var. Kaç liraya? Kaça?
  4. ^ Edatlardan –e ile bağlananlar: bize göre, bize karşı, her şeye karşın, kışa doğru, o konuya dair, size ait, yağmura karşın, iyiliklerine karşılık
  5. ^ ben, senperson pronouns: Ben-e> bana, sen-e>sana
  6. ^ Kesir sayları kurar: Yüzde yirmi faiz, dörtte bir elma, yüzde yetmiş devam, binde bir olasılık, yüzde on beş indirim.
  7. ^ -de+ek-fill örneği: –Yarın evde misiniz? – Yok, okuldayım. – Şimdi neredesiniz? - Şu anda dersteyiz. Otur-mak-ta-dır (oturuyor), otur-mak-ta-y-dı (oturuyordu), otur-mak-ta-y-mış (oturuyormuş), otur-mak-ta-y-sa (oturuyorsa).
  8. ^ Some prepositions of name connects with –den: –den önce, - den sonra, -den dolayı, - den beri, -den itibaren, -den başka vb. kahvaltıdan önce, yemekten sonra, yağmurdan dolayı, öğleden beri, bügünden itibaren, Ayça’dan başka.
  9. ^ -den+ek-fill (ait olma bildirir): Kimlerdensiniz? Alp te bizdendir. (Bizim takımdandır.) Bulgaristan göçmenlerindenmiş. Sizin öğrencilerinizdenim.


  1. ^ a b Frede, Michael (1994). "The Stoic Notion of a Grammatical Case". Bulletin of the Institute of Classical Studies. 39: 12, 13–24. doi:10.1111/j.2041-5370.1994.tb00449.x. JSTOR 43646836.
  2. ^ "Whosever | Definition of Whosever by Merriam-Webster". Merriam-Webster. Retrieved 2021-02-22.
  3. ^ The Chambers Dictionary, 11th edition
  4. ^ Clackson 2007, p. 91.
  5. ^ a b c d Blake, Barry J. Case. Cambridge University Press: 2001.
  6. ^ a b "Linguaggio nell'Enciclopedia Treccani".
  7. ^ Michael, Ian (2010-06-10). English Grammatical Categories: And the Tradition to 1800. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9780521143264.
  8. ^ Harper, Douglas. "case". Online Etymology Dictionary.
  9. ^ "L. cāsus used to translate Gr. πτῶσις lit. 'falling, fall'. By Aristotle πτῶσις was applied to any derived, inflected, or extended form of the simple ὄνομα or ῥῆμα (i.e. the nominative of nouns, the present indicative of verbs), such as the oblique cases of nouns, the variations of adjectives due to gender and comparison, also the derived adverb (e.g. δικαίως was a πτῶσις of δίκαιος), the other tenses and moods of the verb, including its interrogative form. The grammarians, following the Stoics, restricted πτῶσις to nouns, and included the nominative under the designation". "case". Oxford English Dictionary (Online ed.). Oxford University Press. (Subscription or participating institution membership required.)
  10. ^ Slavic Languages on Archived 2009-11-21 at the Wayback Machine
  11. ^ Hudson, Richard (2013). "A cognitive analysis of John's hat". In Börjars, Kersti; Denison, David; Scott, Alan (eds.). Morphosyntactic Categories and the Expression of Possession. John Benjamins Publishing Company. pp. 123–148. ISBN 9789027273000.
  12. ^ Börjars, Kersti; Denison, David; Krajewski, Grzegorz; Scott, Alan (2013). "Expression of Possession in English". In Börjars, Kersti; Denison, David; Scott, Alan (eds.). Morphosyntactic Categories and the Expression of Possession. John Benjamins Publishing Company. pp. 149–176. ISBN 9789027273000.
  13. ^ Quirk, Randolph; Greenbaum, Sidney; Leech, Geoffrey; Svartvik, Jan (1985). A Comprehensive Grammar of the English Language. Harlow: Longman. p. 328. ISBN 978-0-582-51734-9. [the -s ending is] more appropriately described as an enclitic postposition'
  14. ^ Greenbaum, Sidney (1996). The Oxford English Grammar. Oxford University Press. pp. 109–110. ISBN 978-0-19-861250-6. In speech the genitive is signalled in singular nouns by an inflection that has the same pronunciation variants as for plural nouns in the common case
  15. ^ Quirk, Randolph; Greenbaum, Sidney; Leech, Geoffrey; Svartik, Jan (1985). A Comprehensive Grammar of the English Language. Longman. p. 319. In writing, the inflection of regular nouns is realized in the singular by apostrophe + s (boy's), and in the regular plural by the apostrophe following the plural s (boys')
  16. ^ Payne, John; Huddleston, Rodney (2002). "Nouns and noun phrases". In Huddleston, Rodney; Pullum, Geoffrey (eds.). The Cambridge Grammar of the English Language. Cambridge; New York: Cambridge University Press. pp. 479–481. ISBN 978-0-521-43146-0. We conclude that both head and phrasal genitives involve case inflection. With head genitives it is always a noun that inflects, while the phrasal genitive can apply to words of most classes.
  17. ^ The grammar of Dionysios Thrax. Translated by Tomas Davidson. St. Loius: Studley. 1874. p. 10.
  18. ^ Malchukov, Andrej (2010). ""Quirky" case: rare phenomena in case-marking and their implications for a theory of typological distributions". Rethinking Universals: How Rarities Affect Linguistic Theory: 139–168. doi:10.1515/9783110220933.139. ISBN 978-3-11-022092-6.
  19. ^ Frank Beetham, Learning Greek with Plato, Bristol Phoenix Press, 2007.
  20. ^ a b Senge, Chikako. 2015. A Grammar of Wanyjirra, a language of Northern Australia. The Australian National University Ph.D.
  21. ^ Dench, Alan; Evans, Nicholas (1988-06-01). "Multiple case-marking in Australian languages". Australian Journal of Linguistics. 8 (1): 1–47. doi:10.1080/07268608808599390. ISSN 0726-8602.
  22. ^ Anderson, Stephen (2005). Aspects of the Theory of Clitics. Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199279906.001.0001. ISBN 978-0-19-927990-6.
  23. ^ a b Bowern, Claire (2013). A grammar of Bardi. Berlin: De Gruyter Mouton. ISBN 978-3-11-027818-7. OCLC 848086054.
  24. ^ a b Shoulson, Oliver (2019), Case Suffixes as Special Clitics in Wangkatja, doi:10.13140/RG.2.2.10204.00649
  25. ^ Wangkatja dictionary 2008. (2008). Port Hedland, W.A: Wangka Maya Pilbara Aboriginal Language Centre.
  26. ^ Corbett, Greville G.; Noonan, Michael (2008). Case and Grammatical Relations: Studies in honor of Bernard Comrie. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: Jhn Benjamins Publishing Company. p. 51. ISBN 9789027290182.
  27. ^ Spencer, Andrew (2005). "CASE IN HINDI". Proceedings of the LFG05 Conference.
  28. ^ Butt, M.; King, Tracy Holloway (2004). "The Status of Case". Clause Structure in South Asian Languages. Studies in Natural Language and Linguistic Theory. Vol. 61. pp. 153–198. doi:10.1007/978-1-4020-2719-2_6. ISBN 978-1-4020-2717-8. S2CID 115765466.
  29. ^ Pieter Cornelis Verhagen, Handbook of oriental studies: India. A history of Sanskrit grammatical literature in Tibet, Volume 2, BRILL, 2001, ISBN 90-04-11882-9, p. 281.
  30. ^ W.D. Whitney, Sanskrit Grammar
  31. ^ "The Tamil Case System" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 2004-03-28. Retrieved 20 November 2014.
  32. ^ a b K. V. Zvelebil (1972). "Dravidian Case-Suffixes: Attempt at a Reconstruction". Journal of the American Oriental Society. 92 (2): 272–276. doi:10.2307/600654. JSTOR 600654.
  33. ^ Arden, A.H. 1942, repr. 1969. A Progressive Grammar of the Tamil Language. Madras: Christian Literature Society.
  34. ^ Harold F. Schiffman (June 1998). "Standardization or restandardization: The case for "Standard" Spoken Tamil". Language in Society. 27 (3): 359–385. doi:10.1017/S0047404598003030.
  35. ^ 2. accusative affix -mayı 3. dative affix -maya;
  36. ^ R. S. McGregor, Outline of Hindi Grammar, Oxford University Press, 1972.
  37. ^ Spencer, A. (2005). Case in Hindi. In Proceedings of the LFG05 Conference. Retrieved from
  38. ^ Remi van Trijp, "The Evolution of Case Systems for Marking Event Structure Archived 2013-06-18 at the Wayback Machine". In: Steels, Luc (Ed.), Experiments in Cultural Language Evolution, Amsterdam: John Benjamins, 2012, p. 169-205.
  39. ^ "Finnish Grammar – Adverbial cases". Retrieved 15 September 2014.
  40. ^ "A Philosophical Grammar of Ithkuil, a Constructed Language – Chapter 4: Case Morphology". Archived from the original on June 8, 2009. Retrieved 15 September 2014.
  41. ^ "Chapter 4". Archived from the original on March 12, 2009. Retrieved 15 September 2014.
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General references