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The Lithuanian language's declension system is similar to declension systems in ancient Indo-European languages such as Sanskrit, Latin or Ancient Greek. It is one of the most complicated declension systems among modern Indo-European and modern European languages.[citation needed]

Traditionally, scholars count up to ten case forms in Lithuanian. However, at least one case is reduced to adverbs and certain fixed expressions and another is extinct in the modern language. So the official variant of Lithuanian has eight cases; moreover, the illative case can be replaced with the locative case. The main cases are:

Lithuanian has two main grammatical numbers: singular and plural. There is also a dual number, which is used in certain dialects, such as Samogitian. Some words in the standard language retain their dual forms (for example du ("two") and abu ("both"), an indefinite number and super-plural words (Lithuanian: dauginiai žodžiai). Dual forms of pronouns used in the standard language are also optional. Although grammatically the dual number can be applied to any word, in practice it was used quite sporadically during the last century. The singular and the plural are used similarly to many European languages. Singular, plural and dual inflections of the same case always differ among themselves; no rule dictates how to form, for example, the plural inflection from the singular of the same case.


Lithuanian nouns have five declensions which are defined by the inflection in singular nominative and genitive cases. Only a few borrowed words, like taksì – taxi, tabù – taboo, kupė̃ – compartment (in a train), coupé, are not subject to declension.

Declension Inflection in singular cases Examples Notes
Nominative Genitive Nominative Genitive Meaning
I -as, -is, -ys, -ias -o výras
man; husband
Main pattern for masculine nouns.
II -a, -i¹, -ė -os, -ės žmonà
Main pattern for feminine nouns; few masculine exceptions.
III -is² -ies móteris³ f
pilìs f
avìs f
dantìs m
Rarer; feminine nouns; fewer masculine exceptions.
IV -us -aus žmogùs
number; digit
Rare; masculine nouns.
V -uo, -ė³ -en-s, -er-s f vanduõ
Very rare; masculine nouns; four³ feminine; suffixed by -en- m and -er- f.
  1. There are only two nouns ending in -i: pati 'wife' and marti 'daughter-in-law'. Their declension is the same to the second adjective feminine declension and similar to a second feminine noun palatalized declension. The noun pati is the same to a pronoun pati 'herself; myself f; itself (for feminine nouns)'
  2. Exception: petys m – shoulder, peties, etc. after this declensional pattern. This declension is very similar to the fifth declension.
  3. Duktė 'daughter' is the only word of the fifth declension not having the ending "uo". A word moteris 'woman, female' often has a genitive móters; the plural genitive of moteris is moterų (not palatalized -ių); it is the only normal form for the fifth declension and one of the two (the main is -ių) for the third. The other two words, obelis f – apple tree and dieveris m – (older) brother-in-law, are the same declensional case as moteris, but dieveris, being masculine possibly has a sg. inst. -iu. Dieveris is also the only -er- masculine case. There was also possibly a word broteris – brother (modern brolis) in old Lithuanian.

Table of noun declension endings

first declension second declension third d. fourth d. fifth d. adjectives
masculine feminine f m m m f I-m I-f
-ǎ- -i- -o- -ė- -i- -u- -i- -ǎ- -o-
Nom.      -as -is -ys -ias -a -ia -is -us -ius -uo -as -a
Gen. -o -io -os -ios -ės -ies -aus -iaus -en-s -er-s -o -os
Dat. -ui -iui -ai -iai -ei -iai -iui -ui -iui -en-iui -er-iai -am -ai
Acc. -ią -ią -ių -en-į -er-į
Ins. -u -iu -a -ia -e -imi -umi -iumi -en-iu -er-imi -u -a
Loc. -e -yje -oje -ioje -ėje -yje -uje -iuje -en-yje -er-yje -ame -oje
Voc. -e¹ -ai -i -y -y² -a -ia -e -ie -au -iau -en-ie -er-ie -as -a
Nom. -ai -iai -os -ios -ės -ys -ūs -iai -en-ys -er-ys -i -os
Gen. -ių -ių -ių -ių³ -ių -en-ų -er-ų
Dat. -ams -iams -oms -ioms -ėms -ims -ums -iams -en-ims -er-ims -iems -oms
Acc. -us -ius -as -ias -es -is -us -ius -en-is -er-is -us -as
Ins. -ais -iais -omis -iomis -ėmis -imis -umis -iais -en-imis -er-imis -ais -omis
Loc. -uose -iuose -ose -iose -ėse -yse -uose -iuose -en-yse -er-yse -uose -ose
Voc. -ai -iai -os -ios -ės -ys -ūs -iai -en-ys -er-ys -i -os
  1. Nouns having -j- before an ending -as, vėjas – wind, vertėjas – translator (versti – translate; convert; subvert etc.), naudotojas – user (naudoti – to use), vartotojas – consumer (vartoti – to consume) have vocative -au: vėjau, vertėjau, naudotojau, vartotojau. Feminine counterparts for agent's words are vertėja, naudotoja, vartotoja and their vocative is the same to nominative. If naudotojas would have and ending -e for vocative it would sound same to feminine: naudotoja = *naudotoje (ja = *je, which is not used combination, because all vowels succeeding j are soft). Sg. locative of these words have -yje or -uje (-uje appears where it is needed for easier pronunciation): naudotojuje, vėjyje.
  2. There are only a few words with the ending -ias (sg. nom.), historically they are related with -ys words; -ias words have -y in vocative: svečias – svety (guest); kelias – kely (road); some can have fifth-declension-like ending -iau for vocative: velnias – velniau (devil). In dialects an inflection -iau in vocative can be used, for example, for names ending in -is: Algis – Algiau (dial.) instead of Algi. A word brolis besides a paradigmatic vocative broli has also a form brolaũ.
  3. Many nouns of this paradigm have -ų in pl. gen.: žąsis f – žąsų 'goose', naktis f – naktų 'night', debesis m – debesų 'cloud'.

Each Lithuanian consonant (except [j]) has two forms: palatalized and non-palatalized ([bʲ]-[b], [dʲ]-[d], [ɡʲ]-[ɡ] and so on). The consonants preceding vowels [i] and [e] are always moderately palatalized.

The letter i represents either the sound similar to i in the English lit or is a palatalization marker – softens the preceding consonant (ia = like e, iu = ü, io = ö; all samples where i is a softening marker are ia (ią), iu (iū, ių), io). But ie is a diphthong and there are no combinations ię and iė. Other diphthongs are: uo, ai, ei, oi (this one is used only in foreign words; in Lithuanian-derivation it is present when a word kojinė 'sock, stocking' is pronounced shorter as koinė), ui, au (palatalized iuo, iai, iui, iau; there is no iei combination because ei is already soft and same to iai; a combination ie is only a diphthong and in use is succeeded by a consonant).

Feminine nouns ending in -a, and masculine ending in -us have their palatal forms: -ia, -ius (the latter is declined in the first paradigm in its plural). The nominative singular ending -ias (sg. nom.; the first paradigm) alone is a palatal variant of -as, but -ias pattern, differently from -ia, -ius, are not palatalized counterpart for -as (unpalatalized equivalent in sg. nominative) and there is no palatalized counterpart for -as type. The -ias pattern is a type of -ys pattern, its words are declined like -ys words, except sg. nom. -ias and, for some of the words, vocative -iau. There are only a few words of -ias type.

There are two consonants in Lithuanian, d and t, that become respectively dž [dʒ] and č [tʃ] when they precede a palatalization marker i (so, this does not include the softer sounds: i, į, y, ie, ė, e, ę) and they still have to be pronounced softer, like all other consonants preceding the palatalization marker. Examples: masc. sg. nom. svẽčias 'guest', fem. sg. nom. valdžià 'power (on somebody); government', m. sg. nom. skaĩčius 'number'; pavyzdỹs 'example', pãvyzdžio, pãvyzdžiui, pãvyzdį; kėdė̃ 'chair', kėdžių̃ etc. (Compare how T in English is pronounced like "sh" when followed by -ion in words like "station", "revolution", or how "due"/ "dew" and "Jew" are pronounced identically by many English speakers).

First declension

-as, -is, -ys (masculine)

  vaĩkas = child brólis = brother arklỹs = horse
  singular plural singular plural singular plural
Nominative vaikas vaikai brolis broliai arklys arkliai
Genitive vaiko vaikų brolio brol arklio arkl
Dative vaikui vaikams broliui broliams arkliui arkliams
Accusative vaiką vaikus brolį brolius arklį arklius
Instrumental vaiku vaikais broliu broliais arkliu arkliais
Locative vaike vaikuose brolyje broliuose arklyje arkliuose
Vocative vaike vaikai broli broliai arkly arkliai

Note that the -e ending for the vocative singular applies only to common nouns; proper nouns take the ending -ai. So, for example Jonas = 'John' [nominative] and Jonai! = 'John!' [vocative]

Second declension

-a, -ė, -ti (feminine)

  mótina = mother katė̃ = cat patì = wife
  singular plural singular plural singular plural
Nominative motina motinos katė katės pati pačios
Genitive motinos motinų katės kač pačios pačių
Dative motinai motinoms katei katėms pačiai pačioms
Accusative motiną motinas katę kates pačią pačias
Instrumental motina motinomis kate katėmis pačia pačiomis
Locative motinoje motinose katėje katėse pačioje pačiose
Vocative motina motinos kate katės pati (or pačia) pačios

Only two nouns end in -i: pati 'wife' and marti 'daughter-in-law'. Their declension is same to the second adjective feminine declension.

The noun pati has the same form as the pronoun pati 'herself; myself (feminine); itself (for feminine nouns)'.

Third declension

-is (masculine and feminine)

  vagìs = thief (masculine) akìs = eye (feminine)
  singular plural singular plural
Nominative vagis vagys akis akys
Genitive vagies vag akies ak
Dative vagiui vagims akiai akims
Accusative vagį vagis akį akis
Instrumental vagimi vagimis akimi akimis
Locative vagyje vagyse akyje akyse
Vocative vagie vagys akie akys

The only difference in masculine and feminine nouns of this declension is between the dative singular forms.

Fourth declension

-us, -ius (masculine)

  sūnùs = son profèsorius = professor
  singular plural singular plural
Nominative sūnus sūnūs profesorius profesoriai
Genitive sūnaus sūnų profesoriaus profesor
Dative sūnui sūnums profesoriui profesoriams
Accusative sūnų sūnus profesor profesorius
Instrumental sūnumi sūnumis profesoriumi profesoriais
Locative sūnuje sūnuose profesoriuje profesoriuose
Vocative sūnau sūnūs profesoriau profesoriai

The palatalized variant of this declension has the forms of the first declension.

Fifth declension

-uo (masculine)

There are also two feminine nouns of the fifth declension: sesuo (sister) and duktė (daughter).

  vanduõ = water sesuõ = sister duktė̃ = daughter
  singular plural singular plural singular plural
Nominative vanduo vandenys sesuo seserys duktė dukterys
Genitive vandens vandenų sesers seserų dukters dukterų
Dative vandeniui vandenims seseriai seserims dukteriai dukterims
Accusative vandenį vandenis seserį seseris dukterį dukteris
Instrumental vandeniu vandenimis seseria seserimis dukteria dukterimis
Locative vandenyje vandenyse seseryje seseryse dukteryje dukteryse
Vocative vandenie vandenys seserie seserys dukterie dukterys


In Lithuanian, adjectives have three declensions determined by the singular and plural nominative case inflections. Adjectives agree with nouns in number, gender, and case. Unlike nouns, which have two genders – masculine and feminine – adjectives have three (except -is, -ė adjectives), but the neuter adjectives (the third example in the table) have only one uninflected form.

Declension Singular nom. inflection Plural nom. inflection Examples
Masculine Feminine Masculine Feminine
I -(i)as -(i)a -i -(i)os šáltas, šaltà, (šálta) – cold; šlápias, šlapià, (šlápia) – wet, soppy;
II -us -i -ūs -ios gražùs, gražì, (gražù) – pretty, beautiful; malonùs, malonì, (malonù) – pleasant;
III -is -iai -ės varìnis, varìnė – copper; laukìnis, laukìnė – wild;
-is -i -ės dìdelis, dìdelė – big; dešinỹs, dešinė̃ – right; kairỹs, kairė̃ – left.

Table of adjective declension endings

Pronominal forms


  geras = good gražus = beautiful vidutinis = middle
  masculine feminine masculine feminine masculine feminine
  singular plural singular plural singular plural singular plural singular plural singular plural
Nominative geras geri gera geros gražus gražūs graži gražios vidutinis vidutiniai vidutinė vidutinės
Genitive gero gerų geros gerų gražaus graž gražios graž vidutinio vidutin vidutinės vidutin
Dative geram geriems gerai geroms gražiam gražiems gražiai gražioms vidutiniam vidutiniams vidutinei vidutinėms
Accusative gerą gerus gerą geras gražų gražius graž gražias vidutinį vidutinius vidutinę vidutines
Instrumental geru gerais gera geromis gražiu gražiais gražia gražiomis vidutiniu vidutiniais vidutine vidutinėmis
Locative gerame geruose geroje gerose gražiame gražiuose gražioje gražiose vidutiniame vidutiniuose vidutinėje vidutinėse


The personal pronouns (I), tu (you) jis (he, it), ji (she, it) and the reflexive pronoun savęs are declined as follows:

Nominative Accusative Genitive Dative Instrumental Locative
Singular 1st person mane manęs man manimi manyje
2nd person tu tave tavęs tau tavimi tavyje
3rd person Masculine jis jo jam juo jame
Feminine ji jos jai ja joje
Reflexive pronoun save savęs sau savimi savyje
  Dual    1st person Masculine mudu mudviejų mudviem mudviese
Feminine mudvi
2nd person Masculine judu judviejų judviem judviese
Feminine judvi
3rd person Masculine juodu or jiedu juodu jiedviem juodviese
Feminine jiedvi jodviem jiedviese
Plural 1st person mes mus mūsų mums mumis mumyse
2nd person jūs jus jūsų jums jumis jumyse
3rd person Masculine jie juos jiems jais juose
Feminine jos jas joms jomis jose

Note that the table contains only the objective genitive of pronouns , tu, savęs. The possessive genitives of these words are mano, tavo and savo respectively. Compare jis manęs laukia – 'he waits for me' and mano draugas – 'my friend' ('friend' is in masculine), but in jis mūsų laukia – 'he waits for us' and mūsų draugas – 'our friend', the two genitives coincide as in almost any word.

Irregular declension

Duktė – daughter, and sesuo – sister, are the only two feminine words of the fifth declension, they have the suffix -er- in the other cases. One word, moteris – woman, female, is both of the fifth and the third declensions, because it has variant genitive singular, both variants of which (-s and -ies) are equally apt, and it has a gen. pl. -ų. Two more words, dieveris m (older) – brother-in-law, and obelis f – apple tree, are the same case as moteris. The word dieveris, -ies (-ers) m, having more close meaning to a proper one, possibly has the fifth-type-like masculine singular instrumental (dieveriu), which is taken from the first declension, while the words of the third declension have -imi (dantimi, vagimi), without a gender distinction. But -imi is normal as well for the masculine nouns of the fifth declension, for example – akmenimi / akmeniu.

A word šuo – dog, differs from the other -uo words in that, that its stem is mixed with the suffix -uo and it consequently does not have the suffix -en- in the other cases (š-uo, akm-uo; šu-n-į, akm-en-į), its singular instrumental normal ending is of the third type (šunimi; that can be understood as a part of a meaning: more like an indefinite gender) and its accentuation paradigm is fourth, the sole case for the -uo words.

Mėnuo – month, moon, is of the first declension -is type, the only fifth type form is one of the two equal variants of singular nominative: mėnuo (other is mėnesis); genitive is mėnesio etc.

The word žmogus – man, human, historically had the nominative singular žmuo (compare Latin homō). Today žmogus is declined in the fourth paradigm in singular (žmogus, žmogaus etc.) and in the third -ė paradigm in plural (žmonės, žmonių etc.).

The words pats m, pati f – one/my/him/her/itself (also noun meanings: husband and wife) have also peculiarities. The ending -i (f., sg. nom.) is present only in two words: pati and marti – daughter-in-law. Pats (< patis) is of the third adjectival declensional type, but the singular nominative is different (-s < -is), plural nominative is -ys and the singular genitive -ies, like in nouns of the third declension. Its sg. gen. is also often said pačio.

The words of the third declension (-is, -ies) have either -ių or -ų in the genitive plural. The dative singular, similarly to the fifth declensional type, differs depending on the gender (-iai f, -iui m), the instrumental singular, differently from the fifth type, is the same for both genders. One noun of the third type, petys, peties, has the sg. nom. ending with a long i: -ys. Some of the words having the suffix -uonis (there are few of such words) have parallel forms in the other declensions: palikuonis, -ies (common gender) and palikuonis, -io m, palikuonė, -ės f. Such change can happen after the change of an accent place: if the word is accented on the ending -is, then the change of declension (-is, -ies > -is, -io) does not occur in speech, and if the accent moves from the ending to the stem in singular nominative, then the change of declension sometimes occurs. For most of -uonis words, declining in the first declension is considered to be a mistake.

Shifts in declension

There are few words which are sometimes declined mistakenly in other declensions. But some of the shifts are not rare: a word pats besides sg. gen. paties is often said pačio and these two forms of sg. gen. are equal. Some words have parallel forms from other declensions with a little change in a meaning: dukra, dukros; sesė, sesės; palikuonis, -io, palikuonė, -ės. The forms sesė and dukra are more like unformal, than duktė, -ers and sesuo, -ers. For the word moteris the form motera were existent in dialects, but it is, differently from dukra, sesė cases, only a formal shift of declension without a meaning variation and such word would be perceived as a vernacularism and obsolete.

The forms from the two more declensions sometimes occur in a speech for the masculine words of the fifth declension: of the third and of the first declensions. Similar case is with the masculine words of the third declension – they are sometimes declined in the first declension (because singular nominative is the same). Such a shift is a mistake of declension. For example, a word akmuo, akmens can have the forms (third d.) (sg. nom., sg. gen.) akmenis, akmenies – more like older dialectal not used widely and a little likely to be heard in a speech – and (first d.) akmenis, akmenio; akmenys, akmenio; akmenas, akmeno – sometimes said by the speakers, who don't know the fifth declension well, for example, children. But these variants are possibly also present as dialectal forms. The other examples which are sometimes used by some, but not fit are: rudenio (rudens), šunio (šuns, šunies) etc. Examples of migrants from the third declension (-is, -ies) are, for example, dantis, dančio instead of dantis, danties. Such use like akmenas, akmeno; dančio; šunio; rudenio; is a clear mistake and is not accepted. A case of petys, pečio instead of petys, peties is also a mistake, but petys is the only one -ys (instead of -is) form declined in the third declension and consequentely tends to be declined like all other -ys words (of the first declension).

For the word mėnuo / mėnesis the proper form is sg. gen. mėnesio etc. (sg. gen. mėnesies is known in dialects). The genitive of the word pats is paties, but it is also frequently said pačio. Some of the cases of the word pats are of the third adjectival declension, some – sg. nom. -s (< -is), sg. gen. -ies (also -io, like in respective adjectives) and pl. nom. -ys – of the third noun declension.

Some of the nouns occur in another declensional type only in one case. All these cases are more like dialectal and older. For example, seseris can be said seseria in dialects, but the genitive remains sesers; (older) motė, moters, but also a migrant form: (older) motė, motės. The dialectal and older form sesuva (a type of sesuo), for example, can remain in the original paradigm with sg. gen. sesers or shift to the -a declension: sesuva, sesuvos.


In the tables below the words from the fifth and the third declensions are compared with the words from the other declensions. Table cells with the correct forms written are coloured (not white). In the right outside column the variant forms within the fifth and third declensions are given. They are older, dialectal and not used or used only in small areas. For example, among the variant forms of singular nominative sesuo within the fifth declension are archaic sesuoj, sesuon, sesuva. The first column is for the words of the fifth (-uo, -ens / -ers) declension and the second for the third (-is, -ies). These declensions are very similar. The words are given in the same column, when the forms are same. The column to the right from these, are for the forms of the first (-as, -is, -ys, -ias) and second (-a (-ia), -ė) declensions; one word, žmogus, is of the fourth in singular.

The proper forms of the word mėnuo / mėnesis is not of the fifth-third declension and the same is with the word žmogus, which historically had the form žmuo. A word judesys – move, is included for comparison with mėnesis (they have the same suffix -es- and are declined in the same declension, except sg. nom. of mėnuo / mėnesis).

Dukra and sesė are variants of duktė, sesuo of a different declension and meaning – dukra and sesė are more like informal.

A word palikuonis has two forms of different declensions: one of the third (original) – palikuonis, and other shifted to the first declension – palikuonis, -io palikuonė, -ės. There are few of -uonis words and only several of them have forms other than the original declension, but in a speech some of them are also sometimes declined in the first declension, for example, geluonis, -ies c – sting, can be understood as geluonis, -io m.

For the -uo words (except mėnuo) and the -is words (like dantis) the shift to the other declensions would be a mistake. When the shift is from the fifth to the third declension it can be understood as minor variation, but the shift to the first declension would be a clear mistake (however, some of the cases are the same, and that is one of the reasons why the shift can occur). But in speech some of the speakers say, for example, rudenio instead of rudens (this can come on dialectal base), dantis, dančio instead of dantis, danties. Besides these cases, there are shifts, which occur commonly in a speech: pačio instead of paties, pečio instead of peties (the original variants are not used less). A word šuo can also be said šuva (one of dialectal variants).

The words rūgštìs f 3 (1) – acid, and rū̃gštis 2 – sourness; acidity, are two words of different declensions, their meanings are different, but related.

Declension by the paradigms


The a-paradigm is used to decline:

The a-paradigm is the most complex declension paradigm in Lithuanian. It has two different sub-paradigms, one of which is the main paradigm. The second sub-paradigm is called "palatalized", which means that the last consonant of the stem before the inflection is always palatalized. Note that in this case the palatalization mark (the letter "i") is marked as a part of the inflection. The a-paradigm is masculine.

Also note that inflection in the a-paradigm is different for nouns, adjectives, and pronouns in some cases. However, not every pronoun's declension uses the inflections from the "pronoun" column in the table below. Some pronouns, as well as every numeral of the a-paradigm, use the inflections from the "adjective" column.

The main sub-paradigm

  singular plural
  pronoun adjective noun pronoun adjective noun
Nominative tas rudas namas tie rudi namai
Genitive to rudo namo rudų namų
Dative tam rudam namui tiems rudiems namams
Accusative rudą namą tuos rudus namus
Instrumental tuo rudu namu tais rudais namais
Locative tame rudame name tuose ruduose namuose
Illative tan rudan naman tuosna ruduosna namuosna
Vocative name namai

Other features:

The palatalized sub-paradigm

  singular plural
  pronoun adjective noun pronoun adjective noun
Nominative šis žalias uosis šie žali uosiai
Genitive šio žalio uosio šių žalių uos
Dative šiam žaliam uosiui šiems žaliems uosiams
Accusative šį žal uosį šiuos žalius uosius
Instrumental šiuo žaliu uosiu šiais žaliais uosiais
Locative šiame žaliame uosyje šiuose žaliuose uosiuose
Illative šian žalian uosin šiuosna žaliuosna uosiuosna
Vocative uosi uosiai

Other features:

nominative vocative
-is -i
-ys -y
-ias -e or -iau



keturi - 'four'
penki - 'five'
šeši - 'six'
septyni - 'seven'
aštuoni - 'eight'
devyni - 'nine'
šimtas - 'a hundred'
tūkstantis - 'a thousand'
milijonas - 'a million'
milijardas - 'a billion'
and other internationally accepted words for big numbers.

List of numbers, that don't use the a-paradigm

Here is a list of numerals that don't use the a-paradigm in the masculine. See the o-paradigm for feminine numbers.

du - 'two' (dual number, has a special paradigm)
trys - 'three' (the i-paradigm)
vienuolika - '11'
dvylika - '12'
trylika - '13'
keturiolika - '14'
penkiolika - '15'
šešiolika - '16'
septyniolika - '17'
aštuoniolika - '18'
devyniolika - '19' (numbers 'vienuolika' - 'devyniolika' are singular words of the o-paradigm)
dešimt - 'ten' (undeclinable, sometimes "dešimtis" as a word of the i-paradigm)

Nominatives of the active participles

  singular plural
  short long short long
Present tense -ąs -antis -ą -antys
Present tense
-iąs -iantis - -iantys
Past tense -ęs -ę
Future tense -siąs -siantis -s -siantys


  1. Short forms of the nominatives skip the active participle suffix -(i)ant-, e. g.
    miegantis 'sleeping' (masculine singular, the long form) - miegąs (idem, the short form),
    sakantys 'saying' (masculine plural, the long form) - saką (idem, the short form).
    This is valid in the masculine nominative only.
  2. The past tense doesn't have the long forms.


The u-paradigm is used to decline:

The u-paradigm has two different sub-paradigms, the main and the palatalized. Note, that in this case the palatalization mark (the letter "i") is marked as a part of the inflection. The u-paradigm is masculine.

Inflections of the u-paradigm differ between nouns and adjectives in some cases.

The main sub-paradigm

  singular plural
  adjective noun adjective noun
Nominative drąsus sūnus drąsūs sūnūs
Genitive drąsaus sūnaus drąs sūnų
Dative drąsiam sūnui drąsiems sūnums
Accusative drąsų sūnų drąsius sūnus
Instrumental drąsiu sūnumi drąsiais sūnumis
Locative drąsiame sūnuje drąsiuose sūnuose
Illative drąsian sūnun drąsiuosna sūnuosna
Vocative sūnau sūnūs

The palatalized sub-paradigm

  singular plural
  adjective noun adjective noun
Nominative narsus karalius narsūs karaliai
Genitive narsaus karaliaus nars karal
Dative narsiam karaliui narsiems karaliams
Accusative narsų karal narsius karalius
Instrumental narsiu karaliumi narsiais karaliais
Locative narsiame karaliuje narsiuose karaliuose
Illative narsian karaliun narsiuosna karaliuosna
Vocative karaliau karaliai

Note that:


The o-paradigm is used to decline:

The main sub-paradigm

  singular plural
Nominative ta ruda meška tos rudos meškos
Genitive tos rudos meškos tų rudų meškų
Dative tai rudai meškai toms rudoms meškoms
Accusative tą rudą mešką tas rudas meškas
Instrumental ta ruda meška tomis rudomis meškomis
Locative toje rudoje meškoje tose rudose meškose
Illative ton rudon meškon tosna rudosna meškosna
Vocative meška meškos

The palatalized sub-paradigm

  singular plural
Nominative ši stipri galia šios stiprios galios
Genitive šios stiprios galios šių stiprių gal
Dative šiai stipriai galiai šioms stiprioms galioms
Accusative šią stiprią gal šias stiprias galias
Instrumental šia stipria galia šiomis stipriomis galiomis
Locative šioje stiprioje galioje šiose stipriose galiose
Illative šion stiprion galion šiosna stipriosna galiosna
Vocative galia galios

Other features:



keturios - 'four'
penkios - 'five'
šešios - 'six'
septynios - 'seven'
aštuonios - 'eight'
devynios - 'nine'
vienuolika - '11'
dvylika - '12'
trylika - '13'
keturiolika - '14'
penkiolika - '15'
šešiolika - '16'
septyniolika - '17'
aštuoniolika - '18'
devyniolika - '19'


The ė-paradigm is used to decline:

The words in the table:

  singular plural
Nominative didelė upė didelės upės
Genitive didelės upės didelių up
Dative didelei upei didelėms upėms
Accusative didelę upę dideles upes
Instrumental didele upe didelėmis upėmis
Locative didelėje upėje didelėse upėse
Illative didelėn upėn didelėsna upėsna
Vocative upe upės

Note, that the inflection of the plural genitive is palatalized (-ių).


The i-paradigm is used to decline:

All these words use the unsuffixed sub-paradigm, except the nouns of the first declension, which apply the suffixed sub-paradigm

Unsuffixed sub-paradigm

The words in the table:

  singular plural
  feminine masculine feminine masculine
Nominative pilis vagis pilys vagys
Genitive pilies vagies pil vagių
Dative piliai vagiui pilims vagims
Accusative pilį vagį pilis vagis
Instrumental pilimi vagimi pilimis vagimis
Locative pilyje vagyje pilyse vagyse
Illative pilin vagin pilysna vagysna
Vocative pilie vagie pilys vagys

Other features:


  singular plural
  pronoun number pronoun
Nominative pats trys patys
Genitive paties trijų pačių
Dative pačiam trims patiems
Accusative patį tris pačius
Instrumental pačiu trimis pačiais
Locative pačiame m. trijuose / f. trijose pačiuose
Illative pačian m. trijuosna / f. trijosna pačiuosna

Note, that the word pats is declined only in masculine in this table. Its feminine form pati is declined with the o-paradigm regularly.

Suffixed sub-paradigm

The words in the table:

  singular plural
  masculine feminine masculine feminine
Nominative akmuo sesuo akmenys seserys
Genitive akmens sesers akmenų seserų
Dative akmeniui seseriai akmenims seserims
Accusative akmenį seserį akmenis seseris
Instrumental akmeniu seserimi akmenimis seserimis
Locative akmenyje seseryje akmenyse seseryse
Illative akmenin seserin akmenysna seserysna
Vocative akmenie seserie akmenys seserys

Other features:



Dual number

The dual number has its specific inflections, that are similar with plural inflections with some specific differences:

Other features:


Shortened inflections

Inflections, that have two or more syllables, are often shortened in Lithuanian, eliding the final short vowel. Shortened inflections are especially used in the spoken language, while in the written language full inflections are preferred. The elision occur in:

Also there's just one occasion, when the whole one-syllable inflection may be skipped. This may be done with feminine active participles of the past tense (or of the past iterative tense) in the singular nominative. So a word dariusi - 'who was making, who has made' can be said as darius. Note, that this shortened form coincides with the sub-participle of the past tense.


Noun declension inter-linguistic comparison

The declension of Lithuanian nouns of the different declensional patterns are given compared with Latin, Sanskrit, Latvian (in a separate section), Old Prussian, Gothic, Ancient Greek and Russian. Because Old Prussian has left a limited literature with not all the cases of all the stems employed, the Prussian samples are not full in the tables (the cases which existed are most probably already reconstructed from various data by linguists). At the same time there were fewer cases in Prussian than in modern common Lithuanian and mixing the declension patterns was more common, what could develop in a context of a slow decline in the use of Old Prussian, as the Prussians adopted the languages of the others, particularly German. Lithuanian declension varied in dialects.

The first declension. Sg. nom. ends in -as, sg. acc. – in -ą. Latin words of this stem ends in -us in sg. nom., and -um in sg. acc. When these Latin endings succeeded a labial sound, their vowel was originally ŏ: equos – horse, equom; servos – slave, serf, servom. Sg. nom. in Prussian and Gothic is shortened: tavs, dags. Such shortening is present in western and northern Lithuanian dialects: tėvas, -o – father, and tėvs, -o; dagas, -o – heat of the sun (from degti – to burn), and dags, -o. In Prussian there existed only a shortened form, and it developed one step further in a part of the nouns: kaimis / kaimⁱs – village < kaims < kaimas (Lith. kaimas – village, kiemas – yard). There are no neuter nouns in Lithuanian and Latvian, differently from the other given here: Lith. butas – flat, living place, Prus. butan – the same meaning, Lat. aedificium – building. Lithuanian instrumental -u derives from an older -uo, what is seen, for example, in pronominal (definite) adjective forms, pronouns: gerù (nom. sg. gẽras – good) and gerúo-ju (nom. sg. geràsis – that good one), juõ (nom. sg. jis / is – he). Lithuanian diphthong uo corresponds to Latin ō. For dat. sg., an ending -uo is also known in dialects. Lithuanian acc. sg. and gen. pl. are written in the letters with an ogonek: ą and ų. An ogonek indicates that the sound is long. Historically these sounds were nasal: vilką < vilkan, vilkų < vilkun. The form with a sound -n is used in some places in north-west Samogitia today. Latin pl. dat.-abl. -īs corresponds to Ancient Greek pl. dat. -ois and Lithuanian pl. instr. -ais. Lithuanian sg. gen. corresponds to Slavic, for example, Lithuanian: vilko (also dial. vilkā) and Russian во́лка. Prussian sg. loc. was probably -ai, -ei: bītai (adverb) – in the evening, kvei – where;[1] compare Lith. namiẽ – at home (namè – in the house).

The second declension. Lithuanian and Prussian o denotes a long ō. Narrowed more, it becomes ū. When more open, it is ā; ā was used in Catechisms in Prussian, o – in Elbing vocabulary. The ą, ę correspond to ų, į in dialects of eastern Lithuania and acc. sg. is kalbų (kalbą), gėlį (gėlę) in these dialects. The case of -ų corresponds to Latvian and Slavic languages: nom. sg. liepa (Lith.) – linden, liepa (Latv.), ли́па / lipa (Rus.) and acc. sg. liepą and liepų (Lith.), liepu (Latv.), ли́пу / lipu (Rus.).

Fifth declension. Among variant declensional forms are known: sg. dat. -i, -ie: akmeni, akmenie, seseri, seserie. Sg. gen. akmenes, pl. nom. akmenes, akmens. In a case of Old Prussian emen – name, e is dropped in other than sg. nom. cases (sg. acc. emnin instead of emenin). A drop can similarly occur in other languages, for example: Lith. vanduo – water, sg. gen. variants: vandens, vandenies, vandinies, vandenio, vandinio, vandnio. Gothic wato n – water: pl. forms, for example, nom.-acc. watna.

The third declension.

The fourth declension. Prussian sg. nom. -us is known from Elbing vocabulary, it was shortened to -s in Catechisms. Sg. gen. -us is an innovative form, known from Catechisms, the older form was -aus. A word сынъ is given in Old Slavonic cases.

The second declension, -ė type. Prussian -ē stems became -i in an unaccented position.

Lithuanian and Latvian

Lithuanian declensional endings are given compared with Latvian declensional endings in the table below.

first declension second declension third d. fourth d. fifth d. adjectives
masculine feminine f m m m f m f
-ǎ- -i- -o- -ė- -i- -u- -i- -ǎ- -o-
Nom. -as -is -ys -ias -a -ia -is -us -ius -uo -as -a
Gen. -o -io -os -ios -ės -ies -aus -iaus -en-s -er-s -o -os
Dat. -ui -iui -ai -iai -ei -iai -iui -ui -iui -en-iui -er-iai -am -ai
Acc. -ią -ią -ių -en-į -er-į
Ins. -u -iu -a -ia -e -imi -umi -iumi -en-iu -er-imi -u -a
Loc. -e -yje -oje -ioje -ėje -yje -uje -iuje -en-yje -er-yje -ame -oje
Voc. -e -i -y -a -ia -e -ie -au -iau -en-ie -er-ie -as -a
Nom. -ai -iai -os -ios -ės -ys -ūs -iai -en-ys -er-ys -i -os
Gen. -ių -ių -ių -ių -ių -en-ų -er-ų
Dat. -ams -iams -oms -ioms -ėms -ims -ums -iams -en-ims -er-ims -iems -oms
Acc. -us -ius -as -ias -es -is -us -ius -en-is -er-is -us -as
Ins. -ais -iais -omis -iomis -ėmis -imis -umis -iais -en-imis -er-imis -ais -omis
Loc. -uose -iuose -ose -iose -ėse -yse -uose -iuose -en-yse -er-yse -uose -ose
I (m) II (m) IV (f) V (f) VI (f) III (m) II (m) m f
-ǎ- -i- -ā- -ē- -i- -u- -i- -ǎ- -ā-
Nom. -s, -š -is -a -e -s -us -en-s -s, -š -a
Gen. -a -a* -as -es -s -us -en-s -a -as
Dat. -am -im -ai -ei -ij -um -en-im -am -ai
Acc. -u -i -u -i -i -u -en-i -u -u
Ins. -u -i -u -i -i -u -en-i -u -u
Loc. -en-ī
Nom. -i -i* -as -es -is -i -eņ-i* -i -as
Gen. -u -u* -u -u* -u -u -eņ-u* -u -u
Dat. -iem -iem* -ām -ēm -īm -iem -eņ-iem* -iem -ām
Acc. -us -us* -as -es -is -us -eņ-us* -us -as
Ins. -iem -iem* -ām -ēm -īm -iem -eņ-iem* -iem -ām
Loc. -os -os* -ās -ēs -īs -os -eņ-os* -os -ās


  1. ^ Mažiulis, Vytautas (2004), Prūsų kalbos istorinė gramatika (in Lithuanian), p. 39

See also