Latin declension is the set of patterns according to which Latin words are declined—that is, have their endings altered to show grammatical case, number and gender. Nouns, pronouns, and adjectives are declined (verbs are conjugated), and a given pattern is called a declension. There are five declensions, which are numbered and grouped by ending and grammatical gender. Each noun follows one of the five declensions, but some irregular nouns have exceptions.

Adjectives are of two kinds: those like bonus, bona, bonum 'good' use first-declension endings for the feminine, and second-declension for masculine and neuter. Other adjectives such as celer, celeris, celere belong to the third declension. There are no fourth- or fifth-declension adjectives.

Pronouns are also of two kinds, the personal pronouns such as ego 'I' and 'you (sg.)', which have their own irregular declension, and the third-person pronouns such as hic 'this' and ille 'that' which can generally be used either as pronouns or adjectivally. These latter decline in a similar way to the first and second noun declensions, but there are differences; for example the genitive singular ends in -īus or -ius instead of or -ae.

The cardinal numbers ūnus 'one', duo 'two', and trēs 'three' also have their own declensions (ūnus has genitive -īus like a pronoun). However, numeral adjectives such as bīnī 'a pair, two each' decline like ordinary adjectives.

Grammatical cases

A complete Latin noun declension consists of up to seven grammatical cases: nominative, vocative, accusative, genitive, dative, ablative and locative. However, the locative is limited to a few nouns: generally names of cities, small islands and a few other words.

The case names are often abbreviated to the first three letters, for example, "nom." for "nominative".

Order of cases

The Roman grammarian Aelius Donatus (4th century AD), whose work was used as standard throughout the Middle Ages, placed the cases in this order:

casus sunt sex: nominativus, genetivus, dativus, accusativus, vocativus, ablativus.[1]
"There are six cases: nominative, genitive, dative, accusative, vocative and ablative."

This order was based on the order used by earlier Greek grammarians, with the addition of the ablative, which does not exist in Greek. The names of the cases also were mostly translated from the Greek terms, such as accusativus from the Greek αἰτῐᾱτῐκή.

This traditional order was formerly used in England, such as in The School and University Eton Latin Grammar (1861).[2] That order is still followed in most other European countries. Gildersleeve and Lodge's Latin Grammar (1895) also follow this order. More recent Latin grammars published in the United States, such as Allen and Greenough's New Latin Grammar (1903) and Wheelock's Latin (first published in 1956) follow this order except they list the vocative last.

However, in Britain and countries influenced by Britain other than the United States, the Latin cases are usually given in the following order: nominative, vocative, accusative, genitive, dative, ablative. This order was introduced in Benjamin Hall Kennedy's Latin Primer (1866), with the aim of making tables of declensions easier to recite and memorise (the first three and the last two cases having identical forms in several declensions).[full citation needed] It is also used in France[3] and Belgium. In Rosa (1962), a song in French by the Belgian singer Jacques Brel, Brel sings the declension of "Rosa" as rosa, rosa, rosam, following the modern British order of cases.[full citation needed]


Syncretism, where one form in a paradigm shares the ending of another form in the paradigm, is common in Latin. The following are the most notable patterns of syncretism:



History of cases

Old Latin had essentially two patterns of endings. One pattern was shared by the first and second declensions, which derived from the Proto-Indo-European thematic declension. The other pattern was used by the third, fourth and fifth declensions, and derived from the athematic PIE declension.


There are two principal parts for Latin nouns: the nominative singular and the genitive singular. Each declension can be unequivocally identified by the ending of the genitive singular (-ae, -i, -is, -ūs, -ei). The stem of the noun can be identified by the form of the genitive singular as well.

There are five declensions for Latin nouns:

First declension (a stems)

Nouns of this declension usually end in -a in the nominative singular and are mostly feminine, e.g. via, viae f. ('road') and aqua, aquae f. ('water'). There is a small class of masculine exceptions generally referring to occupations, e.g. poēta, poētae m. ('poet'), agricola, agricolae m. ('farmer'), auriga, aurigae m. ('auriga, charioteer'), pīrāta, pīrātae m. ('pirate') and nauta, nautae m. ('sailor').

The predominant letter in the ending forms of this declension is a. The nominative singular form consists of the stem and the ending -a, and the genitive singular form is the stem plus -ae.

First declension paradigm
Singular Plural
Nominative -a -ae
Accusative -am -ās
Genitive -ae -ārum
Dative -īs
Locative Gen. Dat.
mensa, mensae
table (f.)
poēta, poētae
poet (m.)
Singular Plural Singular Plural
Nominative mensa mensae poēta poētae
Accusative mensam mensās poētam poētās
Genitive mensae[i] mensārum poētae poētārum
Dative mensīs poētīs
Ablative mensā poētā
  1. ^ The archaic genitive ending in -ai (as in aquai) occurs occasionally in Virgil and Lucretius, to evoke the style of older writers. Plus, the archaic genitive ending in -ās is used in expressions like pater familiās (also possible in conjunction with māter, fīlius and fīlia).

The locative endings for the first declension are -ae (singular) and -īs (plural), similar to the genitive singular and ablative plural, as in mīlitiae 'in war' and Athēnīs 'at Athens'.[4]

First declension Greek nouns

Main article: Declension of Greek nouns in Latin

The first declension also includes three types of Greek loanwords, derived from Ancient Greek's alpha declension. They are declined irregularly in the singular, but sometimes treated as native Latin nouns, e.g. nominative athlēta ('athlete') instead of the original athlētēs. Archaic (Homeric) first declension Greek nouns and adjectives had been formed in exactly the same way as in Latin: nephelēgeréta Zeus ('Zeus the cloud-gatherer') had in classical Greek become nephelēgerétēs.

For full paradigm tables and more detailed information, see the Wiktionary appendix First declension.

Second declension (o stems)

The second declension is a large group of nouns consisting of mostly masculine nouns like equus, equī ('horse') and puer, puerī ('boy') and neuter nouns like castellum, castellī ('fort'). There are several small groups of feminine exceptions, including names of gemstones, plants, trees, and some towns and cities.

In the nominative singular, most masculine nouns consist of the stem and the ending -us, although some end in -er, which is not necessarily attached to the complete stem. Neuter nouns generally have a nominative singular consisting of the stem and the ending -um. However, every second-declension noun has the ending attached as a suffix to the root of the noun in the genitive singular form. The predominant letter in the ending forms of this declension is o.

Second declension paradigm
Singular Plural
Masculine Neuter Masculine Neuter
Nominative -us -um -a
Vocative -e
Accusative -um -ōs
Genitive -ōrum
Dative -īs
Locative Gen. Dat.
dominus, dominī
master m.
Singular Plural
Nominative dominus dominī
Vocative domine
Accusative dominum dominōs
Genitive dominī dominōrum
Dative dominō dominīs
bellum, bellī
war n.
Singular Plural
Nominative bellum bella
Genitive bellī bellōrum
Locative bellīs
Dative bellō

The locative endings for the second declension are (singular) and -īs (plural); Corinthī "at Corinth", Mediolānī "at Milan", and Philippīs "at Philippi".[5]

Second-declension -ius and -ium nouns

Nouns ending in -ius and -ium have a genitive singular in in earlier Latin, which was regularized to -iī in the later language. Masculine nouns in -ius have a vocative singular in at all stages. These forms in are stressed on the same syllable as the nominative singular, sometimes in violation of the usual Latin stress rule. For example, the genitive and vocative singular Vergilī (from Vergilius) is pronounced Vergílī, with stress on the penult, even though it is short.[6] In Old Latin, however, the vocative was declined regularly, using -ie instead, e.g. fīlie "[O] son", archaic vocative of fīlius.

There is no contraction of -iī(s) in plural forms and in the locative.

fīlius, filiī
son m.
auxilium, auxiliī
aid, help n.
Singular Plural Singular Plural
Nominative fīlius fīliī auxilium auxilia
Vocative fīlī
Accusative fīlium fīliōs
Genitive fīliī fīliōrum auxiliī auxiliōrum
Dative fīliō fīliīs auxiliō auxiliīs

In the older language, nouns ending with -vus, -quus and -vum take o rather than u in the nominative and accusative singular. For example, servus, servī ('slave') could be servos, accusative servom.

Second-declension -r nouns

Some masculine nouns of the second declension end in -er or -ir in the nominative singular. The declension of these nouns is identical to that of the regular second declension, except for the lack of suffix in the nominative and vocative singular.

Some (but not all) nouns in -er drop the e genitive and other cases. For example, socer, socerī ('father-in-law') keeps its e. However, the noun magister, magistrī ('(school)master') drops its e in the genitive singular.

For declension tables of second-declension nouns, see the corresponding Wiktionary appendix.

puer, puerī
boy m.
ager, agrī
field m.
vir, virī
man m.
Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural
Nominative puer puerī ager agrī vir virī
Accusative puerum puerōs agrum agrōs virum virōs
Genitive puerī puerōrum agrī agrōrum virī virōrum
Dative puerō puerīs agrō agrīs virō virīs

The vocative puere is found but only in Plautus.[7] The genitive plural virum is found in poetry.[8]

Second-declension Greek nouns

Main article: Declension of Greek nouns in Latin

The second declension contains two types of masculine Greek nouns and one form of neuter Greek noun. These nouns are irregular only in the singular, as are their first-declension counterparts. Greek nouns in the second declension are derived from the Omicron declension.

Some Greek nouns may also be declined as normal Latin nouns. For example, theātron can appear as theātrum.

Irregular forms


The inflection of deus, deī ('god') is irregular. The vocative singular of deus is not attested in Classical Latin. In Ecclesiastical Latin the vocative of Deus ('God') is Deus.

In poetry, -um may substitute -ōrum as the genitive plural ending.

deus, deī
god m.
Singular Plural
Nominative deus deī
Accusative deum deōs
Genitive deī deōrum
Dative deō deīs

The Latin word vīrus (the ī indicates a long i) means "1. slimy liquid, slime; 2. poison, venom", denoting the venom of a snake. This Latin word is probably related to the Greek ῑ̓ός (ios) meaning "venom" or "rust" and the Sanskrit word विष viṣa meaning "toxic, poison".[9]

Since vīrus in antiquity denoted something uncountable, it was a mass noun. Mass nouns pluralize only under special circumstances, hence the non-existence of plural forms in the texts.[10]

In Neo-Latin, a plural form is necessary in order to express the modern concept of 'viruses', which leads to the following declension:[11][12][13]

vīrus, vīrī
poison, venom, virus n.
Singular Plural
Nominative vīrus vīra
Genitive vīrī[i] vīrōrum
Dative vīrō vīrīs
  1. ^ antique, heteroclitic: vīrus[citation needed]

Third declension

The third declension is the largest group of nouns. The nominative singular of these nouns may end in -a, -e, , , -y, -c, -l, -n, -r, -s, -t, or -x. This group of nouns includes masculine, neuter, and feminine nouns.

Consonant stems

The stem of a consonant-stem noun may be found from the genitive case by removing the ending -is. For example, the stem of pāx, pācis f. 'peace' is pāc-, the stem of flūmen, flūminis n. 'river' is flūmin-, and the stem of flōs, flōris m. 'flower' is flōr-.

Masculine, feminine and neuter nouns often have their own special nominative singular endings. For instance, many masculine nouns end in -or (amor, amōris, 'love'). Many feminine nouns end in -īx (phoenīx, phoenīcis, 'phoenix'), and many neuter nouns end in -us with an r stem in the oblique cases (onus, oneris 'burden'; tempus, temporis 'time').

Third declension paradigm
(consonant stems)
Masculine &
Singular Plural Singular Plural
Nominative (-s) -ēs [i] -a
Accusative -em
Genitive -is -um -is -um
Dative -ibus -ibus
Ablative -e -e
Locative Dat./Abl. Dat. Dat./Abl. Dat.
  1. ^ The nominative and accusative of neuter nouns are always identical.
dux, ducis
leader m.
virtūs, virtūtis
virtue f.
nōmen, nōminis
name n.
Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural
Nominative dux ducēs virtūs virtūtēs nōmen nōmina
Accusative ducem virtūtem
Genitive ducis ducum virtūtis virtūtum nōminis nōminum
Dative ducī ducibus virtūtī virtūtibus nōminī nōminibus
Ablative duce virtūte nōmine

The locative endings for the third declension are or -e (singular) and -ibus (plural), as in rūrī 'in the country' and Trallibus 'at Tralles'.[14]

Third declension i-stem and mixed nouns

The third declension also has a set of nouns that are declined differently. They are called i-stems. i-stems are broken into two subcategories: pure and mixed. Pure i-stems are indicated by special neuter endings. Mixed i-stems are indicated by the double consonant rule. Stems indicated by the parisyllabic rule are usually mixed, occasionally pure.

Masculine and feminine
Parisyllabic rule: Some masculine and feminine third-declension i-stem nouns have the same number of syllables in the genitive and the nominative. For example: nāvis, nāvis ('ship'); nūbēs, nūbis ('cloud'). The nominative ends in -is or -ēs.
Double consonant rule: The rest of the masculine and feminine third-declension i-stem nouns have two consonants before the -is in the genitive singular. For example: pars, partis ('part').
Special neuter ending: Neuter third-declension i-stems have no rule. However, all of them end in -al, -ar or -e. For example: animal, animālis ('animal'); cochlear, cochleāris ('spoon'); mare, maris ('sea').

The mixed declension is distinguished from the consonant type only by having -ium in the genitive plural (and occasionally -īs in the accusative plural). The pure declension is characterized by having in the ablative singular, -ium in the genitive plural, -ia in the nominative and accusative plural neuter, and -im in the accusative singular masculine and feminine (however, adjectives have -em).

The accusative plural ending -īs is found in early Latin up to Virgil, but from the early empire onwards it was replaced by -ēs.[15]

The accusative singular ending -im is found only in a few words: always in tussis 'cough', sitis 'thirst', Tiberis 'River Tiber'; usually in secūris 'axe', turris 'tower', puppis 'poop', febris 'fever'; occasionally in nāvis 'ship'. Most nouns, however, have accusative singular -em.[16]

The ablative singular is found in nouns which have -im, and also, optionally, in some other nouns, e.g. in ignī or in igne 'in the fire'.

There are two mixed-declension neuter nouns: cor, cordis ('heart') and os, ossis ('bone'). Also, the mixed declension is used in the plural-only adjective plūrēs, plūra ('most').

Third declension paradigm
(i-stem nouns)
Masculine &
Singular Plural Singular Plural
Nominative -ēs -ia
Accusative -em
Genitive -is -ium -is -ium
Dative -ibus -ibus
Ablative -e
Locative Dat./Abl. Dat. Dat./Abl. Dat.
Third declension paradigm
(mixed nouns)
Masculine &
Singular Plural Singular Plural
Nominative -ēs -a
Accusative -em -ēs
Genitive -is -ium -is -ium
Dative -ibus -ibus
Ablative -e -e
Locative Dat./Abl. Dat. Dat./Abl. Dat.
turris, turris
tower f. (pure)
pars, partis
part, piece f. (mixed)
animal, animālis
animal, living being n. (pure)
Parisyllabic rule Double consonant rule Special neuter ending
Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural
Nominative turris turrēs pars partēs animal animālia
Accusative turrem
partem partēs
Genitive turris turrium partis partium animālis animālium
Dative turrī turribus partī partibus animālī animālibus
Ablative turre

The rules for determining i-stems from non-i-stems and mixed i-stems are guidelines rather than rules: many words that might be expected to be i-stems according to the parisyllabic rule actually are not, such as canis ('dog') or iuvenis ('youth'), which have genitive plural canum 'of dogs' and iuvenum 'of young men'. Likewise, pater ('father'), māter ('mother'), frāter ('brother'), and parēns ('parent') violate the double-consonant rule. This fluidity even in Roman times resulted in much more uncertainty in Medieval Latin.

Some nouns in -tāt-, such as cīvitās, cīvitātis 'city, community' can have either consonant-stem or i-stem genitive plural: cīvitātum or cīvitātium 'of the cities'.[15]


In the third declension, there are four irregular nouns.

Case vīs, vīs
force, power f.
sūs, suis
swine, pig, hog m.f.
bōs, bovis
ox, bullock m.f.
Iuppiter, Iovis
Jupiter m.
Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular
Nominative vīs vīrēs sūs suēs bōs[i] bovēs Iuppiter
Accusative vim vīrēs
suem bovem Iovem
Genitive vīs[ii] vīrium suis suum bovis boum
Dative [ii] vīribus suī suibus
bovī bōbus
Ablative sue bove Iove
  1. ^ a b c Here ō or ū come from Old Latin ou. Thus bō-/bū- and Iū- before consonant endings are alternate developments of the bov- and Iov- before vowel endings. — The double pp in the preferred form Iu-ppiter "Father Jove" is an alternate way of marking the length of the u in the etymological form Iū-piter (see footnote in Jupiter (mythology)). i is weakened from a in pater (Allen and Greenough, sect. 79 b).
  2. ^ a b Genitive and dative cases are seldom used.

Fourth declension (u stems)

The fourth declension is a group of nouns consisting of mostly masculine words such as flūctus, flūctūs m. ('wave') and portus, portūs m. ('port') with a few feminine exceptions, including manus, manūs f. ('hand') and domus, domūs f. ('house'). The fourth declension also includes several neuter nouns including genū, genūs n. ('knee'). Each noun has the ending -ūs as a suffix attached to the root of the noun in the genitive singular form. The predominant letter in the ending forms of this declension is u, but the declension is otherwise very similar to the third-declension i stems.

Fourth declension paradigm
-us ending nouns ending nouns
Singular Plural Singular Plural
Nominative -us -ūs -ua
Accusative -um
Genitive -ūs -uum -ūs -uum
Dative -uī -ibus
Locative Dat. Dat.
  1. ^ used only on bisyllabic words like arcus and artus.
portus, portūs
port m.
genū, genūs
knee n.
Singular Plural Singular Plural
Nominative portus portūs genū genua
Accusative portum
Genitive portūs portuum genūs genuum
Dative portuī portibus genū genibus
Ablative portū


Domus ('house, dwelling, building, home, native place, family, household, race') is an irregular noun, mixing fourth and second declension nouns at the same time (especially in literature). However, in practice, it is generally declined as a regular -us stem fourth declension noun (except by the ablative singular and accusative plural, using and -ōs instead).[17]

domus, domūs/domī f.
All possible declensions
Singular Plural
Nominative domus domūs
Accusative domum domūs
Genitive domūs
Dative domuī
Ablative domū
Locative domī
domus, domūs f.
Most common paradigm
Singular Plural
Nominative domus domūs
Accusative domum domōs
Genitive domūs domuum
Dative domuī domibus
Ablative domō
Locative domī

Fifth declension (e stems)

The fifth declension is a small group of nouns consisting of mostly feminine nouns like rēs, reī f. ('affair, matter, thing') and diēs, diēī m. ('day'; but f. in names of days). Each noun has either the ending -ēī or -eī as a suffix attached to the root of the noun in the genitive singular form.

Fifth declension paradigm
-iēs ending nouns -ēs ending nouns
Singular Plural Singular Plural
Nominative -iēs -iēs -ēs -ēs
Accusative -iem -em
Genitive -iēī -iērum -eī -ērum
Dative -iēbus -ēbus
Ablative -iē
Locative Abl. Abl. Abl. Abl.
diēs, diēī
day m., f.
rēs, reī
thing f.
Singular Plural Singular Plural
Nominative diēs diēs rēs rēs
Accusative diem rem
Genitive diēī diērum reī rērum
Dative diēbus rēbus
Ablative diē

Nouns ending in -iēs have long ēī in the dative and genitive, while nouns ending in a consonant + -ēs have short in these cases.

The locative ending of the fifth declension was (singular only), identical to the ablative singular, as in hodiē ('today').


Personal pronouns

The first and second persons are irregular, and both pronouns are indeclinable for gender; and the third person reflexive pronoun sē, suī always refers back to the subject, regardless of whether the subject is singular or plural.

First Person Second Person Third Person
ego, nōs
I, we
, vōs
sē, suī
himself, herself, itself,
Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural
Nominative ego
nōs vōs
meī nostrī tuī vestrī suī
Genitive partitive nostrum vestrum
Dative mihi
nōbīs tibi
vōbīs sibi

The genitive forms meī, tuī, nostrī, vestrī, suī are used as complements in certain grammatical constructions, whereas nostrum, vestrum are used with a partitive meaning ('[one] of us', '[one] of you'). To express possession, the possessive pronouns (essentially adjectives) meus, tuus, noster, vester are used, declined in the first and second declensions to agree in number and case with the thing possessed, e.g. pater meus 'my father', māter mea 'my mother'. The vocative singular masculine of meus is : mī Attice 'my dear Atticus'.[18]

Possessive pronouns' declensions

meus, mea, meum
my, mine
Singular Plural
Masculine Feminine Neuter Masculine Feminine Neuter
Nominative meus mea meum meī meae mea

(& meus)

Accusative meum meam meōs meās
Genitive meī meae meī meōrum meārum meōrum
Dative meō meō meīs
Ablative meā
tuus, tua, tuum
your, yours (for singular possessor)
Singular Plural
Masculine Feminine Neuter Masculine Feminine Neuter
Nominative tuus tua tuum tuī tuae tua
Accusative tuum tuam tuōs tuās
Genitive tuī tuae tuī tuōrum tuārum tuōrum
Dative tuō tuō tuīs
Ablative tuā
suus, sua, suum
his, her, its, theirs (reflexive)
Singular Plural
Masculine Feminine Neuter Masculine Feminine Neuter
Nominative suus sua suum suī suae sua
Accusative suum suam suōs suās
Genitive suī suae suī suōrum suārum suōrum
Dative suō suō suīs
Ablative suā
noster, nostra, nostrum
our, ours
Singular Plural
Masculine Feminine Neuter Masculine Feminine Neuter
Nominative noster nostra nostrum nostrī nostrae nostra
Accusative nostrum nostram nostrōs nostrās
Genitive nostrī nostrae nostrī nostrōrum nostrārum nostrōrum
Dative nostrō nostrō nostrīs
Ablative nostrā

The possessive adjective vester has an archaic variant, voster; similar to noster. Vocative of meus is usually , and rarely meus also, like the nominative.

vester, vestra, vestrum
voster, vostra, vostrum
your, yours (for plural possessor)
Singular Plural
Masculine Feminine Neuter Masculine Feminine Neuter
Nominative vester
Accusative vestrum
Genitive vestrī
Dative vestrō
Ablative vestrā

Usually, to show the ablative of accompaniment, cum would be added to the ablative form. However, with personal pronouns (first and second person), the reflexive and the interrogative, -cum is added onto the end of the ablative form. That is: mēcum 'with me', nōbīscum 'with us', tēcum 'with you', vōbīscum, sēcum and quōcum (sometimes quīcum).

Pronouns have also an emphatic form bi using the suffix -met (egomet, tūte/tūtemet, nosmet, vosmet), used in all cases, except by the genitive plural forms.

In accusative case, the forms mēmē and tētē exist as emphatic, but they are not widely used.

Sē, suī has a possessive adjective: suus, sua, suum, meaning 'his/her/its/their own':

Patrem suum numquam vīderat. (Cicero)[19]
"He had never seen his [own] father."

When 'his' or 'her' refers to someone else, not the subject, the genitive pronoun eius (as well as eōrum and eārum) 'of him' is used instead of suus:

Fit obviam Clodiō ante fundum eius. (Cicero)[20]
"He met Clodius in front of the latter's farm."

When one sentence is embedded inside another with a different subject, and suus can refer to either subject:

Patrēs conscrīptī ... lēgātōs in Bīthȳniam miserunt quī ab rēge peterent, nē inimīcissimum suum secum haberet sibique dēderet. (Nepos)[21]
"The senators ... sent ambassadors to Bithynia, who were to ask the king not to keep their greatest enemy with him but hand him over to them."

For the third-person pronoun is 'he', see below.

Demonstrative pronouns and adjectives

Relative, demonstrative and indefinite pronouns are generally declined like first and second declension adjectives, with the following differences:

These differences characterize the pronominal declension, and a few special adjectives (tōtus 'whole', sōlus 'alone', ūnus 'one', nūllus 'no', alius 'another', alter 'another [of two]', etc.) are also declined according to this pattern.

All demonstrative, relative, and indefinite pronouns in Latin can also be used adjectivally, with some small differences; for example in the interrogative pronoun, quis 'who?' and quid 'what?' are usually used for the pronominal form, quī and quod 'which?' for the adjectival form.

Third person pronoun

The weak demonstrative pronoun is, ea, id 'that' also serves as the third person pronoun 'he, she, it':

Third person
is, ea, id
he, she, it
Singular Plural
Masculine Feminine Neuter Masculine Feminine Neuter
Nominative is ea id
eae ea
Accusative eum eam eōs eās
Genitive eius eōrum eārum eōrum
Dative eīs

This pronoun is also often used adjectivally, e.g. is homo 'that man', ea pecunia 'that money'. It has no possessive adjective; the genitive is used instead: pater eius 'his/her father'; pater eōrum 'their father'.

Declension of īdem

The pronoun or pronominal adjective īdem, eadem, idem means 'the same'. It is derived from is with the suffix -dem. However, some forms have been assimilated.

īdem, eadem, idem
the same, same as
Singular Plural
Masculine Feminine Neuter Masculine Feminine Neuter
Nominative īdem eadem idem eīdem
eaedem eadem
Accusative eundem eandem eōsdem eāsdem
Genitive eiusdem eōrundem eārundem eōrundem
Dative eīdem eīsdem
Ablative eōdem eādem eōdem

Other demonstrative pronouns

hic, haec, hoc
this, this one (proximal)
ille, illa, illud
that, that one (distal)
iste, ista, istud
that of yours (medial)
Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural
Masculine Feminine Neuter Masculine Feminine Neuter Masculine Feminine Neuter Masculine Feminine Neuter Masculine Feminine Neuter Masculine Feminine Neuter
Nominative hic haec hoc hae haec ille illa illud illī illae illa iste ista istud istī istae ista
Accusative hunc hanc hōs hās illum illam illōs illās istum istam istōs istās
Genitive huius[i] hōrum hārum hōrum illīus illōrum illārum illōrum istīus istōrum istārum istōrum
Dative huic hīs illī illīs istī istīs
Ablative hōc hāc hōc illō illā illō istō istā istō
  1. ^ Sometimes spelled hūius. Here, the macron indicates that the syllable is long or heavy, because the consonantal i between vowels is pronounced double, like *huiius, and the doubled consonant makes the first syllable heavy.[citation needed]

Similar in declension is alius, alia, aliud 'another'.

Intensive pronoun

ipse, ipsa, ipsum
himself, herself, itself
Singular Plural
Masculine Feminine Neuter Masculine Feminine Neuter
Nominative ipse ipsa ipsum ipsī ipsae ipsa
Accusative ipsum ipsam ipsōs ipsās
Genitive ipsīus ipsōrum ipsārum ipsōrum
Dative ipsī ipsīs
Ablative ipsō ipsā ipsō

Interrogative pronouns

The interrogative pronouns are used strictly for asking questions. They are distinct from the relative pronoun and the interrogative adjective (which is declined like the relative pronoun). Interrogative pronouns rarely occur in the plural. The plural interrogative pronouns are the same as the plural relative pronouns.

quis? quid?
who?, what?
Masculine &
Nominative quis? quid?
Accusative quem?
Genitive cuius?[i]
Dative cui?
Ablative quō?

Relative pronouns

quī, quae, quod
who, which, that
Singular Plural
Masculine Feminine Neuter Masculine Feminine Neuter
Nominative quī quae quod quī quae quae
Accusative quem quam quōs quās
Genitive cuius[i] quōrum quārum quōrum
Dative cui quibus
Ablative quō quā quō
  1. ^ a b Sometimes spelled cūius. Here, the macron indicates that the syllable is long or heavy, because the consonantal i between vowels is pronounced double, like *cuiius, and the doubled consonant makes the first syllable heavy.[citation needed]


First- and second-declension adjectives

First- and second-declension adjectives are inflected in the masculine, the feminine and the neuter; the masculine form typically ends in -us (although some end in -er, see below), the feminine form ends in -a, and the neuter form ends in -um. Therefore, some adjectives are given like altus, alta, altum.

Adjectives ending -ius use the vocative -ie (ēbrie, "[O] drunk man", vocative of ēbrius), just as in Old Latin all -ius nouns did (fīlie, "[O] son", archaic vocative of fīlius).

altus, alta, altum
high, long, tall
Singular Plural
Masculine Feminine Neuter Masculine Feminine Neuter
Nominative altus alta altum altī altae alta
Vocative alte
Accusative altum altam altōs altās
Genitive altī altae altī altōrum altārum altōrum
Dative altō altō altīs
Ablative altā

First- and second-declension -r adjectives

Some first- and second-declension adjectives' masculine forms end in -er. As with second-declension -r nouns, some adjectives retain the e throughout inflection, and some omit it. Sacer, sacra, sacrum omits its e while miser, misera, miserum keeps it.

miser, misera, miserum
sad, poor, unhappy
Singular Plural
Masculine Feminine Neuter Masculine Feminine Neuter
Nominative miser misera miserum miserī miserae misera
Accusative miserum miseram miserōs miserās
Genitive miserī miserae miserī miserōrum miserārum miserōrum
Dative miserō miserō miserīs
Ablative miserā
sacer, sacra, sacrum
sacred, holy
Singular Plural
Masculine Feminine Neuter Masculine Feminine Neuter
Nominative sacer sacra sacrum sacrī sacrae sacra
Accusative sacrum sacram sacrōs sacrās
Genitive sacrī sacrae sacrī sacrōrum sacrārum sacrōrum
Dative sacrō sacrō sacrīs
Ablative sacrā

First and second declension pronominal adjectives

Nine first and second declension pronominal adjectives are irregular in the genitive and the dative in all genders. They can be remembered by using the mnemonic acronym ūnus nauta. They are:

ūllus, ūlla, ūllum
Singular Plural
Masculine Feminine Neuter Masculine Feminine Neuter
Nominative ūllus ūlla ūllum ūllī ūllae ūlla
Accusative ūllum ūllam ūllōs ūllās
Genitive ūllīus ūllōrum ūllārum ūllōrum
Dative ūllī ūllīs
Ablative ūllō ūllā ūllō

Third-declension adjectives

Third-declension adjectives are normally declined like third-declension i-stem nouns, except for the fact they usually have rather than -e in the ablative singular (unlike i-stem nouns, in which only pure i-stems have ). Some adjectives, however, like the one-ending vetus, veteris ('old, aged'), have -e in the ablative singular, -um in the genitive plural, and -a in the nominative and accusative neuter plural.

Third-declension adjectives with one ending

These have a single nominative ending for all genders, although as usual the endings for the other cases vary. As with nouns, a genitive is given for the purpose of showing the inflection.

atrōx, atrōx
terrible, mean, cruel
Singular Plural
Masculine Feminine Neuter Masculine Feminine Neuter
Nominative atrōx atrōx atrōcēs atrōcia
Accusative atrōcem atrōcēs
Genitive atrōcis atrōcium
Dative atrōcī atrōcibus
Non-i-stem variant
vetus, vetus
old, aged
Singular Plural
Masculine Feminine Neuter Masculine Feminine Neuter
Nominative vetus vetus veterēs vetera
Accusative veterem
Genitive veteris veterum
Dative veterī veteribus
Ablative vetere

Third-declension adjectives with two endings

Third-declension adjectives that have two endings have one form for the masculine and feminine, and a separate form for the neuter. The ending for the masculine and feminine is -is, and the ending for the neuter is -e. It is not necessary to give the genitive, as it is the same as the nominative masculine singular.

agilis, agile
nimble, swift
Singular Plural
Masculine Feminine Neuter Masculine Feminine Neuter
Nominative agilis agile agilēs agilia
Accusative agilem agilēs
Genitive agilis agilium
Dative agilī agilibus

Third-declension adjectives with three endings

Third-declension adjectives with three endings have three separate nominative forms for all three genders. Like third and second declension -r nouns, the masculine ends in -er. The feminine ends in -ris, and the neuter ends in -re. The genitive is the same as the nominative feminine singular.

celer, celeris, celere
swift, rapid, brash
Singular Plural
Masculine Feminine Neuter Masculine Feminine Neuter
Nominative celer celeris celere celerēs celeria
Accusative celerem
Genitive celeris celerium
Dative celerī celeribus
alacer, alacris, alacre
lively, jovial, animated
Singular Plural
Masculine Feminine Neuter Masculine Feminine Neuter
Nominative alacer alacris alacre alacrēs alacria
Accusative alacrem alacrēs
Genitive alacris alacrium
Dative alacrī alacribus

Comparative and superlative forms of adjectives

As in English, adjectives have superlative and comparative forms. For regular first and second declension and third declension adjectives with one or two endings, the comparative is formed by adding -ior for the masculine and feminine, and -ius for the neuter to the stem. The genitives for both are formed by adding -iōris. Therefore, they are declined in the third declension, but they are not declined as i-stems. Superlatives are formed by adding -issimus, -issima, -issimum to the stem and are thus declined like first and second declension adjectives.

General pattern for comparatives

altior, altius
higher, deeper (comparative of altus)
Singular Plural
Masculine Feminine Neuter Masculine Feminine Neuter
Nominative altior altius altiōrēs altiōra
Accusative altiōrem
Genitive altiōris altiōrum
Dative altiōrī altiōribus
Ablative altiōre
altissimus, altissima, altissimum
highest, deepest (superlative of altus)
Singular Plural
Masculine Feminine Neuter Masculine Feminine Neuter
Nominative altissimus altissima altissimum altissimī altissimae altissima
Vocative altissime
Accusative altissimum altissimam altissimōs altissimās
Genitive altissimī altissimae altissimī altissimōrum altissimārum altissimōrum
Dative altissimō altissimō altissimīs
Ablative altissimā

Comparatives and superlatives with normal endings

Positive Comparative Superlative
clārus, clāra, clārum ('clear, bright, famous') clārior, clārius clārissimus, clārissima, clārissimum
frīgidus, frīgida, frīgidum ('cold, chilly') frīgidior, frīgidius frīgidissimus, frīgidissima, frīgidissimum
pugnāx, pugnāx (pugnācis) ('pugnacious') pugnācior, pugnācius pugnācissimus, pugnācissima, pugnācissimum
benevolēns, benevolēns (benevolentis) ('kind, benevolent') benevolentior, benevolentius benevolentissimus, benevolentissima, benevolentissium
fortis, forte ('strong, robust') fortior, fortius fortissimus, fortissima, fortissimum
aequālis, aequāle ('equal, even') aequālior, aequālius aequālissimus, aequālissima, aequālissimum

Comparatives and superlatives of -er adjectives

Adjectives (in the first and second as well as third declensions) that have masculine nominative singular forms ending in -er are slightly different. As with normal adjectives, the comparative is formed by adding -ior to the stem, but for the superlative, -rimus is added to the nominative masculine singular.

Positive Comparative Superlative
pulcher, pulchra, pulchrum ('pretty, beautiful') pulchrior, pulchrius pulcherrimus, pulcherrima, pulcherrimum
sacer, sacra, sacrum ('sacred, holy') sacrior, sacrius sacerrimus, sacerrima, sacerrimum
tener, tenera, tenerum ('delicate, tender') tenerior, tenerius tenerrimus, tenerrima, tenerrimum
ācer, ācris, ācre ('valliant, fierce') ācrior, ācrius ācerrimus, ācerrima, ācerrimum
celeber, celebris, celebre ('celebrated, famous') celebrior, celebrius celeberrimus, celeberrima, celeberrimum
celer, celeris, celere ('quick, fast') celerior, celerius celerrimus, celerrima, celerrimum

Comparatives and superlatives of -lis adjectives

Some third declension adjectives with two endings in -lis in the masculine–feminine nominative singular have irregular superlative forms. The following are the only adjectives that do.

Positive Comparative Superlative
facilis, facile ('easy') facilior, facilius facillimus, facillima, facillimum
difficilis, difficile ('hard, difficult') difficilior, difficilius difficillimus, difficillima, difficillimum
similis, simile ('similar, like) similior, similius simillimus, simillima, simillimum
dissimilis, dissimile ('unlike, dissimilar') dissimilior, dissimilius dissimillimus, dissimillima, dissimillimum
gracilis, gracile ('slender, slim') gracilior, gracilius gracillimus, gracillima, gracillimum
humilis, humile ('low, humble') humilior, humilius humillimus, humillima, humillimum

Comparatives and superlatives of -eus/-ius adjectives

First and second declension adjectives that end in -eus or -ius are unusual in that they do not form the comparative and superlative by taking endings at all. Instead, magis ('more') and maximē ('most'), the comparative and superlative degrees of magnoperē ('much, greatly'), respectively, are used.

Many adjectives in -uus, except those in -quus or -guus, also follow this rule.

Positive Comparative Superlative
idōneus, idōnea, idōneum ('suitable, fitting, proper') magis idōneus maximē idōneus
sōlitārius, sōlitāria, sōlitārium ('solitary, lonely') magis sōlitārius maximē sōlitārius
ebrius, ebria, ebrium ('drunk') magis ebrius maximē ebrius
meritōrius, meritōria, meritōrium ('meritorious') magis meritōrius maximē meritōrius
grāmineus, grāminea, grāmineum ('grassy') magis grāmineus maximē grāmineus
bellātōrius, bellātōria, bellātōrium ('warlike, bellicose') magis bellātōrius maximē bellātōrius
arduus, ardua, arduum ('lofty, steep') magis arduus maximē arduus

Irregular comparatives and superlatives

As in most languages, Latin has adjectives that have irregular comparatives and superlatives.

Positive Comparative Superlative
bonus, bona, bonum ('good') melior, melius ('better') optimus, optima, optimum ('best')
malus, mala, malum ('bad, evil') pēior, pēius ('worse') pessimus, pessima, pessimum ('worst')
magnus, magna, magnum ('great, large') māior, māius ('greater') maximus, maxima, maximum ('greatest')
parvus, parva, parvum ('small, slight') minor, minus ('lesser') minimus, minima, minimum ('least')
multus, multa, multum ('much, many') plūs[i] ('more') plūrimus, plūrima, plūrimum ('most')
propinquus, propinqua, propinquum ('near, close') propior, propius ('nearer') proximus, proxima, proximum ('nearest, next')
mātūrus, mātūra, mātūrum ('ripe, mature') mātūrior, mātūrius ('riper') mātūrrimus, mātūrrima, mātūrrimum[ii] ('ripest')
nēquam[iii] ('worthless') nēquior, nēquius ('more worthless') nēquissimus, nēquissima, nēquissimum ('most worthless')
posterus, postera, posterum ('next, future') posterior, posterius ('later') postrēmus, postrēma, postrēmum ('last, latest')
postumus, postuma, postumum
superus, supera, superum ('above') superior, superius ('upper') suprēmus, suprēma, suprēmum ('uppermost')
summus, summa, summum
exterus, extera, exterum ('outward') exterior, exterius ('outer') extrēmus, extrēma, extrēmum ('outermost')
extimus, extima, extimum
īnferus, īnfera, īnferum ('below') īnferior, īnferius ('lower') īnfimus, īnfima, īnfimum ('lowest')
īmus, īma, īmum
senex, senis ('old, aged') senior ('older, elder') maximus nātū, maxima nātū ('oldest, eldest')
iuvenis, iuvenis ('young, youthful') iuvenior ('younger')
minimus nātū, minima nātū ('youngest')[iv]
  1. ^ Noun used with genitive to express more of something in the singular; in the plural used as an adjective: plūrēs, plūra, genitive plūrium.
  2. ^ Often replaced by the regular form mātūrissimus, mātūrissima, mātūrissimum.
  3. ^ Indeclinable.
  4. ^ Sometimes iunissimus is found in medieval Latin, e.g. Callistus Nicephorus, Ecclesiastica Historia, 1574.

Declension of numerals

See also: Roman numerals and Latin numerals (linguistics)

There are several different kinds of numeral words in Latin: the two most common are cardinal numerals and ordinal numerals. There are also several more rare numerals, e.g., distributive numerals and adverbial numerals.

Cardinal numerals

All cardinal numerals are indeclinable, except ūnus ('one'), duo ('two'), trēs ('three'), plural hundreds ducentī ('two hundred'), trecentī ('three hundred') etc., and mīlle ('thousand'), which have cases and genders like adjectives. Ūnus, ūna, ūnum is declined like a first- and second-declension pronoun with -īus or -ius in the genitive, and in the dative. Duo is declined irregularly, trēs is declined like a third-declension plural adjective, -centī ('hundred') numerals decline like first- and second-declension adjectives, and mīlle is invariable in the singular and declined like a third-declension i-stem neuter noun in the plural:

The plural endings for ūnus are used with plūrālia tantum nouns, e. g. ūna castra (one [military] camp), ūnae scālae (one ladder).

ūnus, ūna, ūnum
Singular Plural
Masculine Feminine Neuter Masculine Feminine Neuter
Nominative ūnus ūna ūnum ūnī ūnae ūna
Vocative ūne
Accusative ūnum ūnam ūnōs ūnās
Genitive ūnīus / ūnius ūnōrum ūnārum ūnōrum
Dative ūnī ūnīs
Ablative ūnō ūnā ūnō

The word ambō ('both'), is declined like duo except that its o is long. Both declensions derive from the Indo-European dual number, otherwise defunct in Latin, rather than the plural.

duo, duae, duo
Masculine Feminine Neuter
Nominative duo duae duo
Accusative duōs
Genitive duōrum duārum duōrum
Dative duōbus duābus duōbus
ambō, ambae, ambō
Masculine Feminine Neuter
Nominative ambō ambae ambō
Accusative ambōs
Genitive ambōrum ambārum ambōrum
Dative ambōbus ambābus ambōbus
trēs, tria
Masculine Feminine Neuter
Nominative trēs tria
Accusative trēs / trīs
Genitive trium
Dative tribus

The numeral centum ('one hundred') is indeclinable, but all the other hundred numerals are declinable (ducentī, trecentī, quadringentī, quīngentī, sescentī, septingentī, octingentī, nōngentī).

ducentī, ducentae, ducenta
two hundred
Masculine Feminine Neuter
Nominative ducentī ducentae ducenta
Accusative ducentōs ducentās
Genitive ducentōrum ducentārum ducentōrum
Dative ducentīs

The word mīlle 'thousand' is a singular indeclinable adjective. However, its plural, mīlia, is a plural third-declension i-stem neuter noun. To write the phrase "four thousand horses" in Latin, the genitive is used: quattuor mīlia equōrum, literally, "four thousands of horses".

(one) thousand
mīlia, mīlium
x thousand,
Nominative mīlle mīlia
Genitive mīlium
Dative mīlibus

The rest of the numbers are indeclinable whether used as adjectives or as nouns.

For further information on the different sets of Latin numerals, see Latin numerals (linguistics).

Adverbs and their comparatives and superlatives

Adverbs are not declined. However, adverbs must be formed if one wants to make an adjective into an adverb.

Adverbs from first- and second-declension adjectives

First and second declension adjectives' adverbs are formed by adding onto their stems.

Adjective Adverb
clārus, clāra, clārum ('clear, famous') clārē ('clearly, famously')
validus, valida, validum ('strong, robust') validē ('strongly, robustly')
īnfīrmus, īnfīrma, īnfīrmum ('weak') īnfīrmē ('weakly')
solidus, solida, solidum ('complete, firm') solidē ('completely, firmly')
integer, integra, integrum ('whole, fresh') integrē ('wholly, freshly')
līber, lībera, līberum ('free') līberē ('freely')

Adverbs from third declension adjectives

Typically, third declension adjectives' adverbs are formed by adding -iter to the stem. However, most third declension adjectives with one ending simply add -er to the stem.

Adjective Adverb
prūdēns, prūdēns (prūdentis) ('prudent') prūdenter ('prudently')
audāx, audāx (audācis) ('bold') audācter ('boldly')
virīlis, virīle ('courageous, spirited') virīliter ('courageously, spiritedly')
salūbris, salūbre ('wholesome') salūbriter ('wholesomely')

Comparative and superlative of adverbs

Adverbs' comparative forms are identical to the nominative neuter singular of the corresponding comparative adjective. Adverbs' superlative forms are simply formed by attaching the regular ending to the corresponding superlative adjective. As with their corresponding adjectival forms, first and second declensions adjectives ending in -eus or -ius use magis and maximē as opposed to distinct endings.

Positive Comparative Superlative
clārē ('clearly, famously') clārius clārissimē
solidē ('completely, firmly') solidius solidissimē
idōneē ('suitably, properly') magis idōneē maximē idōneē
prudenter ('prudently') prudentius prudentissimē
salūbriter ('wholesomely') salūbrius salūbrissimē

Irregular adverbs and their comparative and superlative forms

As with adjectives, there are irregular adverbs with peculiar comparative and superlative forms.

Positive Comparative Superlative
bene ('well') melius ('better') optimē ('best')
male ('badly, ill') peius ('worse') pessimē ('worst')
magnopere ('greatly') magis ('more') maximē ('most')
multum ('much, a lot') plūs ('more') plūrimum ('most')
parvum ('little') minus ('less') minimē ('least')
nēquiter ('worthlessly') nēquius ('more worthlessly') nēquissimē ('most worthlessly')
saepe ('often') saepius ('more often') saepissimē ('most often')
mātūrē ('seasonably, betimes') mātūrius ('more seasonably') māturrimē ('most seasonably')
prope ('near') propius ('nearer') proximē ('nearest, next')
nūper ('recently') nūperrimē ('most recently, previously')
potis ('possible') potius ('rather') potissimē ('especially')
prius ('before, previously') prīmō ('first')
secus ('otherwise') sētius
sequius ('less')

Peculiarities within declension

Irregularity in number

Some nouns are only used in the singular (singulare tantum) such as:

Some nouns are only used in the plural (plurale tantum), or when plural have a singular meaning such as:

Indeclinable nouns

Indeclinable nouns are nouns which only have one form in all cases (of the singular).

Heterogeneous nouns

Heterogeneous nouns are nouns which vary in respect to gender.

Singular Plural
balneum n. ('bath') balneae f. or balnea n. ('bathhouse')
epulum n. ('feast, banquet') epulae f. ('feast, banquet')
frēnum n. ('bridle, curb') frēnī m. bridle, curb
iocus m. ('joke, jest') ioca n. or ioci m. ('jokes, fun')
locus m. ('place, location') loca n. ('region'); locī m. ('places in books, arguments')
rāstrum n. ('hoe, rake') rāstrī m. ('hoes, rakes')

Plurals with alternative meanings

Singular Plural
aedēs, aedis f. ('building, temple') aedēs, aedium ('rooms, house')
auxilium, auxiliī n. ('help, aid') auxilia, auxiliōrum ('auxiliary troops')
carcer, carceris m. ('prison, cell') carcerēs, carcerum ('starting traps')
castrum, castrī n. ('fort, castle, fortress') castra, castrōrum ('military camp, encampment')
cōpia, copiae f. ('plenty, much, abundance') cōpiae, copiārum ('troops')
fortūna, fortūnae f. ('luck, chance') fortūnae, fortūnārum ('wealth, fortune')
grātia, grātiae f. ('charm, favor') grātiae, grātiārum ('thanks')
impedīmentum, impedīmentī m. ('impediment, hindrance') impedīmenta, impedīmentōrum ('baggage, baggage train')
littera, litterae f. ('letter [alphabet]') litterae, litterārum ('letter [message], epistle, scholarship, literature')
mōs, mōris m. ('habit, inclination') mōrēs, mōrum m. ('morals, character')
opera, operae f. ('trouble, pains') operae, operārum m. ('workmen')
*ops, opis f.[i] ('help') opēs, opium ('resources, wealth')
pars, partis f. ('part, piece') partēs, partium ('office, function')
  1. ^ Nominative and dative are not attested except as the name of the goddess Ops.

See also


  1. ^ Aelius Donatus, Ars Major, 2.8.
  2. ^ Mongan, James Roscoe (1861). The School and University Eton Latin Grammar, Explanatory and Critical. London 1861.
  3. ^ Paul Crouzet (1902), Grammaire Latine, simple et complète, p. 7.
  4. ^ Allen and Greenough. §43 c.
  5. ^ Allen and Greenough. §49 a.
  6. ^ Gildersleeve & Lodge §15, Allen & Greenough §12, §49c
  7. ^ Perseus database.
  8. ^ Gildersleeve & Lodge, Latin Grammar 3rd ed., p. 17.
  9. ^ Chambers's Etymological Dictionary Enlarged Edition 1931
  10. ^ June 1999 issue of ASM News by the American Society for Microbiology
  11. ^ Nuntii Latini: Finnish Broadcasting Company (Radiophonia Finnica Generalis). Archiv I. 19.5.2000 – 6.12.2002: "NOVUM VIRUS COMPUTATORIUM
    Novum viri computatorii genus nomine Code Red in praesenti in Interreti grassatur, ut nuntiavit institutum SANS, cuius est securitati retis informatici providere. Code Red II, quod per cursum electronicum diffunditur, priore viro acerbius est et, postquam in servitoria penetravit, in systema lacunam facit. Ita fieri potest, ut alia vira eaque etiam periculosiora in machinas computatorias irrepant. Iam vermis Code Red I molestissimus fuit, cum biduo in trecenta milia computatrorum in omni orbe terrarum invasit."
  12. ^ Pons: virus
  13. ^ William T. Stearn: Botanical Latin. History, Grammar, Syntax, Terminology and Vocabulary. David & Charles, third edition, 1983. Quote: "Virus: virus (s.n. II), gen. sing. viri, nom. pl. vira, gen. pl. vīrorum (to be distinguished from virorum, of men)."
  14. ^ Allen and Greenough. §80.
  15. ^ a b Gildersleeve & Lodge (1895), p. 18.
  16. ^ Gildersleeve & Lodge (1895), p. 27.
  17. ^ The Fourth Declension – tutorial by Ben Johnson of LatinTutorial
  18. ^ Cicero, Epistulae ad Atticum 6.1.20 etc.
  19. ^ Cicero, Pro Rabirio Postumo 4
  20. ^ Cicero, Pro Milone 29
  21. ^ Cornelius Nepos, Hannibal 12.2
  22. ^ Gildersleeve & Lodge (1903), Gildersleeve's Latin Grammar, p. 39.