This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.Find sources: "Inessive case" – news · newspapers · books · scholar · JSTOR (July 2022) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)

In grammar, the inessive case (abbreviated INE; from Latin: inesse "to be in or at") is a locative grammatical case. This case carries the basic meaning of "in": for example, "in the house" is talo·ssa in Finnish, maja·s in Estonian, куд·са (kud·sa) in Moksha, etxea·n in Basque, nam·e in Lithuanian, sāt·ā in Latgalian and ház·ban in Hungarian.

In Finnish the inessive case is typically formed by adding -ssa/-ssä. Estonian adds -s to the genitive stem. In Moksha -са (-sa) is added (in Erzya -со (-so)). In Hungarian, the suffix ban/ben is most commonly used for inessive case, although many others, such as on/en/ön and others are also used, especially with cities.

In the Finnish language, the inessive case is considered the first (in Estonian the second) of the six locative cases, which correspond to locational prepositions in English. The remaining five cases are:


This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (May 2021) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)

The Finnish language inessive uses the suffix -ssa or -ssä (depending on vowel harmony). It is usually added to nouns and associated adjectives.

It is used in the following ways:

asumme Suomessa = we live in Finland
possible English translations include in, within
kahdessa vuodessa = within 2 years, during 2 years
English translations can include on in phrases of this type
N.N. puhelimessa = N.N. on the phone[citation needed]
sormus on sormessani = the ring is on my finger
sanomalehdessä on 68 sivua = the newspaper has 68 pages
minä käyn baarissa = I visit the bar
Käyn baareissa = I visit the bars

Dialectal variants

In a large part of the southwestern, south Ostrobothnian, southeastern as well as in some Tavastian dialects, the suffix is simply -s (e.g. maas, talos), similarly to Estonian. This is an example of apocope. When coupled with a possessive suffix, the result can be like in standard Finnish "maassani, talossani" or a shorter "maasani, talosani" depending on the dialect: the former is more common in Tavastian and southeastern dialects while the latter is more common in southwestern dialects.

Most central and northern Ostrobothnian dialects as well as some southwestern and Peräpohjola dialects use a shorter suffix -sa/-sä, e.g. maasa, talosa.[1]

Further reading


  1. ^ "Inessiivin päätteet". (in Finnish). Archived from the original on May 12, 2021. Retrieved July 12, 2022.