This article lists common abbreviations for grammatical terms that are used in linguistic interlinear glossing of oral languages[nb 1] in English.

The list provides conventional glosses as established by standard inventories of glossing abbreviations such as the Leipzig Glossing rules,[2] the most widely known standard. These will generally be the glosses used on Wikipedia. Synonymous glosses are listed as alternatives for reference purposes. In a few cases, long and short standard forms are listed, intended for texts where that gloss is rare or uncommon.


These abbreviations are, however, commonly used as the basis for glosses for symmetrical voice systems (formerly called 'trigger' agreement, and by some still 'focus' (misleadingly, as it is not grammatical focus), such as AV (agent voice), BF (beneficiary 'focus'), LT (locative 'trigger').


Nonabbreviated English words used as glosses are not included in the list below. Caution is needed with short glosses like AT, BY, TO and UP, which could potentially be either abbreviations or (as in these cases) nonabbreviated English prepositions used as glosses.

Transparent compounds of the glosses below, such as REMPST or REM.PST 'remote past', a compound of REM 'remote' and PST 'past', are not listed separately.

Abbreviations beginning with N- (generalized glossing prefix for non-, in-, un-) are not listed separately unless they have alternative forms that are included. For example, NPST non-past is not listed, as it is composable from N- non- + PST past. This convention is grounded in the Leipzig Glossing Rules.[2] Some authors use a lower-case n, for example nH for 'non-human'.[16]

Some sources are moving from classical lative (LAT, -L) terminology to 'directional' (DIR), with concommitant changes in the abbreviations. Other authors contrast -lative and -directive.[17]

Some sources use alternative abbreviations to distinguish e.g. nominalizer from nominalization,[18] or shorter abbreviations for compounded glosses in synthetic morphemes than for independent glosses in agglutinative morphemes.[19] These are seldom distinct morphosyntactic categories in a language, though some may be distinguished in historical linguistics. They are not distinguished below, as any such usage tends to be idiosyncratic to the author.

Punctuation and numbers

Conventional Gloss Variants Meaning Reference
- separator for segmentable morphemes, e.g., Lezgian amuq’-da-č (stay-FUT-NEG) "will not stay" [2]
= ꞊, ‿ [optional in place of hyphen] separator for clitics, e.g., West Greenlandic palasi=lu niuirtur=lu (priest=and shopkeeper=and) "both the priest and the shopkeeper" [2][20]
. when a morph is rendered by more than one gloss, the glosses are separated by periods, e.g., French aux chevaux (to.ART.PL horse.PL) "to the horses"
A period is not used between person and number, e.g. 1PL, 2SG, 1DU, 3NSG (nonsingular).
_ [optional in place of period] when the language of the gloss lacks a one-word translation, a phrase may be joined by underscores, e.g., Turkish çık-mak (come_out-INF) "to come out"
With some authors, the reverse is also true, for a two-word phrase glossed with a single word.
>, →, : [optional in place of period] direction of polypersonal agreement in a single gloss, whether
(a) possession (1S›SG means 1S possessor and singular possessum)
or (b) transitivity (2›3 means 2 acts on 3, as in guny-bi-yarluga (2DU›3SG-FUT-poke) "(who) do you two want to spear?"
A colon is used by some authors: 1S:SG, 2DU:3SG-FUT-poke.
: [optional in place of period] separates glosses where segmentation is irrelevant (morphemes may be segmentable, but author does not wish to separate them) [2]
; : [optional in place of period] separates glosses that are combined in a portmanteau morpheme, as in aux chevaux (to;ART;PL horse;PL) "to the horses".
Some authors use the colon indiscriminately for this convention and the previous.[24]
+ [optional] compound word or fused morpheme.
(Also used in 1+2 (inclusive) vs 1+3 (exclusive) person; EMPH+ strong emphatic)
& [optional in place of period] cross-referencing: X&Y = X›Y or Y›X or both [8]
/ | alternative meanings of ambiguous morpheme, e.g. 2/3 for a morpheme that may be either 2nd or 3rd person, or DAT/GEN for a suffix used for both dative and genitive. [27][6]
\ [optional in place of period] a morpheme indicated by or affected by mutation, as in Väter-n (father\PL-DAT.PL) "to (our) fathers" (singular form Vater) [2]
[...] [optional in place of period] indicates unmarked element (such as fils (son[MSG], which has no suffix for MSG). The null suffix -∅ may be used instead. [2]
(...) [optional in place of period] inherent category, such as covert gender (when glossed at all) [2]
~ [required in place of hyphen] marks reduplication and retriplication (e.g. Ancient Greek gé~graph-a PRF~write-1SG 'I have written', with word-initial reduplication) [2]
⟨...⟩ <...> [required in place of hyphen] marks off an infix (e.g. ITERVb is word-initial infixation that makes the verb iterative) [2]
⟩...⟨ -...-, >...< [optional in place of hyphens] marks off a circumfix or bipartite stem. The second element may be glossed the same as the first, or as CIRC, STEM or $:
ge⟩lauf⟨en   PART.PRFrun
ge⟩lauf⟨en   PART.PRF⟩run⟨PART.PRF
ge⟩lauf⟨en   PART.PRF⟩run⟨CIRC
ge-lauf-en   PART.PRF-run-PART.PRF
ge-lauf-en   PART.PRF-run-CIRC
$ (second part of a discontinuous lexeme) [28]
[optional] used by some authors to mark which element is the root (in ⟨x-√y-z⟩, 'y' is the root) [29][30]
? ??, X (morpheme not understood, unidentified morpheme) [31][32]
0, Ø zero (null) morpheme (such as fils-∅ (son-MSG), with a 'zero' suffix for MSG). Brackets may be used instead. [2][33][8][34]
0 zeroth person ('one', as in Finnish, Keres) [35]
0 epenthetic segment (semantically null) [10]
1 first person (1msg, 1fpl, 1EXCL, DEM1 etc.): 1HON speaker-honorific, 1HML speaker-humiliative/humble [2][8]
2 second person [2]
3 third person (3SG.M or 3msg or 3ms; 3PL.F or 3fpl or 3fp; 3DU.N or 3ndu or 3nd; N3 or n3 non-3rd person) [occasionally 3sm, 3sn, 3sf, 3pm, 3pn, 3pf etc.][36] [2][21]
12, 13 inclusive, exclusive person (especially if not thought of as a form of 1pl)
(rarely other digit compounds, e.g. 12 dual vs 122 plural inclusive, 33 vs 333 for 3du vs 3pl, etc.)
3sp impersonal 'space' subject [19]
3.3′.CJ (3rd-person subj, 3rd-person obj conjunct–order verb) [1]
4 (a) fourth person (= OBV)
(b) first person inclusive
(c) indefinite person
I, II, III, IV etc. noun classes / genders [41][42][23]
> ≥
< ≤
older and younger: 1SG> 'I' (speaker older than addressee), 2SG≤ 'you' (speaker addressing addressee of same age or younger), 3SG> 's/he' (referent older than (a) speaker or (b) addressee, depending on requirements of discourse) [37]
= ≠ same and different generations: 3DU≠ 'they two' (of different generations, e.g. grandchild and great-grandchild), 1PL= 'we' (of same generation, e.g. me and my siblings) [37]
varies with [1]

Grammatical abbreviations

Conventional Gloss Variants Meaning Reference
-A athematic (TAMA athematic tense-aspect-mood, ANTA athematic antecedent, etc.) [43]
A- associating (prefix on case abbreviation) [24]
AA addressee authority (cf. SA) [21]
AB from. May be equivalent to ABESS or ABL. Compounded for ABE(SS), ABL(AT), ABEL etc. if a single morpheme, as AB-ESS, AB-LAT or AB-DIR, AB-ELA etc. if not. [citation needed]
AB, ABV[citation needed] above deictic center [44]
ABESS ABE, AB abessive case (a.k.a. caritive case or privative case: 'without')

Lehmann (2004) recommends using privative (PRV) or aversive (AVERS) instead[8]

ABIL ABL, CAP[citation needed] (cap)ability (ACQ.ABIL acquired ability, INTR.ABIL intrinsic ability) [47]
ABL ABLA ablative case ('from') [2][32]
ABM ablative-modalis case [48]
ABS ABSOL, AB[citation needed] absolutive case [2][18]
ABSL absolute (free, non-incorporated form of noun) [8]
ABST AB cn abstractive; abstract [49][12]
ABSTR abstract (of nominal) [8]
ABSV ABSN absentive (occurring in a place displaced from the deictic centre) [50][51]
ABT about [52]
AC motion across (as opposed to up/down-hill, -river) [citation needed]
AC animacy classifier [30]
ACC AC accusative case [2][53]
ACCOM accompanier [15]
ACH achievement [35]
ACP, ACCMP accomplishment [54][35]
ACR, ACT cn? actor role [8]
ACT AC active voice [33][8][54]
ACT action (verbal participle) [40]
ACT actual [43][23]
ACTL actualizing [16]
ACTY activity [35]
AD near, by. May be equivalent to ADESS or ALL. Compounded for ADE(SS), (irregular ALL), ADEL etc. if a single morpheme, as AD-ESS, AD-LAT, AD-ELA etc. if not. [16][17]
AD agent demotion [20]
AD anti-deictic [7]
ADAP adaptive [21]
ADD ADDIT additive case; additive focus [8][55][56]
ADESS AD, ADE, ADES adessive case ('at'; more specific than LOC). See AD. [12][57][33][8][2][30][58][31]
ADEL adelative [59][8][12]
ADJ adjective (ADJZ adjectivizer) [2][60][16]
ADJ adjunct [52]
ADJZ ADJR adjectivizer [60][61]
ADM ADMON admonitive mood (warning) [8][62]
ADR ADDR, AD addressive; addressee-anchored/orientated/perspective [17][16][22][63][1][21]
ADV adverb(ial) (ADVZ ~ ADVR adverbializer); adverbial case [2][13][64][8]
ADV advancement [51]
ADVM adverb marker [19]
ADVS ADV, ADVRS, ADVRST adversative (maleficiary, 'whereas') [61][54][51][1]
ADVZ ADVR, ADVZR adverbializer [13][61][32]
AEQ EQ, EQL, EQTV aequalis (equalis) case (like, as), equational particle, equative (adj in nominal clause; EQA, EQS = active, stative equative) [65][39][25][57][35]
AFF AFFMT, AFFM AFFIRM affirmative [33][51][61][16]
AFFECT affectionate [24]
AFM aforementioned [51]
AFFT AFF affective case [61][66][23][16]
aFOC argument-focus marker [1]
AFW away from water (= UH) [67]
AGG aggregate, collective (cf. COL) [32]
AGN, AG.N, AGNR agent nominalization/noun [68][17][32]
AGR, AG agreement affix (typically number–gender; cf. PNG)
Lehmann (2004) recommends avoiding and specifying agreement categories.[8]
AGT AG agentive case (AGNZ agentive nominalizer) [33][8][49][63]
AJC adjacent [69]
AL ALIEN cn? alienable possession [8][63]
ALL ADL, ADDIR allative case ('to'; also 'aditive' [sic], 'adlative', 'addirective') [2][12][38]
ALLOC AL allocutive (addressee honorific) [8][18]
ALTER alterphoric, = N.EGO [70]
AMBIPH ambiphoric pronoun [23]
AMP amplifier [68]
AN ANM, ANIM animate gender (ANPL animate plural; cf R; may exclude human referents) [15][7][30][33]
AN, ACNR, ACNNR action noun, action nominalizer [17][51][8]
AN, ADN adnominalizer [7]
ANA ANP, ANAPH anaphoric (demonstrative, suffix) [71][25][49][22][48]
ANA action narrowly averted [1]
AND andative ('going towards', cf venitive) [8]
ANP adnominal verb [1]
ANT anterior tense (relative tense; used for PRF in some traditions) [33]
ANT Antecedent (ANTA athematic antecedent, ANTT thematic antecedent) [43]
ANT, ANTC anticipated (future), anticipating [6][72][7]
ANT ANTE in front of. May be equivalent to ANTESS or ANTL. Compounded for ANTE(SS), ANTL(AT), ANTEL etc. if a single morpheme, as ANT-ESS, ANT-LAT, ANT-ELA etc. if not. [16][3]
ANTEL anteelative (antelative) [17]
ANTESS ANTE[citation needed] antessive case, anteessive ('before') [17]
ANTIC, AC ACAUS anticausative [73][59][8][74][51]
ANTIC anticipatory (ANT.SU anticipatory subject) [1]
ANTIP, AP APASS, APS, ANTI, ATP antipassive voice [46][73][28][8][2][66][74][65][39][55][16]
ANTLAT ANTDIR antelative (ante-lative), antedirective [17]
AO agent-orientated verb [54]
AOBL attributive oblique [75]
AOR AO aorist (= PST.PFV) [33][19]
AP adverbial particle [note: better to gloss the actual meaning] [18]
APF adjective prefix [6]
APL APPL, APP, AL applicative (subtypes APL.INS etc.)[8] [2][65][27][30]
APPOS APP apposition, appositional mood [63][76][48]
APPROB approbation [77]
APR APPR apprehensive mood, apprehensional ('lest') [1][8][43]
APRT PRESP,[citation needed] PRPART, PRP active participle, present participle [78][46][10]
APRX APPR approximative [15][16]
APUD near, in the vicinity of. May be equivalent to APUDESS or APUDL. Compounded for APUDE(SS), APUDL(AT), APUDEL etc. if a single morpheme, as APUD-ESS, APUD-LAT, APUD-ELA etc. if not. [16][3]
AR, AREA areal (place/time/situation) [60][69][1]
ARG argumentative [79]
ART article [2]
AS aseverative [80]
AS actor (agent-role subject) [4]
ASC ASSOC, ASSC, ASS (a) associative case ('with', 'à'; not = COM),
(b) associative plural (also ASC.PL, ASSOC.PL, ASS.P),
(c) associative mood
(d) compounds, e.g. ASSOC.MOT associated motion
ASP aspect, aspectual
Lehmann (2004) recommends avoiding 'aspect' as a gloss and specifying the aspect.[8]
ASRT ASS, ASST, ASSERT assertive mood [8][1][69][81][19]
ASSP asserted past participle [19]
ASSUM ASSU, ASS cn? assumptive mood, assumed evidential [8][21]
AST assistive [81]
ASYM asymmetric (= NSYM) [21]
AT at (locative) [English preposition as a gloss] [16]
ATN attention-calling [48]
ATR ATTR, AT attributive (L.ATR attributive derived from place name), attributor [42][59][17][8]
ATTEN ATT, ATTN attenuative [2][8][1]
AUD auditory evidential, auditive [8][38]
AUG (a) augmentative;
(b) augment (in Bantu noun classes)
(c) augmented number (e.g. of imperative)
AUX auxiliary verb
Per Lehmann (2004), this should only be used if it uniquely identifies the morpheme (i.e., there is only one auxiliary morpheme in the language.)[8]
AV AF, AT, A agent/actor voice/focus/trigger (NAV, NAF non-actor voice) [59][7][82][83][84][51][8]
AVERT avertive [69]
AVR AVERS aversative, aversive [85][8][35]
BE, TB 'be' verb (a conflation of EXIST and COP) [cf. COP] [citation needed]
BEL below deictic center [44]
BEN BENEF benefactive case ('for') [2][26]
BG BCKG background [86][55]
BI bivalent [80]
BOT bottom (presumably also 'BTM') [52]
BOU, BOUND boundary (a. boundary-emphasizing; b. geographic boundary) [21][24]
BR bound root [51]
BT boundary tone [87]
BV[citation needed] BF beneficiary voice/focus/trigger [82][7]
C COMM common gender (C.SG or cs common singular, C.PL or cp common plural) [33][8]
C current evidence [21]
C conceptualizer [36]
-C 'compass', in languages where relative position is based on cardinal direction rather than left, right, front and behind (ABLC compass ablative, ALLC compass allative) [43]
C- complementizing (prefix on case abbreviation) [24]
C.EXIST ceased existence [1]
CAR CARIT caritive case [88][89]
CARD cardinal numeral (morpheme or grammatical feature) [8]
CAU, CSL causal-final case; causal [78][7]
CAUS CAU, CS, CSTVZR causative [2][53][77][31]
CC (a) conditional converb, (b) clause-chain marker [10][70]
CDM core development [51]
CDN conjunct dubitive neutral [19]
CDP conjunct dubitive preterite [19]
CE continued event [68]
CENT centric case [74]
CENTRIF centrifugal (motion) [6]
CENTRIP centripetal (motion) [6]
CERT certainty (evidential) [71][89]
CESS cessative [61]
CFOC contrastive focus [52]
CHEZ at X's place, at the home of (from the French preposition chez) [16]
CHO chômeur [72]
CHR cohortative (often = HORT) [48]
CIF contrary information flow [90]
CIRC CIR, CIRCUM (a) circumstantive ('in', 'by')
(b) circumstantial voice (= CV)
CIRC CIRCUM, $ (empty tag to mark second element of a circumfix) [2][28]
CIRC circumferential [16]
CIRCUMESS circumessive [citation needed]
CIS CISL, CISLOC cislocative [91][65][68][79]
CIT citation form ending [53]
CJT CJ conjoint [22][6]
CL close link (necessary condition; temporal closeness) [92]
CL nominal class (in Bantu languages) [93]
CL clause-level, e.g. &CL clause-level 'and', COMPL.CL completive clause marking [31][19]
CLF CL, CLASS, CLFSR classifier (base or morpheme) (NCL noun class). Some distinguish CLF classifier from CL class marker.[23]
The category of classifier should be specified,[8] e.g. "CLF:round"[94] or "CLF.HUM"[8]
CM (a) conjugation marker;
(b) noun-class marker;
(c) concatenative marker
CMPD compound [citation needed]
CMPL COMPL, CPL, CMP, COMP, CMPLT, COMPLET completive (completitive) aspect (e.g. PAST.COMPL completed past) – normally = PFV[8] [19][2][20][89][16][82][61]
CMPR CMP, COMP, COMPR, CMPAR comparative [78][8][16][61][19]
CMT, COMM commitment, committal [68][11]
CN common noun (e.g. CN.DET common-noun determiner) [80]
CN conjunct nominal [60]
CNEG, CNG, CN connegative [82][1][4]
CNJ CONJ, CONJUN conjunction [15][33][19]
CNS, CONSTR, CNSTR construct state/form [95][79][1]
CNS, CNSQ, CONS consequential (e.g. consequential mood) [21][65][43]
CNTF CF, CTR, CTRFCT, CNTR.FACT counterfactual conditional, contrafactuality [59][89][90][48][1][24]
CNTR CONTR, CTR, CONT, CON contrastive, contranstive focus (= CONTR.FOC), contrasted topic [19][59][53][74][63][23][10][7]
CNTR continuer [36]
CNTR counter-assertive [70]
CEXP CNTREXP counterexpectation [52][1]
CO.AG co-agency [89]
COCAUS concomitative-causitive
COH coherence [51]
COL COLL collective number/numeral [8][15]
COM CMT, COMIT comitative case ('together with', 'in the company of') [2][52][16]
COMP CMP, COMPL, COMPLR complementizer (= SUBR)[8] [2][33][89][68][61]
COMP compassion [77]
COMPV, COMP comparative case (unequal comparison) [35][52]
COMPUL compulsional [89]
CON CNA, CNTV conative [69][16][48][8]
CON concrete [citation needed]
CONC CNCS, CONCESS concessive ('although') (> CONCP concessive particle) [8][65][89][16][7]
CONC concurrent [6]
CONC concord marker [to be avoided in favor of specifying the agreement] [79]
COND CND, CON conditional mood ('if', 'would') (GCOND given conditional, GCCOND given concessive conditional) [2][12][78][7]
CONF CFM, CONFIRM confirmational, confirmative [19][7][49]
CONGR, CNGR congruent [70]
CONJ CJ conjunctive (interpropositional relation), conjunct person marking [8][19][20]
CONJC CONJ conjectural (evidential) (NCONJ negative conjectural) [8][89][1][7]
CONN CN, CNN, CT connective (particle, mood, case) [2][59][8][74][96][48][56]
CONR CNCT, CON connector [22][63][72]
CONS consecutive; concessive [22][25]
CONSEC, CONS consecutive mood ('so that') [79][6]
CONST, CNS, CST constant, constancy [68][48]
CONT CNT, CTN, CONTIN continuous aspect, continuative aspect [33][21][59][8][20][1]
CONT on a vertical surface. (From English contact.) May be equivalent to CONTESS or CONTL(AT). Compounded for CONTE(SS), CONTL(AT), CONTEL etc. if a single morpheme, as CONT-ESS, CONT-LAT or CONT-DIR, CONT-ELA etc. if not. [16][3]
CONT continuous direction [24]
CONT contentive [17]
COOP cooperative [89][7]
COORD coordination, coordinative [16][70]
COP BE copula, copulative (BE identity copula, BE.LOC locative-existential copula)[87] [2][49][31]
COR COREF, CO.REF coreference, coreferential [38][74][89][19]
CP conjunctive participle [7]
CQ content question (= WH.Q) [31][97]
CRAS crastinal tense ('tomorrow') [8]
CRD, CARD cardinal pronoun [23][54]
CRS current relevance marker, currently relevant state (as in the perfect) [98]
CSM change of state marker [19]
CSO cosubordinator [99]
CT circumstantial topic [1]
CTEXP contraexpectative [71]
CTG CNTG contingent mood [71][65][39]
CNTG contiguous [97]
CTM CTEMP, COTEMP, CONTEMP, CONT contemporative (at that/the same time) [71][39][23][54][79][1]
CTR control [51]
CUS CU, CUST, CUSTOM customary (cf. USIT [48][41][99][89][79]
CV[citation needed] CF, TF circumstantial/theme voice/focus/trigger [59]
CV copula verbalizer [99]
CV characteristic vowel [100]
CV conveyance voice (cf. CV circumstantial voice) [101]
CVB CONV, CNV, C converb [2][22][1][21]
DAT dative case [2]
DC dectic center [63]
DC downcoast [citation needed]
DD discourse definite [102]
DE different event, change of event (cf DS) [103][25]
DE discontinued event [68]
-de DE dual exclusive (= DU.EX) [4][8]
DEAG deagentive [80][79]
DEB OBLG, OBLIG, OBL debitive / obligative mood [89][16][17][77]
DEC decausative [10]
DECL DEC, DCL declarative mood [2][1][70]
DED deductive evidential [53]
DEF DF definite [2][21]
DEFIN definitive [79]
DEFOC defocus [89]
DEFR deferential (speaker-humble) [8]
DEI cn?, DEIC, DEIX, DX, D deixis, deictic (D12 deictic of 12 person) [15][16][75][8]
DEL.IMP delayed imperative (a command for later; cf. IMM) [104]
DEL delative case ('off of', 'down from') [8]
DEL, DLM[citation needed] delimiter, delimitative ('just, only'), delimiting [68]
DEL deliberative mood [citation needed]
DEM D demonstrative (DEM1 proximate dem, DEM2 present/given dem, DEM3 remote dem; DEM.ADDR near addressee, DEM.DOWN lower than reference point, DEM.NEAR ~ DEM.NR near, DEM.SP near speaker, DEM.UP higher than reference point) [15][2][16][21]
DEN denizen [43]
DENOM denominal [14]
DEO DEONT deontic mood [85][25][37]
DEOBJ deobjective [73]
DEP D dependent (as in DEP.FUT), dependent clause marking (use SJV)[8] [41][74][19][1]
DEPO deportmentive [43]
DEPR depreciatory, deprecative [38]
DER DERIV derivation, derivational morpheme (e.g. ADJ.DER adjective-derived) [41][90][78]
DEREL derelational [61]
DES DESI cn?, DESID desiderative mood (= OPT) (DESN desiderative noun)[10] [33][8][80][25][64][79]
DEST destinative aspect or case ('to') (non-finite verb form = supine)[8] [33][57]
DET D determiner [2][18]
DETR DTRNZ detransitivizer, detransitive [8][15][19]
DETR detrimental [19]
DFLT default [105]
DH downhill, seaward (cf DR) [citation needed]
-di DI dual inclusive (= DU.IN) [4][8]
DIF direct information flow [90]
DIM DIMIN diminutive [33][14]
DIR.EV DIREV, DIR, DR, DRCT direct evidential (= EXP; DIR/INFR direct/inferred) [33][8][21][68][19][35]
DIR DIREC directive, directional (= LAT); typically suffixed to another element such as AD-, POST-, SUB-, SUPER-. [33][8][64][63][24]
DIR, DR (a) direct case (> NDIR indirect case),
(b) direct voice (opposite of INV)
DIR directed (DIRA athematic directed, DIRT thematic directed) [43]
DIS dislocative [25]
DISC DM, DSC, D discourse marker [32][33][60][51]
DIS.CON discursive connector [32]
DISJ DIS, DJ disjunction, disjunctive, disjunct person marking [106][19][10][21]
DISSAT dissatisfaction [77]
DIST DIS, DS, D, DSTL, FAR distal, distant (DIST.FUT, DIST.PST, D.PRF; DIST.IMPV distal imperative) [2][14][39][7][31][19][1][30]
DISTR DSTR, DISB, DIST (a) distributive case;
(b) distributive plural[citation needed]
(c) distributive aspect
DITR ditransitive [20]
DIV diversative [10]
DN deverbal noun [19]
DNZ denizen [52]
DM a) demonstrative marker; directive marker (polite command) [23][21]
DO DO, DOBJ direct object(ive) [33][4]
DO do like a ... (verbalizing suffix) [24]
DOM (a) differential object marking; (b) direct-object marker [107][16][56]
DON donative (auxiliary of benefactive) [43][8]
DOX doxastic [47]
DP distant past. = REM.PST [71]
DP discourse particle [use actual gloss if possible] [19][40]
DP destinative participle [10]
DPAST direct past (evidentiality) [19]
DPC distant past continuative [51]
DPP distant past completive [51]
DR downriver (cf DH toward the water) [108][74]
DR different reference [1]
DS DA different-subject/actor/agent (change of subject) marker (cf DE) [59][41][25]
DSC DISCNT, DISCONT discontinuative aspect [68][59][57]
DT different taxis [25]
DTR detrimentary [65]
DU DL, d dual number (M.DU or md masculine dual, F.DU or fd feminine dual) [2][41][90]
DUB DBT, DUBIT dubitative mood, dubiative [8][52][54]
DUPLIC, DV duplicative [79][1]
DUR durative aspect (continuous aspect) [2]
DV[citation needed] DF direction voice/focus/trigger [7]
DWN, DN DOWN downward [7][52]
DY DYAD cn? dyadic (e.g. wife-DY 'man and wife') [109][62]
DYN DYNM dynamic aspect / eventive [8][23]
-E (used to form various essive cases)
EA epistemic authority (= EGO) [70]
EC euphonic consonant (= EP) [16]
EFF effector [26]
EFOC extra-focal [80]
EGO egophoric (NEGO non-egophoric) [16][21]
EGR egressive [8]
EI euphonic insertion [15]
ELA EL, ELAT, ELV elative case ('out of') [73][33][46][8][80][6]
ELPA existential + locative + possessive + attributive [70]
EM a) extension marker; b) evaluative marker [16][21]
EMO EMOT[citation needed] emotive [43][81]
EMP EMPH, EM, E (a) emphatic (e.g. emphatic base of pronouns),
(b) emphasizer, emphatic marker (ETOP emphatic topic)
END, FP, FIN clause-final particle (joshi)
Per Lehmann (2004), glosses as 'particle' should be avoided; instead translate/gloss the meaning.[8]
ENDO endopathic (= EGO) [70]
ENC enunciative particle, as in Gascon ,[18] Marcus, Nicole Elise (2010). The Gascon Énonciatif System: Past, Present, and Future: A study of language contact, change, endangerment, and maintenance (PDF) (PhD). Retrieved 12 February 2023.
EP E, EPENTH, EPENT, 0 epenthetic morpheme, epenthetical [15][59][25][79][10]
EPI, EPIS, EM, EPST, EPIST epistemic mood or modality [25][82][94]
EPIT epithet [37]
EQU equative (= COP [70]
ERG ergative case [2]
ES echo subject [1]
ESS essive case ('as') [33][40]
EV EVD, EVI, EVID evidential (DIR.EV etc.)
[per Lehmann (2004), the particular evidential should be specified][8]
(PREV.EVID.EV previous-evidence evidential)
EV euphonic vowel (= EP) [16]
EV experiencer voice [72]
EVIT evitative case (= aversive case) [25][43]
EVT eventual [16]
EXAL DEF exaltive/deferential (high-status register) [110][96]
EXC, XS excessive [cf. EXESS 'ex-essive', which is commonly misspelled 'excessive'] [16][19][24]
EXCL, EX EXC, e exclusive person (as in 1EX, 1PL.EX, 1e) [2][111][14]
EXCLAM EXCLM, EXCL, EXC exclamative, exclamatory [15][89][37][48]
EX.DUR excessive duration [90]
EXEC executive (auxiliary) [70]
EXESS exessive case [112]
EXFOC extrafocal (cleft subordinate clause
EXH ADH exhortative, adhortative [113][97][28]
EXH.FOC exhaustive focus [1]
EXIST EXS, EXST, EXIS, EX, EX.BE existential ('there is') [33][21][16][52][31][1]
EXO exocentric case [74]
EXP, EXPER cn? experiencer, experiencer case [33][15][46][7]
EXP EXPER, EXP.EV experiential, eyewitness = direct evidential (cf. WIT). EXPER.PAST experienced past. [33][8][79][19]
EXPECT expectational [89]
EXPL, EXP expletive (dummy / meaningless form) [25]
EXPR expressive [37][10]
EXT extended (aspect, demonstrative), extendible; extension (sound stretch) [41][54][48][34]
EXT extent [19]
EXT external evidential [70]
EXTRV extraversive (trz by addition of ugr) [8]
EXTT extended topic [70]
EZF, EZ, IZAF ezafe = izafet [16][56][79]
F FEM feminine gender (F.SG, FSG or fs feminine singular, F.PL, FPL or fp feminine plural)
(FEM also 'female speaker')
FA future actor [46]
FAC FACT (a) factive evidential/mood, factual;
(b) factitive (A-FACT NP 'make NP A')
FAM familiar, as for familiar register (as the T–V distinction) and familiar pronominal [59][8]
FC future conjunct (NFC non-future conjunct) [7]
FCL facilitive [16]
FD future disjunct [7]
FH, FIRSTH firsthand (NFH non-firsthand) [35][19]
FI feminine indefinite [1]
FILL, SFL morphological filler, sentence filler (expletive) [77]
FIN finite verb (NFIN non-finite) [33]
FIN finalis [16]
FMR DCSC former, deceased, 'late' [68][21]
FN first (= given) name [87]
FNL phrase-final suffix [6]
FOC focus (confusingly used both for symmetrical voice and for true grammatical focus: A.FOC, AGFOC agent/actor focus; P.FOC, PFOC patient focus; LFOC location focus, BFOC beneficiary focus, ACFOC accompanier focus, IFOC instrument focus, CFOC conveyance focus) [2][35]
FOR FRM, FORM, FRML (a) formal register (as the T–V distinction);
(b) formal mood;
(c) formal case ('in the capacity of...')
FPRT FP future participle [78][10]
FPST, FP far past [92][19]
FRACT fraction, fractional (numeral) [2]
FREQ FRQ, FR cn? frequentative aspect [8][39]
FRT front [52]
FRUS FRUST, FRST, FR frustrative [37][22][38][34][19]
FS false start [22]
FTV FACT factative tense (PRES if stative, PAST if not) [22][43]
FUNC functional [43]
FUNC functive case [57]
FUT F future tense (FOBJ future objective) [2][19][24]
FUT.INT, ITF future intention, intentional future [89][16]
FV, TV final/terminal vowel [6][1]
G1, G2, G3, G4 etc. GND etc. gender / noun class (e.g. G4 = 4th gender; may be used alongside M, F etc.) [2][56]
GEM generalized evaluative marker [21]
GEN GN, G genitive case, genitive form of pronoun [2][31][72]
GENZ generalized [1]
GER GRD gerund, gerundive (for the latter, use obligative)[8] [33][46][36]
GIV given [114]
GKN general knowledge (evidential) [21]
GM gender marker [or specify the gender] [16]
GNF general non-finite [7]
GNO GNOMIC gnomic (generic) aspect [74][90]
GNR GENR, GNRL, GENER, GENRL, GEN generic, general (e.g. classifier, tense; APPL.GEN general applicative) [8][22][38][62][57][23][1][48]
GNT general tense [16]
GO&, AM, DK associated motion. GO&DO (go to a place and perform the verb) (= ASC.MOT) [23][6][4]
GPST general past [92]
GRP group numeral [17]
gTOP given topic [28]
GV GF, GT goal voice/focus/trigger [how d this diff from PV?] [74][83][15]
H Head [33]
H hearer/reader [33]
H high variety/code, in adiglossic situation [33]
H HUM human, anthropic gender (H.SG or hs human singular, H.PL or hp human plural, ALLH human allative) (cf. R) [43][33][22][55][42]
H higher animacy, higher object (cf. LA) [77][23]
HAB HABIT habitual aspect [8][33]
HBL habilitive [16]
HCR hypocoristic [8]
HES HESIT hesitation, hesitation particle [22][99]
HEST hesternal tense ('yesterday') [8]
HIST historic(al), as in historical present or past historic tense [22]
HNDR number of hundreds (in a numeral)
HOD TOD hodiernal tense ('today' in HOD.FUT/HODFUT hodernial future, HOD.PST/TODP hodernial past) [8][1]
HON HNR, H, HS [suffix] honorific (subject honorific) [33][48][70][72]
HOR horizon of interest [16]
HOR horizontal [28]
HORT HOR [cn] hortative (1st-person imperative) [8]
HPL human plural (H.PL) [100]
HR.EV heard evidential (= AUD) [89]
HRS HSY, HS, HRSY, EH hearsay/reported evidential [99][65][38][19][1][4]
HUM HML, HBL cn? humiliative, humble (low-status register) [8][110]
HYP HYPO, HYPOTH cn? hypothetical mood [25][33][8][49]
I inflected (AUX.I inflected auxiliary) [90]
IA involuntary agent [80]
IA indirect agent(ive) [28]
IA instrumental advancement [46]
IAM iamitive [16]
IC involuntary causative (natural or accidental events) [15][30]
IC indirective copula [19]
ICOM involuntary comitative [68]
ICVB, IC imperfective converb [75][10]
IDENT, ID[citation needed] identity, identical (~ NID), [97]
IDENT identificational [54]
IDENTIF identifiable [23]
IDEO IDPH, IDEOPH ideophone (≈ MIM) [18][49][22][38][115]
IE informal ending [11]
IFUT indefinite future [90]
IGN IGNOR ignorative [48][89]
ILL ILLA, ILLAT illative case ('into') [33][81][17]
IM interrogative marker [18]
IMI impersonal infinitive [10]
IMM IM, IMD, IMMED immediate, as in IM.IMP immediate imperative mood, IM.FUT near future tense, IM.PAST/IMPST immediate past; immediate evidential [8][41][48][70]
IMMED immediate past, = IMM.PST [79]
IMN imminent (future) = IMM.FUT [48]
IMP IMPER, IMPV, IMPRT imperative mood [2][14][19][6]
IMPARF imparfait [19]
IMPF IMPERF, IMPRF, IMPFT, IM imperfect (= PST.NPFV) [33][22][16][92][19]
IMPL implicated [1]
IMPOSS modal impossibility [77]
IMPR IMPREC cn? imprecative mood [116][47]
IMPRS IMPERS, IMPR, IMPS cn?, IMPL, IMP impersonal, impersonal verb [59][8][51][66][89][90][30][117]
IN in a container. May be equivalent to INESS or INL. Compounded for INE(SS), INL(AT), INEL etc. if a single morpheme, as IN-ESS, IN-LAT, IN-ELA etc. if not. [16][3]
INAB, IMPOT impotential [47][11]
INABL inablative [30]
INACT inactive [16]
INAL inalienable possession [15][22]
INAN INANIM inanimate gender [15][33][16]
INC increment [43]
INCEP, INC, INCP, IP inceptive (= inchoative or ingressive) [8][61][22][62][40][69]
INCH INCHO, INC, INH inchoative [8][61][48][7]
INCL, IN INC inclusive person (as 1IN or 1PL.IN) [2][111]
INCP, INCIP incipient (INCPA athematic incipient, INCPT thematic incipient) [43]
IND INDIC indicative mood [2][18]
INDCAUS indirect causative [75]
INDEP, INDP, IND independent [1][87][21]
INDET indeterminate [118][94]
INDH indefinite human ('somebody') [119]
INDIR indirective (motion inward); indirect(?) (INDIR.COP indirective copula); indirect evidential [89][16][79][19][21]
INDIV individualizer [24]
INDN indefinite non-human ('something') [119]
INEL inelative case ('from within') [12][57]
INESS INE, INES, INSV, IN inessive case ('in') [8][18][56][46][1][58]
INF infinitive [2]
INFL inflectional [33]
INFR INFER, INFERN, INF inferential mood, inferred evidential [8][100][1][19]
ING, INGR ingressive case [39][51]
INJ INTERJ, INTRJ, INTJ, INT, INTER interjection (incl. 'filler'), interjective [48][12][7][33][19][10]
INS INST, INSTR instrumental case [2][61][28]
INS instantiated [43]
INT INTER, INTERR interrogative (= Q); C.INT content interrogative mood [59][8][19][101]
INT internal evidential [70]
INTER within (a solid object). May be equivalent to INTERESS or INTERL. Compounded for INTERE(SS), INTERL(AT), INTEREL etc. if a single morpheme, as INTER-ESS, INTER-LAT, INTER-ELA etc. if not. [16][3]
INTERESS interessive
INTERP interpellative mood [116]
INTF interfix [73]
INTL INTEN, INT intentional conditional, intentive future [113][90][68]
INTRST complement of interest [19]
INTRV introversive [80]
INTS INT, ITS, INTN, INTNS, INTEN, INTENS intensifier, intensive [59][8][48][10][15][89][31][1]
INTV INTENTV intentive [47][23]
INV inverse [59][8]
INVN inverse number (as in Kiowa: sg of default pl, pl of default sg) [35]
INW inward [7]
IO IO, IOBJ indirect object(ive) [66][28][4]
IP immediate past. = IM.PST [38]
IPAST indirective past [19]
IPD impeditive [68]
IPS (a) impersonal passive (passive w/o promotion to subject);
(b) impersonalizer (AGIPS agent impersonalizer)
IQ indirect question, self-addressed question [17]
IR irregular (compounded with other glosses, e.g. LOC.IR irregular locative) [31]
IRR IRLS cn?, IRREAL, IR irrealis mood [2][37][4]
IRREL, IRRELEV irrelevence (= NRELEV [89]
IS indirect speech [33]
IS impersonal subject [15]
IS immediate scope [36]
ITER IT, ITE, ITR iterative aspect [33][14][25][48]
ITG intangible [1]
ITM intermittent [48]
ITV ITIV, IT itive [6][28]
IV[citation needed] IF instrument voice/focus/trigger [82][7]
IVC impersonal verb construction [1]
J thematic [43]
JUS JUSS jussive mood [8][68]
KIN kinship suffix [22][23]
KNWN known [55]
-L (used to form various lative cases)
L low variety/code, in adiglossic situation [33]
L local (exophoric) person (= 1/2)
L2 B tags translation as code-switching. [33][57]
LA lower animacy (cf. H) [23]
LAT lative case (= MVMT, direction) [8]
LC limited control [81]
LCL locational [6]
LENGTH vowel or consonant emphasis lengthening [citation needed]
LEX lexical-thematic (affix), lexical [69][40]
LIG ligature, possessor ligature [22][82][23]
LIM LMT limitative [85][81][7]
LKLY likely (modality) [35]
LL land gender [23]
LL lower level (spatial deixis) [92]
LM landmark [54][36]
LM, LI linking morph, linking interfix [20][7]
LN last (= family) name [87]
LNK LK, LINK linker, linking element: an interfix or a ligature [59][8][63][79][21]
LOC LCV locative case (includes essive case), locative verb (EXIST) [2][48]
LOG logophoric (LOG.A speaker-logophoric PN, LOG.B addressee-logophoric PN) [8][1]
LOQ delocutive [54]
LP linking particle [1]
LQ limiting quantifier [21]
LS lexical stem [16]
LV LF locative/location voice/focus/trigger [82][7][101]
LV linking vowel [20][51]
LV lengthened vowel [7]
M MASC masculine gender (M.SG, MSG or ms masculine singular, M.PL, MPL or mp masculine plural) [2]
M- (a) modal case (prefix on case abbreviation, e.g. MABL modal ablative)
(b) marked (e.g. MNF marked non-future)
MAL malefactive case [38][25]
MALE male speaker [21]
MAN MNR manner; mood–aspect–negation (e.g. purpose-manner converb) [8][80][16][19]
MC modal clitic [21]
MDT, MEDIT meditative [16][79]
M.E. multiple event [89]
MEA measure [68]
MED (a) mediative; (b) medial (e.g. medial past, medial demonstrative = GIV); (c) middle voice (= MID) [14][49][16][79]
MF maximal field of view [36]
MID MD, MP, M, MDL middle voice, mediopassive [59][8][54][102][24][40]
MIM mimetic (≈ IDEO) [115]
MIN minimal number [99][23]
MIR ADM (ad)mirative [74][25][69][89]
MIRN negative mirative [25]
MIS miscellaneous gender [66]
MIT mitigation [47]
MLOC modal locative [6]
MOD, MO modal case (modalis), e.g. certainty [89][39][57][4]
MOD MDL, MP(modal particle) mood, modal, modal particle [33][90][81][57][19][21]
MOD modifier [33][82][57]
MOM momentane, momentative (single-event verb) [59][15][4]
MONO monofocal person [59]
MOT motion (combined with location glosses), mutative [79][100]
MOV MVMT movement [65][38]
MS maximal scope [36]
MSAP main speech-act participant (= 1st person in assertions, 2nd in questions)
MSD MASD maṣdar (verbal noun) [42][57][16]
MT mental state (classifier) [30]
MUL MULT, MLT,[citation needed] MLTP[citation needed] multiplicative case, numeral [78][55]
MULT multal [57]
MVR mover [36]
N NEUT, NT neuter gender (N.SG, NSG or ns neuter singular [cf. NSG non-singular], N.PL, NPL or np neuter plural)
Sometimes = non-human.
N noun (as a gloss in NZ nominalizer) [73]
N- n-, NON- non-, in-, un-, a-
(e.g. NSG, nSG non-singular;
NPST, nPST non-past;
NPRS, nPRS non-present;
NFUT, nFUT non-future;
NF, nF non-feminine;
NFIN, nFIN non-finite;
NPOSS, nPOS non-possessed;
N1, n1 non-1st person [i.e. 2/3], N3 non-3rd person;
NPFV, nPFV imperfective)
-N name (FN feminine name, GN geographic name, MN masculine name, PN proper name or place name, PLN place name, PSN personal name) [62][7]
NARR NAR cn? narrative tense [59][8]
NC noncontrol [20]
NC noun-class marker [6]
NCOMPL ICP, INC, INCMP, INCPL, INCMPL, INCOMPL incompletive/noncompletive aspect (normally = NPFV) [59][8][89][68][23][79]
NCTM ICM in contemporative (perfective appositional) [39]
NCUR noncurative [17]
NDEF INDF, IDF, INDEF, IND indefinite [2][15][61][10]
NEC necessitative [73][19]
NEG NOT, NG negation, negative (EX.NEG existential negation, ID.NEG identity negation) [2][120][31][21]
NEGAT negatory, negator [43][24]
NEGF final negator [36]
NEGN negative nominalization [24]
NEUT NEUTR, NTR neutral aspect [22][57][97]
NEX non-extended [48]
NF non-final form/marker (cf. non-feminine) [102][27]
NF non-finite (cf. non-feminine) [6]
NFC non-finite conditional [16]
NFIN NF cn? non-finite (nonfinite verb, non-finite clause)
(NF may be ambiguous with non-feminine)
NFND non-future neutral disjunct [7]
NFPD non-future perfective disjunct [7]
NH NHUM, nH non-human [8][22][16]
NM, NMASC non-masculine [1]
NMZ NMLZ, NLZ, NOMZ, NOMZR, NM, NML, NMNL, NOM, NOMI, NOMIN, NOMN, NOML, NZR, NR, NZ nominalizer/nominalization (e.g. PAT.NZ patient nominalizer) [1][18][51][121][2][37][39][32][90][96][55][57][68][120][79][19][20][36]
NOM NM nominative case [2][53]
NOMS S-only nominative (S case in tripartite system, = NTR) [35]
NONDUM 'not yet' [16]
NONIN noninstigational [38]
N/P neuter plural [54]
NP noun particle (cf. NP 'noun phrase') [19]
NP near past [34]
NPC non-past completive [54]
NPDL noun-phrase delimiter [6]
NPF noun prefix [6]
NPFV IPFV, IPF, IMP, IMPFV, IMPERFV, IMPRF, IMPF imperfective aspect [2][14][102][18][61]
NPOSS, UNPOSS non-possessed (marker of unpossessed noun) [79][19]
NPP non-past progressive [54]
NR near (as in NR.DIST 'near distal') [71]
NS non-subject (see oblique case) [74]
NS non-singular [1]
NSIT, NEWSIT new situation [21][79]
NSP non–speech-participant perspective (cf. NSP non-specific) [21]
NTEL, ATEL, AT atelic [79][30]
NTL neutral direction [7]
NTR INTR cn?, INTRANS, ITR intransitive (covers an intransitive case for the S argument, = NOMS) [2][26][16]
NTS non-topical subject [55]
NUM numeral, numerative (NUM.CL numeral classifier) [33][16][19]
NV neutral version (cf. SBV subjective version) [100]
NVEXP nonvisual experiential (evidential) [19]
NVIS INVIS, NVSEN non-visual (evidential: NVSEN non-visual sensory); invisible (deixis) [22][23][35]
NVN nominal cyclical expansion (cf. VNV) [48]
NVOL AVOL, INVOL nonvolitional, avolitional, involuntative/involitive [51][19][47][16][37]
NW non-witnessed [100]
NX.PST (= UWPST) non-experienced past [81]
-O object(ive) (ABLO objective ablative, EVITO objective evitative), 3mO 3m object, 2SG.O 2sg object [43][37][4]
OBJ OBJV, OB object(ive), object agreement (TOP.OB topical object); objective case [33][8][15][20]
OBL O oblique case, oblique form of pronoun [2][72]
OBS observation [21]
OBV obviative [59][8]
OFC object focus. = O.FOC or P.FOC [81]
OINV inverted object [100]
OM object marker [18]
ONOM onomatopoeia [68][19]
OP object prefix [6]
OPP opposite [61]
OPT optative mood (= DES) [33]
OR orientation (direction) marker [19][21]
OR open reference (not specifically DS or SS) [35]
ORD ordinal numeral [8]
ORD ordinary [122]
ORIG origin, originative [43][23][54]
OS oblique stem [16]
OS onstage region [36]
OTHER non-main speech-act participant (= 2nd or 3rd persion in assertions, 1st or 3rd in questions) [21]
OUT outward [7]
OV objective version [19]
P pre-, post- (P.HOD prehodiernal, P.CRAS postcrastinal) [90]
P proper (as opposed to common: ABS.P absolutitive proper case; GEN.P genitive proper case. Cf. PERS personal (proper) article. [82]
P previous (evidence) [21]
-P possessor: 1P, 2P, 3fP, 3mP (1st, 2nd, 3rd masc & fem possessor). = 1POSS etc. [37]
P.ANT past anterior [6]
P.IMP plural imperative [31]
P/I passive/imperative (= PAS/IMP) [36]
PASS PAS, PSS, PSV passive voice [2][36][11][48]
PABS past absolutive [19]
PAT patientive (= UND)
Lehmann (2004) recommends avoiding, as it is not the value of a morphological category.[8]
PAUS pausal, pause [22][79]
PAU PAUC, PA cn?, pc paucal number (M.PAU or mpc masculine paucal, F.PAU or fpc feminine paucal; GPAUC greater paucal) [8][35][25][71]
PC past completive [54]
PC concord particle [19]
PC perfective converb [10]
PCL 'polysemic clause linkage marker' [7]
PCP (a) completive participle; (b) participatory evidence [68][21]
PDR past, deferred realization [19]
PDS previous event, different subject [19]
PE perpetuity [25]
PE previous event [118]
-pe PE plural exclusive (= PL.EX) [4][8]
PEG pegative case (a special case for the giver) [22]
PEJ pejorative [25][39]
PERAMB perambulative [71][32]
PERI peripheral [92]
PERL PER cn?, PRL perlative case [8][54][48]
PERM permission, permissive mood [59]
PERM permanent [6]
PERS P personal (PERS.EV personal evidential / personal experience, PERS.AG personal agency, PERS.EXP personal experience); personal/proper article (= PERS.ART); 'personal' affix (= 4th person) [33][82][89][58][97]
PERS, PERSIS persistive [55][79][20]
PERSE personal experience (= PERS.EV) [26]
PERT pertensive [1]
PERV pervasive [79]
PFV PF, PERFV perfective aspect [2][69][26]
PHAB past habitual [54]
PHAS phasal aspect [68]
-pi PI plural inclusive (= PL.IN) [4][8]
PIMPF progressive imperfective [citation needed]
PIMPV past imperfective [77]
PINF physical inferential [19]
PK personal knowledge [1]
PL p, PLUR plural (but 1PL also 1p, 3PL.M also 3mp) [2][46]
PLUP PLU, PPRF, PPERF, PLUPERF, PLUPRF, PLPF, PLPERF, PPF[citation needed] pluperfect [33][92][28][8][22][16][46][19]
PLUR, VPL PLU, PLR, PL, PLURAC pluractional (= VPL verbal plural) [55][49][81][37][32]
PM predicate marker [18]
PN, PROPN, PR cn proper noun/name, personal name (e.g. PN.DET proper-noun determiner) [80][21]
PO primary object [8]
PO patient-orientated verb [54]
PODIR postdirective (= postlative) [12]
POEL POSTEL postelative case [12]
POESS POSTE, POSTESS postessive case ('after') [12][51][57][17]
POL polite register [33]
POS positive [1]
POSS POS, PO, PSR possessive, possessor (2POSS 2nd-person possessive; POSS.CL possessive classifier) [2][14][20][1]
POSB POSSB, POSSIB possible, modal possibility [59][77][56]
POSSD possessed [23]
POST PO- postlocative (behind). May be equivalent to POSTESS or POSTL. Compounded for POSTE(SS) (POESS), POSTL(AT) (PODIR), POSTEL (POEL) etc. if a single morpheme, as POST-ESS, POST-LAT or POST-DIR, POST-ELA etc. if not. [42][16][3][12]
POST, POSTP postposition, postpositional case [59]
POST post-terminal aspect [19]
POSTL PODIR, POSTLAT, POSTDIR postlative case, or 'postdirective' [12][17]
POT POTEN cn? potential mood (cf. VER) [33][8]
PP (a) predicative possessive particle;
(b) present progressive;
(c) past perfect;
(d) pragmatic particle
PPA active perfect participle [18]
PPAST post-terminal past [19]
PPF perfect participle [21]
PPFV past perfective (= perfect) [77]
PPP (a) past passive participle;
(b) past perfect participle
PPRT PP, PPT, [cn] PPART, PASTP [cn] passive participle, past participle [81][10][78]
PPS pseudo-passive [48]
PR pragmatic (in PR.PART pragmatic particle) [1]
PRC precedence [48]
PREC precative mood (requests) [8]
PREC, PRECON precondition (PRECA athematic precondition, PRECT thematic precondition) [43][24]
PREC, PRE precise, precision [25][21]
PRED predicative affix, predicative [2][12][23]
PREDICT prediction [89]
PREP preposition, prepositional case [33]
PRET PRT preterite (= PFV.PST) [2][1]
PREV previous (in evidentials) [19]
PREVEN preventive [19]
PRF PFT, PF, PERF perfect [33][55][51][8][61][2]
PRFRM, PERFORM performative [38][79]
PRIOR, PR prior, preceding [43][6]
PRIV PRV, PRVT privative case [8][51][16]
PRO PN, PRN, PRON pronominal base, (PRO only) proform [33][22][55][68]
PROB PB probabilitive [90][19]
PROCOMP procomplement [19]
PROD product verbalizer [19]
PROG PRG, PROGR progressive aspect [2][68][101]
PROH PRH, PROHIB prohibitive mood ('don't!') [2][33][48][19]
PROL PROLAT, PRL prolative case (= VIA) [8][22][16]
PROL prolonged action [117]
PROP PROPR proprietive case (quality of having X) [59][8][73][43][6]
PROP proper-noun marker [6][82]
PROPOS, PROP propositive mood (inclusive jussive) [122][11]
PROS PROSEC prosecutive case ('across', 'along') [123][79]
PROSP PROS, PRSP cn? prospective aspect or mood (PPROS past prospective) [8][96][57][7]
PROT protasis [90]
PROV pro-verb [10]
PROX PX, PRX proximal demonstrative; proximate (e.g. PROX.IMP proximate imperative) [2][31][19][101]
PRP property predication [7]
PRS PRES, PR present tense [2][61][1]
PRSC prescriptive [62]
PRSV presentative [36]
ps- pseudo: psAP pseudo-antipassive, psPASS pseudo-passive [28]
PS passing state [25]
PS passé simple [19]
PS undergoer (patient-role subject) [4]
PSA previous same agent of v.t. (PSS previous same subject) [68]
PSS previous event, same subject of v.i. (PSA previous same agent); PSSI and PSST previous event, same subject of v.i. and v.t. [68][19]
PSSM, PSSD possessum (impersonal), possessed [49][51]
PSSR possessor [65]
PST PAST, PA, PS, P, PAS past tense (e.g. PINDEF past indefinite, MPST modal past, SPST simple past) [2][54][1][19][32][7]
PSTN past nominalization [24]
PST.PR past/present (different readings on different word classes) [31]
PT potent case inflection [23]
(Lehmann (2004) recommends avoiding this and instead translating/glossing the meaning.),[8]
PTCP PART, PCP, PPL, PTP, PPLE, PRTC, PTCPL, PARTIC, PARTICIP, P participle, participial (mood) [2][33][11][8][13][42][26][48][102][21][18][79]
PTH path [21]
PTV PRTV, PAR, PART, PRT, PTT, PARTVE partitive case [33][8][13][61][35][19]
PUNC PUNCT, PNC, PU, PNCL, PCT, PNCT punctual aspect, punctiliar [6][59][8][14][38][25][35][36]
PRP PURP, PUR purposive case/converb (NPRP non-purposive) [35][2][101]
PV PF, PT, OV patient/object voice/focus/trigger[is Starosta 'object focus' true focus, not voice?] [82][7][84][83][72]
PV pivot form/nominal [54]
PV possessive verbalizer [21]
PVB PREV, PRV, PV preverb [22][59]
PVP post-verbal particle (only particle so glossed) [97]
PX possessive suffix [58]
Q QST, QUES, QUEST, QP question word or particle (= INT) [2][48][14][74]
QM quantity marker [26]
QU, QM, QM question marker (usually = Q) [2][36][74]
QUAL qualifier [69][55]
QUANT QNT quantifier [33][16][87]
QUOT QUO, QT quotative (quotative case, quotative mood, quotation marker) [2][120][1]
QV quotative verb [99]
R rational gender (thinking beings) (R.SG or rs rational singular, R.PL or rp rational plural) [citation needed]
-R reflexive (e.g. 3R 3rd-person reflexive) [48]
R- relational (prefix on case abbreviation) [24]
R.EXT, RT.EXT root extension [16][6]
R/A realis/assertive [23]
RA repeated action [19]
RA relative agreement [20]
RAR raritive [57]
RE refactive [16]
REA reactive (responding) [48]
REAL RLS, RL, R realis mood [8][49][81][55]
REC RCT, R recent, recent past (REC.PST, REC.P recent past tense, R.PRF recent perfect) [8][19][35][7]
REC receptive [70]
RECP RCP, RECIP, RECIPR, REC reciprocal voice [2][43][36][61]
RED, RDP, REDUP, RDPL, DUP[citation needed] reduplication, reduplicant (avoid if possible; instead gloss with meaning of reduplicated element) [59][22][23][81]
REF RFR referential, referentive [41][74][20][51]
REFL RFL, RFLX, REFLX, REF, RFLEX, RX, R reflexive (reflexive pronoun/possessive, reflexive voice; 'R' used with person-number-gender) [2][66][65][90][54][31][4][56][48]
REG regal (e.g. pronouns) [37]
REG regularity [48]
REGR REG regressive [1][37]
REL R (a) relative clause marker (RELZ relativizer);
(b) relative pronoun affix;
(c) relational (REL.CL relational classifier)
(d) relative case (possessor + A role)
(e) e.g. PAST.REL relative past
REL.FUT relative future [89]
RELEV relevance [89]
REM RM, RMT remote: REM.PST or REM.P or REMP remote past tense, REM.FUT or REM.F or REMF remote future tense; also REM remote past tense [59][8][21][41][18][1][35]
REP REPET, RPT (a) repetitive aspect (cf ITER)
(b) repetitive numeral
(c) repeated word in repetition
RES RESU, RESULT resultative (RES.N resultative noun) [2][120][79][17]
RES resignative [21]
RESID residue class [92]
RETURN returnative [6]
REV revisionary [1]
RF referential-focus [72]
RLN relational [20]
RSM, RES[citation needed] resumptive marker, resumptive pronoun [55]
RESP respect [59]
RESP responsive [89]
RET RETRO retrospective (recollection; synonym for 'perfect' in some traditions) (PRETRO past retrospective) [96][7]
REV reversative, reversive [25][102][6]
REV reverential [21]
R/M reflexive/middle voice [37]
RM relative marker [79]
RNR result nominalizer [19]
ROOT R, $ (empty tag to mark second element of a divided root) [2][16][28]
ROY royal (e.g. pronouns) [37]
RP (a) recent past, = REC.PST
(b) remote past, = REM.PST
RP reflexive-possessive [21]
RPC remote past continuous [54]
RPI remote past inferred [51]
RPR remote past reported [51]
RPST remote past [92]
RPT RPRT, REP, RPR, REVID reported evidential (= HSY); reportative [32][8][33][89][68][19][51][48][21][7]
RPV remote past visual [51]
RQ RHET, RQT rhetorical question [16][25][82][48]
R/R, RR, R reflexive/reciprocal [77][68][124]
RSN reason [65]
RST REST, RES, RSTR restrictive (restrictive numeral, adverbial) [70][118][10][7][34]
RT roundtrip [6]
RV[citation needed] RF reason voice/focus/trigger [7]
-S subjective (ABLS subjective ablative, EVITS subjective evitative), 3fS 3f subject [43][37]
SA speaker authority (cf. AA) [21]
SAA speaker-addressee authority [21]
SAL salient [25]
SAP speech-act participant (cf. MSAP) [28]
SBEL SUBEL subelative case ('from under') [12]
SBEN self-benefactive [63]
SBESS SUBE cn?, SUBESS subessive case ('under') [12][8]
SBJ SUBJ, S, S/A, SBJT, SJ subject case, subject agreement (NSBJ non-subject) [2][33][61][68][125][19]
SBV, SUBJ subjective, subjective speaker perspective [100][70]
SCEP sceptical [89]
SD sudden-discovery tense [19]
SDS simultaneous event, different subject [19]
SE same event (cf SS) (SE.DA same event, different argument/subject) [103][25]
SEC second-hand (SEC.EV secondhand evidential, IMP.SEC secondhand imperative) [89][19]
SEJ sejunct (opposite of conjunct) [43]
SEM SMLF, SEMEL semelfactive aspect ('once') [126][8][35]
SEM special evaluative marker [21]
SEN SNS, SENS, SENS.EV sensory evidential mood, = VIS+AUD (NVSEN non-visual sensory) [35][21][8][19]
SEP spatial separation, separative [16][1]
SEQ SQ sequential [59][8][1]
SER serial marker [15][23]
SF subject focus [19]
SF stem formation [51]
SF sentence-final marker [21]
SFN softener [48]
SFOC sentence focus [54]
SFP, SFS sentence-final particle/suffix [19][7]
SG s, SING singular (but 1SG also 1s, 3SG.M also 3ms) [2][46]
SGV SGT, SING, SINGL, SGLT singulative number, singulative nominal [8][49][55][1]
SH subject honorific [96]
SIM SIMUL simultaneous aspect, simultaneity [57][59][8][15][118]
SIMV SIM, SML similative (e.g. plural based on prototypical member of group) [57][15][118][16]
sIN singular intransitive action [19]
SINV inverted subject [100]
SIT situative (situational aspect) [30][79]
SJV SBJV, SUBJ, SUBJV, SUB, SB, SU subjunctive mood (SUB and SUBJ may be ambiguous with 'subject') [27][2][33][18][79][1][100][32][36][19]
SKT KST[citation needed] suck-teeth (= kiss-teeth) [87]
SL same level (spatial deixis) [92]
SM series marker [16]
SMBL SEMBL semblative [23][66][43]
SMI semeliterative [1]
SMR same reference [1]
SO same object [1]
SOC (a) sociative case (socialis); (b) sociative causative [56][79][118]
SP SPC, SPEC, SPCF, SPECFC specific, specifying (NSP, NSPC, NSPEC nonspecific: cf. also NSP entry) [8][87][38][62][72][28]
SP sentence particle (= FP). See usage note at particle and FP. [90][87]
SP simple past,[citation needed] perfective past [81]
SP subject prefix [6]
SP speaker: SP.PROX speaker-proximate, DEM.SP demonstrative near speaker [23][16]
SPAT spatial [94]
SPECFR SPEC specifier [33][38]
SPECL SPEC speculative mood [19][33]
SPKR speaker-anchored, speaker perspective [63][21]
SPL spotlighting [48]
SPONT spontaneous [111]
SR (a) same referent, (b) switch reference [23][70]
SRC, SO source [51][56]
SRP self-reporting pronoun [99]
SS SA same-subject/actor/argument marker (cf SE) [59][8][41][25]
SSO same-subject overlap ('while') [31]
SSS same-subject succession ('then') [31]
SSS simultaneous event, same subject (SSSI of intransitive clause, SSST of transitive clause) [19]
STAT STV, ST, STA, STT stative aspect, stative verb [8][15][82][48]
STEM ST, $ (empty tag to mark second element of a divided stem) [2][80][28]
STIM stimulative [38]
STR strong [1]
SUB sublocative (under). May be equivalent to SUBESS or SUBL. Compounded for SUBE(SS) (SBESS), SUBL(AT) (SBDIR), SUBEL (SBEL) etc. if a single morpheme, as SUB-ESS, SUB-LAT or SUB-DIR, SUB-ELA etc. if not. [42][16][3][12]
SUB, SUBV[citation needed] subitive. [40]
SUBL SBDIR, SUBLAT, SUBDIR sublative case ('down under'), also 'subdirective' [78][12][17]
SUBR SUB, SUBORD, SBRD, SR subordinator ('that'), subordinate [33][19][59][20][8][65][51]
SUBS subsequent [6][97]
SUBSEC subsecutive mood [79]
SUBST substitutive [16]
SUBZ,[citation needed] SBST substantivizer (= nominalizer) [57][26]
SUC successive ('then') [7]
SUG suggestive mood [79]
SUP supine [33]
SUP [dbl check next] superlative (most: cf. super-lative, super-essive) [8]
SUP, SUPL cn?, SUPPL supplicative, supplication [33][6]
SUPEL SREL, SUPEREL superelative case ('from on top of', 'from above') [57][12]
SUPER SUP-, SPR superlocative. May be equivalent to SUPERESS or SUPERL. Compounded for SUPERE(SS) (SUPESS), SUPERL(AT) (SUPDIR), SUPEREL (SUPEL), SUPERABL etc. if a single morpheme, as SUPER-ESS, SUPER-LAT or SUPER-DIR, SUPER-ELA etc. if not. [42][16][3][12][75]
SUPESS SUP, SUPE cn?, SRESS, SPRESS, SUPER, SUPERESS cn? superessive case ('above'; 'on') [8][33][30][12][16][28]
SUPL SUPLAT, SUPDIR, SRDIR, SPR super-lative, superdirective ('to above') [8][33][12][78][61][17]
SUPP PSUP, PRESUPP (pre)suppositive, presumptive, suppositional, presupposition [19][21][79][24]
SURP surprise [82]
SVC serial verb construction [117]
SW switch [70]
SYM symmetric [21]
-T trigger (used for AT, PT, GT etc.) [old fashioned; 'voice' is now standard] [83]
-T thematic (TAMT thematic tense-aspect-mood, ANTT thematic antecedent, etc.) [43]
T, TMP temporal [19][6]
TA T/A tense/aspect [15][66][57]
TAG tag question [16][7]
TAM TMA tense–aspect–mood [15][80][87]
TEL (a) telic aspect (cf PFV) (A:TEL anticipatory telic, C:TEL culminatory telic)
(b) contrastive emphasis
TEMP TEM temporal case; temporal converb [33][78][100]
TEMP temporarily [6]
TENS number of tens (in a numeral)
TENT tentative [57][51]
TER TERM, TERMIN terminative ~ terminalis ('up to') (case, aspect) [33][78][79]
TERM non-subject [19]
TH, THM, THEM, THEMAT thematic element (e.g. thematic consonant, suffix); theme [15][43][16][100][117][24][36]
TJ trajector [54]
TKN teknonym [48]
TM- tense marker: TMhrs, TMdays, TMyrs for events hours, days, years ago [37]
TND tendency [48]
TNS T, TENS, TS tense
Lehmann (2004) recommends avoiding this and specifying the tense.[8]
TOP TP, TPC topic marker (TOPP topical patientive) [2][41][22][55]
TOPZ, TOPR topicalizer [61]
TOT totalitative, totality [15][25]
TR TRANS, TRNS transitive verb (TRZ, TRR transitivizer); transitive case (rare) [2][61][51]
TR transitional sound [55]
TR trajector [36]
TRANSF, TRNSF transformative ('becoming', dynamic equiv. of essive) [22][8]
TRANSP (transposition of deictic zero away from ego, e.g. 'uphill' from an object rather than from the speaker) [128]
TRANSL TRA, TRAL, TRANS, TRNSL, TRANSLV cn?, TRANSLAT, TRLtranslative, TSLtranslocative (a) translative case (becoming, into);
(b) translocative (across; may be compounded for e.g. ANT-TRANS pass in front of, POST-TRANS pass behind, SUB-TRANS pass under)
TRI TRL, TR trial number [35][8][4]
TRIP retriplication [note: usually best to gloss with the meaning and ⟨~⟩] [129]
TRM transmutative [65]
TRN transnumeral (neither SG nor PL) [55][18]
TRPOSS transfer of possession [22]
TRZ TZ transitivizer [81][18]
TS (a) thematic suffix; (b) tense [16][19]
TV thematic vowel [81][32]
TVF truth-value focus [74]
U uninflected (AUX.U uninflected auxiliary) [90]
UA unit augmented [23]
UC upcoast [citation needed]
UF uncertain future [99]
UGR, UG, UND, U cn? undergoer role (cf PAT) [8][41][66][2][101][70]
UH uphill, inland (= AFW. cf UR.) [citation needed]
UL upper level (spatial deixis) [92]
UNCERT uncertain mood [79]
UNIF unified [4]
UNSP UNSPEC unspecified (person, tense) [15][8][55][23]
UNW 'unwillingness' marker [80]
UP upward [7]
UR upriver (cf UH away from the water) [74]
USIT usitative, for usual, customary or typical events [66][54]
UTIL utilitive [43]
UV UF undergoer voice/focus/trigger (= { PV + LV + CV }) [82][130]
UV uncertain visual [21]
UWPST unwitnessed past [100]
V viewer [36]
-V trigger (used for AV, PV, LV, CV etc.) [citation needed]
VA verbal adjective [19]
VAL valency-increasing; valence marker [15][28]
VAL validator [79][32]
VB V verbal (as a gloss in VBZ, VZ verbalizer, VPL verbal plural = PLUR, VCL verb class, VD verbal dative, VALL verbal allative, etc.) [33][8][73][118][24]
VBZ VBLZ, VBLZR, VERB, VERBL, VBZR, VLZ, VR, VZ verbalizer [1][121][6][64][8][81][61][7][51][32]
VCL verb class marker / classifier [23]
VCO voluntary comitative [68]
Vd VD, v.d. verb, ditransitive (e.g. as a covert category) [131]
VE VEG vegetable (food) gender. Some authors distinguish VE gender from VEG food affix.[23] [66]
VEN VENT venitive/ventive (coming towards; cf andative) [8][28][79][6]
VER veridical, veridical mood (certain conditional; cf. POT) [74]
VERIF verificative [38][16]
VERS versionizer; versative [16][75]
VERT vertical classifier [22][55][19]
Vi VI, v.i. verb, intransitive (e.g. as a covert category) [131]
VIA vialis case [65][71]
VIRT virtual mode [132]
VIS VS, VEVID (a) visual evidential (PRES.VIS present visual, VIS.P previous visual evidence);
(b) visible (demonstrative, e.g. 3vis)
VLOC verbal locative [21]
VN verbal noun [22][14]
VNV verbal cyclical expansion (cf. NVN) [48]
VOC vocative case [2]
VOL volitive mood; volitional (cf. AVOL avolitional) [113][118]
VP verbal particle [19]
Vr VR, v.r. verb, reflexive (e.g. as a covert category) [131]
VSM verb-stem marker [68][23]
Vt VT, v.t. verb, transitive (e.g. as a covert category) [131][15]
WH.EX exclamatory wh- clause ('what a ...!') [citation needed]
WH interrogative pronoun (wh-word), wh- agreement [57][16]
WHQ WH.Q wh- question [16][133][20]
WIT witnessed evidential (cf. EXP) [38][16]
WP, WPST witnessed past [81][100]
X ? (unidentified morpheme) [32][31]
YNQ, PQ, P.INT, PI yes–no question, polar question/interrogative (e.g. PC vs CQ) [133][16][19][1]
-Z -(al)izer (e.g. ADJZ adjectivizer, NZ nominalizer, TRZ transitivizer, VBZ verbalizer)
ZO zoic gender (animals) [134]


It is common to abbreviate grammatical morphemes but to translate lexical morphemes. However, kin relations commonly have no precise translation, and in such cases they are often glossed with anthropological abbreviations. Most of these are transparently derived from English; an exception is 'Z' for 'sister'. (In anthropological texts written in other languages, abbreviations from that language will typically be used, though sometimes the single-letter abbreviations of the basic terms listed below are seen.) A set of basic abbreviations is provided for nuclear kin terms (father, mother, brother, sister, husband, wife, son, daughter); additional terms may be used by some authors, but because the concept of e.g. 'aunt' or 'cousin' may be overly general or may differ between communities, sequences of basic terms are often used for greater precision. There are two competing sets of conventions, of one-letter and two-letter abbreviations:[135][136][48][24][137]

1-Letter Gloss 2-Letter Gloss Meaning Equivalent sequence of nuclear relations
A Au aunt = MZ or FZ / MoSi or FaSi
B Br brother [basic term]
C Ch child = S or D / So or Da
Cu cousin = MZD, MZS, MBD, MBS, FZD, FZS, FBD, FBS
= MoSiDa, MoSiSo, MoBrDa, MoBrSo, FaSiDa, FaSiSo, FaBrDa, FaBrSo
D Da daughter [basic term]
e, E o, el elder/older (e.g. eB, eZ)[55]
Ego ego ego (center of reference) (EgoE = one's spouse)
ex ex ex- (e.g. exH, exW)
F Fa father [basic term]
F female kin
G Gr grand- e.g. GF = PF (MF or FF); GS = CS (SS or DS)
e.g. GrFa = PaFa (MoFa or FaFa); GrSo = ChSo (SoSo or DaSo)
Gen generation (see below)
H Hu husband [basic term]
LA La -in-law e.g. BLA = WB or HB or ZH / BrLa = WiBr or HuBr or SiHu
M Mo mother [basic term]
M male kin
Ne nephew = BrSo or SiSo
Ni niece = BrDa or SiDa
P Pa parent = M or F / Mo or Fa
S So son [basic term]
SI, G Sb sibling = B or Z / Br or Si
SP, E Sp spouse = H or W / Hu or Wi
st step-
U Un uncle = MB or FZ / MoBr or FaBr
W Wi wife [basic term]
y, Y y, yo younger (e.g. yB, yZ)
Z Si sister [basic term]
(m.s.) (m.s.) male speaking (when kin terms differ by gender of speaker)
(f.s.) (f.s.) female speaking (when kin terms differ by gender of speaker)
μ male ego (when kin terms differ by gender of the person they are related to)
φ female ego (when kin terms differ by gender of the person they are related to)
parallel (across a brother–brother or sister–sister link)
+ + cross (across a brother–sister link)
os os opposite sex (of ego) (some langs distinguish siblings of the same and opposite gender from the ego; e.g. for some Tok Pisin speakers, a woman's susa (osSb, from English 'sister') is her brother and her brata (ssSb, from English 'brother') is her sister)
ss ss same sex (as ego) cf. os (opposite sex) above

These are concatenated, e.g. MFZS = MoFaSiSo 'mother's father's sister's son', yBWF = yBrWiFa 'younger brother's wife's father'. 'Elder/older' and 'younger' may affix the entire string, e.g. oFaBrSo (an older cousin – specifically father's brother's son), MBDy (a younger cousin – specifically mother's brother's daughter) or a specific element, e.g. MFeZS 'mother's father's elder sister's son', HMeB 'husband's mother's elder brother'.

'Gen' indicates the generation relative to the ego, with ∅ for the same (zero) generation. E.g. Gen∅Ch (child of someone in the same generation, i.e. of a sibling or cousin); ♂Gen+1F (female one generation up, i.e. mother or aunt, of a male); Gen−2M (male two generations down, i.e. grandson or grandnephew).

'Cross' and 'parallel' indicate a change or lack of change in gender of siblings in the chain of relations. Parallel aunts and uncles are MoSi and FaBr; cross-aunts and uncles are FaSi and MoBr. Cross-cousins (+Cu) and parallel cousins (∥Cu) are children of the same. Parallel niece and nephew are children of a man's brother or woman's sister; cross-niece and nephew are the opposite. 'Elder' and 'younger' occurs before these markers: o∥Cu, y+Cu, and the gender of the ego comes at the very beginning, e.g. ♂o∥CuF, ♀y+CuM.



  1. ^ The transcription and glossing of sign languages is in its infancy. Glossing is typically a sign-by-sign translation with almost no grammatical parsing. Some of the few standardized conventions are:
    A— (sign A held in its final position)
    A#B (A and B signed simultaneously)
    A^B (host-clitic combination)
    ____t (non-manual marking for topic)
    ____y/n (non-manual marking for polar question)
    IX or INDEX (3rd-person referents / pointing signs)[1]
  2. ^ 3SG.N should be fully abbreviated to 3ns, rather than to *3nsg, to avoid confusion with 3NSG (3 non-singular).


  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs bt bu bv bw bx by Alexandra Aikhenvald & RMW Dixon (2017) The Cambridge Handbook of Linguistic Typology
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs bt bu bv bw bx by bz ca cb cc cd ce cf cg ch ci cj ck cl cm cn co cp cq cr cs ct cu cv cw cx cy cz da db dc Comrie, B., Haspelmath, M., & Bickel, B. (2008). The Leipzig Glossing Rules: Conventions for interlinear morpheme-by-morpheme glosses. Department of Linguistics of the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology & the Department of Linguistics of the University of Leipzig. Retrieved January, 28, 2010.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Nina Sumbatova, 'Dargwa', in Maria Polinskaya (ed.) The Oxford Handbook of Languages of the Caucasus.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w Elena Filimonova (2005) Clusivity
  5. ^ Jeanette Sakel & Daniel Everett (2012) Linguistic Fieldwork: A Student Guide
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao Antoine Guillaume & Harold Koch (2021) Associated Motion. De Gruyter
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb Tasaku Tsunoda (ed.) Mermaid Construction: A Compound-Predicate Construction with Biclausal Appearance. De Gruyter.
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