In linguistics and grammar, a pronoun (abbreviated PRO) is a word or a group of words that one may substitute for a noun or noun phrase.

Pronouns have traditionally been regarded as one of the parts of speech, but some modern theorists would not consider them to form a single class, in view of the variety of functions they perform cross-linguistically. An example of a pronoun is "you", which can be either singular or plural. Subtypes include personal and possessive pronouns, reflexive and reciprocal pronouns, demonstrative pronouns, relative and interrogative pronouns, and indefinite pronouns.[1]: 1–34 [2]

The use of pronouns often involves anaphora, where the meaning of the pronoun is dependent on an antecedent. For example, in the sentence That poor man looks as if he needs a new coat, the meaning of the pronoun he is dependent on its antecedent, that poor man.

The name of the adjective that belongs with a "pronoun" is called a "pronominal".[A] A pronominal is also a word or phrase that acts as a pronoun. For example, in That's not the one I wanted, the phrase the one (containing the prop-word one) is a pronominal.[3]

Theory

Pronoun versus pro-form

Pronoun is a category of words. A pro-form is a type of function word or expression that stands in for (expresses the same content as) another word, phrase, clause or sentence where the meaning is recoverable from the context.[4] In English, pronouns mostly function as pro-forms, but there are pronouns that are not pro-forms and pro-forms that are not pronouns.[5][p. 239]

Pronouns versus Pro-forms
Example Pronoun Pro-form
1 It is a good idea.
2 I know the people who work there.
3 Who works there?
4 It is raining.
5 I asked her to help, and she did so right away.
6 JJ and Petra helped, but the others didn't.

Examples [1 & 2] are pronouns and pro-forms. In [1], the pronoun it "stands in" for whatever was mentioned and is a good idea. In [2], the relative pronoun who stands in for "the people".

Examples [3 & 4] are pronouns but not pro-forms. In [3], the interrogative pronoun who does not stand in for anything. Similarly, in [4], it is a dummy pronoun, one that does not stand in for anything. No other word can function there with the same meaning; we do not say "the sky is raining" or "the weather is raining".

Finally, in [5 & 6], there are pro-forms that are not pronouns. In [5], did so is a verb phrase that stands in for "helped", inflected from to help stated earlier in the sentence. Similarly, in [6], others is a common noun, not a pronoun, but the others probably stands in for the names of other people involved (e.g., Sho, Alana, and Ali), all proper nouns.

Grammar

Pronouns (antōnymía) are listed as one of eight parts of speech in The Art of Grammar, a treatise on Greek grammar attributed to Dionysius Thrax and dating from the 2nd century BC. The pronoun is described there as "a part of speech substitutable for a noun and marked for a person." Pronouns continued to be regarded as a part of speech in Latin grammar (the Latin term being pronomen, from which the English name – through Middle French – ultimately derives), and thus in the European tradition generally.

Because of the many different syntactic roles that they play, pronouns are less likely to be a single word class in more modern approaches to grammar.[6]

Linguistics

Examples of "our" as a determiner or a noun.
Examples of "our" as a determiner or a noun.

Linguists in particular have trouble classifying pronouns in a single category, and some do not agree that pronouns substitute nouns or noun categories.[1] Certain types of pronouns are often identical or similar in form to determiners with related meaning; some English examples are given in the table.

Pronoun Determiner
Possessive ours our freedom
Demonstrative this this gentleman
Indefinite some some frogs
Negative none no information
Interrogative which which option

This observation has led some linguists, such as Paul Postal, to regard pronouns as determiners that have had their following noun or noun phrase deleted.[7] (Such patterning can even be claimed for certain personal pronouns; for example, we and you might be analyzed as determiners in phrases like we Brits and you tennis players.) Other linguists have taken a similar view, uniting pronouns and determiners into a single class, sometimes called "determiner-pronoun", or regarding determiners as a subclass of pronouns or vice versa. The distinction may be considered to be one of subcategorization or valency, rather like the distinction between transitive and intransitive verbs – determiners take a noun phrase complement like transitive verbs do, while pronouns do not.[8] This is consistent with the determiner phrase viewpoint, whereby a determiner, rather than the noun that follows it, is taken to be the head of the phrase. Cross-linguistically, it seems as though pronouns share 3 distinct categories: point of view, person, and number. The breadth of each subcategory however tends to differ among languages.[9]

Binding theory and antecedents

The use of pronouns often involves anaphora, where the meaning of the pronoun is dependent on another referential element. The referent of the pronoun is often the same as that of a preceding (or sometimes following) noun phrase, called the antecedent of the pronoun. The grammatical behavior of certain types of pronouns, and in particular their possible relationship with their antecedents, has been the focus of studies in binding, notably in the Chomskyan government and binding theory. In this binding context, reflexive and reciprocal pronouns in English (such as himself and each other) are referred to as anaphors (in a specialized restricted sense) rather than as pronominal elements. Under binding theory, specific principles apply to different sets of pronouns.

Example reflexive structure. Since "himself" is immediately dominated by "John", Principle A is satisfied.
Example reflexive structure. Since "himself" is immediately dominated by "John", Principle A is satisfied.

In English, reflexive and reciprocal pronouns must adhere to Principle A: an anaphor (reflexive or reciprocal, such as "each other") must be bound in its governing category (roughly, the clause). Therefore, in syntactic structure it must be lower in structure (it must have an antecedent) and have a direct relationship with its referent. This is called a C-command relationship. For instance, we see that John cut himself is grammatical, but Himself cut John is not, despite having identical arguments, since himself, the reflexive, must be lower in structure to John, its referent. Additionally, we see examples like John said that Mary cut himself are not grammatical because there is an intermediary noun, Mary, that disallows the two referents from having a direct relationship.

Example pronoun structure. Since "him" is immediately dominated by "John", Principle B is violated.
Example pronoun structure. Since "him" is immediately dominated by "John", Principle B is violated.

On the other hand, personal pronouns (such as him or them) must adhere to Principle B: a pronoun must be free (i.e., not bound) within its governing category (roughly, the clause). This means that although the pronouns can have a referent, they cannot have a direct relationship with the referent where the referent selects the pronoun. For instance, John said Mary cut him is grammatical because the two co-referents, John and him are separated structurally by Mary. This is why a sentence like John cut him where him refers to John is ungrammatical.

Binding cross-linguistically
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The type of binding that applies to subsets of pronouns varies cross-linguistically. For instance, in German linguistics, pronouns can be split into two distinct categories — personal pronouns and d-pronouns. Although personal pronouns act identically to English personal pronouns (i.e. follow Principle B), d-pronouns follow yet another principle, Principle C, and function similarly to nouns in that they cannot have a direct relationship to an antecedent.[9]

Antecedents

The following sentences give examples of particular types of pronouns used with antecedents:

Some other types, such as indefinite pronouns, are usually used without antecedents. Relative pronouns are used without antecedents in free relative clauses. Even third-person personal pronouns are sometimes used without antecedents ("unprecursed") – this applies to special uses such as dummy pronouns and generic they, as well as cases where the referent is implied by the context.

English pronouns

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English personal pronouns have a number of different syntactic contexts (Subject, Object, Possessive, Reflexive) and many features:

Personal pronouns in standard Modern English
Person Number

& Gender

Subject Object Dependent possessive (determiner) Independent possessive Reflexive
First Singular I me my mine myself
Plural we us our ours ourselves
Second Singular you your yours yourself
Plural yourselves
Third Masculine he him his himself
Feminine she her hers herself
Neuter/

Inanimate

it its itself
Epicene they them their theirs themself
Plural themselves

English also has other pronoun types, including demonstrative, relative, indefinite, and interrogative pronouns:

Demonstrative Relative Indefinite Interrogative
this who / whom / whose one / one's / oneself who / whom / whose
these what something / anything / nothing (things) what
that which someone / anyone / no one (people) which
those that somebody / anybody / nobody (people)
former / latter

Personal and possessive

Personal

Main articles: Personal pronoun and English personal pronouns

English personal pronouns[2]: 52 
Person Number Case
Subject Object
First Singular I me
Plural we us
Second Singular you
Plural
Third Singular he him
she her
it
they them
Plural/Epicene they them

Personal pronouns may be classified by person, number, gender and case. English has three persons (first, second and third) and two numbers (singular and plural); in the third person singular there are also distinct pronoun forms for male, female and neuter gender.[2]: 52–53  Principal forms are shown in the adjacent table.

English personal pronouns have two cases, subject and object. Subject pronouns are used in subject position (I like to eat chips, but she does not). Object pronouns are used for the object of a verb or preposition (John likes me but not her).[2]: 52–53 

Other distinct forms found in some languages include:

Possessive

Main articles: Possessive and Possessive determiner

Possessive pronouns are used to indicate possession (in a broad sense). Some occur as independent noun phrases: mine, yours, hers, ours, theirs. An example is: Those clothes are mine. Others act as a determiner and must accompany a noun: my, your, her, our, your, their, as in: I lost my wallet. (His and its can fall into either category, although its is nearly always found in the second.) Those of the second type have traditionally also been described as possessive adjectives, and in more modern terminology as possessive determiners. The term "possessive pronoun" is sometimes restricted to the first type. Both types replace possessive noun phrases. As an example, Their crusade to capture our attention could replace The advertisers' crusade to capture our attention.[2]: 55–56 

Reflexive and reciprocal

Main articles: Reflexive pronoun and Reciprocal pronoun

Reflexive pronouns are used when a person or thing acts on itself, for example, John cut himself. In English they all end in -self or -selves and must refer to a noun phrase elsewhere in the same clause.[2]: 55 

Reciprocal pronouns refer to a reciprocal relationship (each other, one another). They must refer to a noun phrase in the same clause.[2]: 55  An example in English is: They do not like each other. In some languages, the same forms can be used as both reflexive and reciprocal pronouns.

Demonstrative

Main article: Demonstrative pronoun

Demonstrative pronouns (in English, this, that and their plurals these, those) often distinguish their targets by pointing or some other indication of position; for example, I'll take these. They may also be anaphoric, depending on an earlier expression for context, for example, A kid actor would try to be all sweet, and who needs that?[2]: 56 

Indefinite

Main article: Indefinite pronoun

Indefinite pronouns, the largest group of pronouns, refer to one or more unspecified persons or things. One group in English includes compounds of some-, any-, every- and no- with -thing, -one and -body, for example: Anyone can do that. Another group, including many, more, both, and most, can appear alone or followed by of.[2]: 54–55  In addition,

Relative and interrogative

Relative

Main article: Relative pronoun

Relative pronouns in English include who, whom, whose, what, which and that. They rely on an antecedent, and refer back to people or things previously mentioned: People who smoke should quit now. They are used in relative clauses.[2]: 56  Relative pronouns can also be used as complementizers.

Interrogative

Main article: Interrogative word

Relative pronouns can be used in an interrogative setting as interrogative pronouns. Interrogative pronouns ask which person or thing is meant. In reference to a person, one may use who (subject), whom (object) or whose (possessive); for example, Who did that? In colloquial speech, whom is generally replaced by who. English non-personal interrogative pronouns (which and what) have only one form.[2]: 56–57 

In English and many other languages (e.g. French and Czech), the sets of relative and interrogative pronouns are nearly identical. Compare English: Who is that? (interrogative) and I know the woman who came (relative). In some other languages, interrogative pronouns and indefinite pronouns are frequently identical; for example, Standard Chinese 什么 shénme means "what?" as well as "something" or "anything".

Archaic forms

Archaic personal pronouns[2]: 52 
Person Number Case
Subject Object
Second Singular thou thee
Plural ye you

Though the personal pronouns described above are the current English pronouns, Early Modern English (as used by Shakespeare, for example) use a slightly different set of personal pronouns, shown in the table. The difference is entirely in the second person. Though one would rarely find these older forms used in recent literature, they are nevertheless considered part of Modern English.

Kinship

In English, kin terms like "mother," "uncle," "cousin" are a distinct word class from pronouns; however many Australian Aboriginal languages have more elaborated systems of encoding kinship in language including special kin forms of pronouns. In Murrinh-patha, for example, when selecting a nonsingular exclusive pronoun to refer to a group, the speaker will assess whether or not the members of the group belong to a common class of gender or kinship. If all of the members of the referent group are male, the MASCULINE form will be selected; if at least one is female, the FEMININE is selected, but if all the members are in a sibling-like kinship relation, a third SIBLING form is selected. [10] In Arabana-Wangkangurru, the speaker will use entirely different sets of pronouns depending on whether the speaker and the referent are or are not in a common moiety. See the following example:

Pulalakiya

3DU.KIN

panti-rda.

fight-PRES

Pulalakiya panti-rda.

3DU.KIN fight-PRES

They two [who are in the classificatory relationship of father and son] are fighting. (The people involved were a man and his wife's sister's son.)[11]

See Australian Aboriginal kinship for more details.

Special uses

Some special uses of personal pronouns include:

See also

Related topics

In English

In other languages

Notes

  1. ^ Not to be confused with prenominal, which means "before the noun". English adjectives are prenominal – the blue house— and most of the French adjectives are postnominal — la maison bleue.

References

  1. ^ a b Bhat, Darbhe Narayana Shankara (2007). Pronouns (Paperback ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 1. ISBN 978-0199230242.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Börjars, Kersti; Burridge, Kate (2010). Introducing English grammar (2nd ed.). London: Hodder Education. pp. 50–57. ISBN 978-1444109870.
  3. ^ Loos, Eugene E.; Anderson, Susan; Day, Dwight H. Jr.; Jordan, Paul C.; Wingate, J. Douglas (3 December 2015). "What is a pronominal?". Glossary of linguistic terms. SIL International. Archived from the original on 14 November 2018. Retrieved 14 November 2018.
  4. ^ Crystal, David (1985). A dictionary of linguistics and phonetics (2nd ed.). Basil Blackwell.
  5. ^ Huddleston, Rodney; Pullum, Geoffrey K. (2002). Cambridge grammar of the English Language. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  6. ^ For example, Vulf Plotkin (The Language System of English, Universal Publishers, 2006, pp. 82–83) writes: "[...] Pronouns exemplify such a word class, or rather several smaller classes united by an important semantic distinction between them and all the major parts of speech. The latter denote things, phenomena and their properties in the ambient world. [...] Pronouns, on the contrary, do not denote anything, but refer to things, phenomena or properties without involving their peculiar nature."
  7. ^ Postal, Paul (1966). Dinneen, Francis P. (ed.). "On So-Called "Pronouns" in English". Report of the Seventeenth Annual Round Table Meeting on Linguistics and Language Studies. Washington, D.C.: Georgetown University Press: 177–206.
  8. ^ For detailed discussion see George D. Morley, Explorations in Functional Syntax: A New Framework for Lexicogrammatical Analysis, Equinox Publishing Ltd., 2004, pp. 68–73.
  9. ^ a b Simon, Horst J.; Wiese, Heike (2002). Pronouns - Grammar and Representation. Linguistics Today. p. 190. ISBN 9789027227737.
  10. ^ Walsh, Michael James. 1976. The Muɹinypata Language of Northern Australia. The Australian National University.
  11. ^ Hercus, L. A. (Luise Anna), 1926-2018. (1994). A grammar of the Arabana-Wangkangurru language, Lake Eyre Basin, South Australia. Canberra, Australia: Dept. of Linguistics, Research School of Pacific and Asian Studies, Australian National University. ISBN 0-85883-425-1. OCLC 32850800.((cite book)): CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  12. ^ "Yo as a Pronoun". Quick and Dirty Tips. Archived from the original on 2019-08-03. Retrieved 2019-04-05.
  13. ^ "Language Log: Yo". itre.cis.upenn.edu. Archived from the original on 2019-03-21. Retrieved 2019-04-05.

Further reading

  • Wales, Katie (1995). Personal pronouns in present-day English (Digital print. ed.). New York: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9780521471022.
  • Simon, Horst J. (2002). Pronouns - Grammar and Representation. Linguistics Today. ISBN 9789027227737.
  • Bhat, Darbhe N.S. (2007). Pronouns. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0199230242.