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Italo-Dalmatian
Central Romance languages
Geographic
distribution
Italy
France
Croatia
Linguistic classificationIndo-European
Glottologital1286

The Italo-Dalmatian languages, or Central Romance languages, are a group of Romance languages spoken in Italy, Corsica (France), and formerly in Dalmatia (Croatia).

Italo-Dalmatian can be split into:[1]

The generally accepted four branches of the Romance languages are Western Romance, Italo-Dalmatian, Sardinian and Eastern Romance. But there are other ways that the languages of Italo-Dalmatian can be classified in these branches:

Languages

Based on criterium of mutual intelligibility, Dalby lists four languages: Italian (Tuscan), Corsican, NeapolitanSicilian-Central Italian, and Dalmatian.[2]

Dalmatian Romance

Venetian

Venetian varieties
Venetian varieties

The Venetian language is sometimes added to Italo-Dalmatian when excluded from Gallo-Italic, and then usually grouped with Istriot. However, Venetian is not grouped into the Italo-Dalmatian languages by Ethnologue[3] and Glottolog,[4] unlike Istriot.[5][6]

Tuscan

The Tuscan varieties.
The Tuscan varieties.

Italian

Italian is an official language in Italy, Switzerland, San Marino, Vatican City and western Istria (in Slovenia and Croatia). It used to have official status in Albania, Malta and Monaco, where it is still widely spoken, as well as in former Italian East Africa and Italian North Africa regions where it plays a significant role in various sectors. Italian is also spoken by large expatriate communities in the Americas and Australia. The Italian language was initially and primarily based on Florentine: it has been then deeply influenced by almost all regional languages of Italy while its received pronunciation (known as Pronuncia Fiorentina Emendata, Amended Florentine Pronunciation) is based on the accent of the Roman dialect; these are the reasons why Italian differs significantly from Tuscan and its Florentine variety.[8]

Central Italian

Central Italian dialects
Central Italian dialects

Central Italian, or Latin-Umbrian-Marchegian and in Italian linguistics as "middle Italian dialects", is mainly spoken in the regions of: Lazio (which includes Rome); Umbria; central Marche; a small part of Abruzzo and Tuscany.

Neapolitan

Neapolitan dialects
Neapolitan dialects

The Neapolitan language, or known in Italian linguistics as the "intermediate southern dialect group", is spoken in: southern Marche; southernmost Lazio; Abruzzo; Molise; Campania (including Naples); Basilicata; and the north of both Apulia and Calabria.

Sicilian

Sicilian dialects
Sicilian dialects

In addition, some Gallo-Italic languages are spoken in Central-Southern Italy.

Judeo-Italian

Main article: Judeo-Italian language

The Judeo-Italian languages are varieties of Italian used by Jewish communities, between the 10th and the 20th centuries, in Italy and Greece (Corfu and Zakinthos).

See also

References

  1. ^ Hammarström, Harald & Forkel, Robert & Haspelmath, Martin & Nordhoff, Sebastian. 2014. "Italo-Dalmatian" Glottolog 2.3. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology.
  2. ^ David Dalby, 1999/2000, The Linguasphere register of the world's languages and speech communities. Observatoire Linguistique, Linguasphere Press. Volume 2. Oxford.[1][permanent dead link][2][3] Archived 2014-08-27 at the Wayback Machine
  3. ^ "Venetian". Ethnologue.
  4. ^ "Venetian". Glottolog.
  5. ^ "Istriot". Ethnologue.
  6. ^ "Istriot". Glottolog.
  7. ^ Harris, Martin; Vincent, Nigel (1997). Romance Languages. London: Routlegde. ISBN 0-415-16417-6.
  8. ^ La pronuncia italiana (Italian). treccani.it
  9. ^ Pellegrini G., Carta dei dialetti d'Italia, CNR - Pacini ed., Pisa, 1977
  10. ^ a b c Calabrian in Italian: Calabrese (pl. Calebresi). Synonyms: Calabro, Calabra, Calabri, calabre (m., f., m.pl., f.pl.). Sicilian: calabbrìsi, calavrìsi.