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Kedah Malay
بهاس ملايو قدح
ภาษามลายูไทรบุรี
Pelat Utagha
Bahasa Melayu Kedah
Native toMalaysia, Thailand, Myanmar and Indonesia
RegionKedah, Pulau Pinang, Perlis, northern Perak (Kerian, Manjung, Larut, Matang and Selama), Trang, Satun, Ranong, Tanintharyi, Langkat, Acheh
EthnicityKedahan Malays
Thai Malays
Burmese Malays
Jaring Halus Malays
Native speakers
2.6 million (2004)[1]
Dialects
  • Kedah Persisiran
  • Kedah Utara
  • Perlis-Langkawi
  • Penang
  • Northern Perak
  • Satun
  • Jaring Halus
Language codes
ISO 639-3meo
Glottologkeda1251
Spread of Kedah Malay: A. Kedah Valley, B. Satun (Setul), C. Tanintharyi (Tanah Sari), D. Acheh
Spread of Kedah Malay: A. Kedah Valley, B. Satun (Setul), C. Tanintharyi (Tanah Sari), D. Acheh

Kedah Malay or Kedahan (Malay: Bahasa Melayu Kedah; also known as Pelat Utara or Loghat Utara 'Northern Dialect') or as it is known in Thailand, Syburi Malay (Thai: ภาษามลายูไทรบุรี) is a variety of the Malayan languages mainly spoken in the northwestern Malaysian states of Perlis, Kedah, Penang, and northern Perak and in the southern Thai provinces of Trang and Satun. The usage of Kedah Malay was historically prevalent in southwestern Thailand before being superseded by the Thai language. Enclaves of Kedah Malay can be found in Kawthaung District in Myanmar; Ranong and Krabi in upper southern Thailand; Jaring Halus, Langkat and Acheh in Sumatra, Indonesia and up north in Bangkok, central Thailand, where most of the Kedah Malay speakers are descendants of historical settlers from Kedah.

Kedah Malay can be divided into several dialects, namely Kedah Persisiran (Standard Kedah Malay), Kedah Utara (Northern Kedah), Perlis-Langkawi, Penang and some others outside Malaysia.[2] Speakers in Trang as well as Satun are heavily influenced by the Thai language.

Vocabulary

Pronouns[3]
Kedah Malay Standard Malay English Translation
hang awak / kamu / kau 'you' (singular)
hangpā / ampa kalian 'you' (plural)
cek / aq saya / aku 'I'
cek saya 'I' (young to old)
cek kamu 'you' (old to young)
depa mereka 'they'
sépā (In a few certain areas) / kitorang kami 'we' (exclusive)
Question Words[4]
Kedah Malay Standard Malay English Translation
siapa, sapa siapa / siapakah 'who'
apa, pa apa / apakah 'what'
bila bila / bilakah 'when'
cemana, lagu mana bagaimana / bagaimanakah 'how'
mana mana 'where'
pasai pa, awat, rokpa,

buat pa, sebab pa

mengapa 'how'
berapa, bapa berapa 'how much'
Basic Words[3]
Kedah Malay Standard Malay English Translation
camca sudu 'spoon'
habaq cakap 'talk'
mai datang, mari 'come'
mau nak 'want'
lorat susah 'difficult'
lā, lāni sekarang 'now'
cabai cili / lada 'chilli'
hakap tamak 'greedy'
pi pergi 'go'
sat sebentar, sekejap 'one sec'
mengkalā bila, apabila 'when'
ketegaq degil, keras kepala 'naughty'
geghék basikal 'bicycle'
mertun tukul 'hammer'
lempaq baling 'throw'
menghabat memanjat 'climb'
ligan kejar 'chase'
loq laq tak senonoh 'indecent'
ketit gigit kecil 'bite softly'
tokok gigit 'bite'
berlemuih comot 'messy'
cemuih bosan 'bored'

References

  1. ^ Kedah Malay at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  2. ^ See Malayan languages for a comparison between Kedah Persisiran and Penang dialects.
  3. ^ a b Strife, Fiq (2 November 2007). "Kamus Dialek Melayu-Kedah" [The Kedah Malay Dialect Dictionary]. Dunia Melayu Kedah (in Malay). Retrieved 22 May 2021.
  4. ^ Mohamed Sultan, Faizal Mohamed; Suhaimi, N. (1 May 2012). "Kata Soal Dalam Dialek Kedah" [Question Words in the Kedah Dialect]. Gema Online Journal of Language Studies (in Malay). 12: 490 – via ResearchGate.

Further reading