Totoli
Native toparts of Central Sulawesi, Indonesia
Native speakers
25,000 (2001)[1]
Language codes
ISO 639-3txe
Glottologtoto1304
ELPTotoli

Totoli (also known as Tolitoli) is a Sulawesi language of the Austronesian language family spoken by 25,000 people of Central Sulawesi, Indonesia.

Grammar

Voice

Totoli has a symmetrical voice system.[2] In the examples below, i Winarno mongusut kunji motorna is an actor voice construction, while kunji itu kusuti i Winarno. is an undergoer voice construction.

I

HON

Winaro

PN

moN-kusut

AV-look.for

kunji

key

motor=na

scooter=3S.GEN

I Winaro moN-kusut kunji motor=na

HON PN AV-look.for key scooter=3S.GEN

'Winarno is looking for the keys of his scooter.'[2]: 1 

kunji

key

itu

DIST

kusut-i

look.for-UV2

i

HON

Winaro

PN

kunji itu kusut-i i Winaro

key DIST look.for-UV2 HON PN

'The keys are being looked for by Winarno.'[2]: 1  Unknown glossing abbreviation(s) (help);

The syntactic pivot can be placed before the predicate, as shown:

gaukan

king

no-gutu

AV.RLS-make

ponguman

story

itu

DIST

gaukan no-gutu ponguman itu

king AV.RLS-make story DIST

'The king made this announcement.'[3]: 142  Unknown glossing abbreviation(s) (help);

kopi

coffee

ia

PRX

ni-pogutu

RLS(UG)-make

i

PN

Andris

Andrew

kopi ia ni-pogutu i Andris

coffee PRX RLS(UG)-make PN Andrew

'Andrew made this coffee.'[3]: 143  Unknown glossing abbreviation(s) (help);

References

  1. ^ Totoli at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015) (subscription required)
  2. ^ a b c Riesberg, Sonja (2014). Symmetrical voice and linking in Western Austronesian languages. Walter de Gruyter.
  3. ^ a b Adelaar, K. Alexander; Himmelmann, Nikolaus, eds. (2005). The Austronesian languages of Asia and Madagascar.