Yami
ciciring no Tao
Native toTaiwan
EthnicityTao
Native speakers
3,800 (2006)[1]
Language codes
ISO 639-3tao
Glottologyami1254
ELPTao
Linguasphere31-CAA-a
Approximate location where Yami is spoken
Approximate location where Yami is spoken
Yami
Orchid Island in Taiwan
Approximate location where Yami is spoken
Approximate location where Yami is spoken
Yami
Yami (Southeast Asia)
Coordinates: 22°03′N 121°32′E / 22.050°N 121.533°E / 22.050; 121.533Coordinates: 22°03′N 121°32′E / 22.050°N 121.533°E / 22.050; 121.533

Yami language (Chinese: 雅美語), also known as Tao language (Chinese: 達悟語), is a Malayo-Polynesian language spoken by the Tao people of Orchid Island, 46 kilometers southeast of Taiwan. It is a member of the Ivatan dialect continuum.

Yami is known as ciriciring no Tao 'human speech' by its native speakers. Native speakers prefer the 'Tao' name.[1]

Classification

Yami and the other Batanic languages
Yami and the other Batanic languages

Yami is the only native language of Taiwanese aborigines that is not a member of the Formosan grouping of Austronesian; it is one of the Batanic languages also found in the northern Philippines.

Phonology

Yami has 20 consonants and 4 vowels:[2]

Vowels

Front Central Back
Close i
Mid ə o
Open a

Iraralay Yami, spoken on the north coast, distinguishes between geminative consonants (e.g., opa 'thigh' vs. oppa 'hen' form one such minimal pair).[3]

Consonants

Yami consonants
Labial Alveolar Palatal Retroflex Velar Uvular Glottal
Nasal m n ŋ
Plosive/
Affricate
voiceless p t t͡ʃ k (q) ʔ
voiced b d͡ʒ ɖ ɡ
Fricative v ʂ ʁ (ɦ)
Approximant l j ɻ w
Trill r

Grammar

Pronouns

The following set of pronouns are found in the Yami language.[4]

Yami pronouns
Nominative Genitive Locative
free bound free bound
1st person singular yaken ko niaken ko jiaken
2nd person singular imo ka nimo mo jimo
3rd person singular iya ya nia na jia
1st person plural inclusive yaten ta, tamo, takamo niaten ta jiaten
1st person plural exclusive yamen namen niamen namen jiamen
2nd person plural inio kamo, kanio ninio nio jinio
3rd person plural sira sia nira da jira

Verbs

The following list are verbal inflections found in Yami.[5]

Dynamic intransitive
Stative
Dynamic
Transitive
Stative functioning as transitive

Affixes

The following list are the affixes found in Yami.[6]

Vocabulary

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Cognates with Philippine languages

English Yami Tagalog/Ilokano/Visayan, etc.
Person tao tao (Tagalog), tawo (Cebuano Vis.)
Mother ina ina
Father ama ama
Head oo ulo
Yes nohon oho (opo)
Friend kagagan kaibigan
who sino sino, sin-o (Hiligaynon Vis.), hin-o (Waray Vis.)
they sira sila (Tagalog), sira/hira (Waray Vis.)
their nira nila
offspring anak anak
I (pronoun) ko ko, -ko (Ilokano)
you ka ka, -ka (Ilokano)
day araw araw, aldaw (Ilokano), adlaw (Cebuano Vis.)
eat kanen kain, kanen (Ilokano), kaon (all Visayan)
drink inomen inumin, inomen (Ilokano)
speech ciriciring chirichirin (Itbayaten Ivatan), siling (Hiligaynon Vis., say), siring (Waray Vis., say)
and aka saka
ouch Ananay Aray, Agay (Cebuano Vis.), Annay (Ilokano)
home vahay bahay, balay (Ilokano, Cebuano Vis.)
piglet viik biik (Tagalog, piglet)
goat kadling kambing, kanding (Cebuano Vis.), kalding (Ilokano)
stone vato bato (Tagalog, all Visayan, etc.)
town ili ili (Ilokano)
one ása isa (Tagalog, Hiligaynon Vis.), maysa (Ilokano), usa (Cebuano Vis.)
two dóa (raroa) dalawa (Tagalog), duha (Cebuano), dua (Ilokano)
three tílo tatlo, tulo/tuto (Cebuano Vis.), tallo (Ilokano)
four ápat apat (Tagalog, Hiligaynon Vis.), upat (Cebuano Vis.), uppat (Ilokano)
five líma lima
six ánem anim (Tagalog), innem (Ilokano), unom (Cebuano Vis.), anum (Hiligaynon Vis.)
seven píto pito
eight wáo walo
nine síam siyam, siam (Ilokano)
ten póo sampu (Tagalog), sangapulo (Ilokano), napulo (all Visayan)

Japanese loanwords

English Yami Japanese
Airplane sikoki hikouki (飛行機)
Alcohol saki sake ()
Battleship gengkang gunkan (軍艦)
Bible seysio seisho (聖書)
Christ Kizisto kirisuto (キリスト)
Doctor koysang o-isha-san? (お医者さん)
Flashlight dingki denki (電気)
Holy Spirit seyzi seirei (聖霊)
Key kagi kagi ()
Medicine kosozi kusuri ()
Monkey sazo saru ()
Motorcycle otobay ōtobai (オートバイ; auto bike)
Police kisat keisatsu (警察)
School gako gakkō (学校)
School bag kabang kaban ()
Teacher sinsi sensei (先生)
Ticket kipo kippu (切符)
Truck tozako torakku (トラック; truck)

Chinese loanwords

English Yami Mandarin Chinese
Wine potaw cio pútáojiǔ (葡萄酒)

See also

References

  1. ^ a b Rau & Dong 2006, p. 79
  2. ^ Rau & Dong 2006, pp. 79–80
  3. ^ Rau & Dong 2006, p. 81
  4. ^ Rau & Dong 2006, p. 123
  5. ^ Rau & Dong 2006, p. 135
  6. ^ Rau & Dong 2006, p. 135–136

Sources

  • Rau, D. Victoria; Dong, Maa-Neu (2006). 達悟語:語料、參考語法、及詞彙/ Yami Texts with Reference Grammar and Dictionary (PDF) (in Chinese and English). Taipei: Academia Sinica.
  • Rau, D. Victoria 何德華; Dong, Maa-Neu 董瑪女; Chang, Ann Hui-Huan 張惠環 (2012). Dáwù yǔ cídiǎn / Yami (Tao) Dictionary 達悟語詞典 / Yami (Tao) Dictionary (in Chinese and English). Taibei shi: Guoli taiwan daxue chuban zhongxin. ISBN 978-986-03-2519-5.
  • Rau, Der-Hwa 何德華; Dong, Maa-Neu 董瑪女 (2018). Dáwù yǔ yǔfǎ gàilùn 達悟語語法概論 [Introduction to Tao Grammar] (in Chinese). Xinbei shi: Yuanzhu minzu weiyuanhui. ISBN 978-986-05-5695-7 – via alilin.apc.gov.tw.

Further reading