Botolan Sambal
Native toPhilippines
Regionsome parts of Zambales province, Luzon
Native speakers
33,000 (2000)[1]
Official status
Regulated byKomisyon sa Wikang Filipino
Language codes
ISO 639-3sbl
Botolan Sambal language map.png
Area where Botolan Sambal is spoken according to Ethnologue
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Botolan is a Sambalic language spoken by 32,867 (SIL 2000) Sambal, primarily in the Zambal municipalities of Botolan and Cabangan in the Philippines. Language status is 5 (developing). [2]


The Ayta people of sitio Villar, Botolan, and sitio Kakilingan, Santa Fe, Cabangan also speak a Botolan dialect with some unique lexical items.[3]

Ethnologue reports Ayta Hambali (Hambali Botolan), Sambali Botolan as dialects of Sambal Botolan. Among themselves, Ayta Hambali reportedly use some words that are similar to Ayta, Mag-Anchi. [2]


Botolan has 20 phonemes: 16 consonants and four vowels. Syllable structure is relatively simple. Each syllable contains at least a consonant and a vowel.[citation needed]


Botolan has four vowels. They are:

There are five main diphthongs: /aɪ/, /uɪ/, /aʊ/, /ij/, and /iʊ/.


Below is a chart of Botolan consonants. All the stops are unaspirated. The velar nasal occurs in all positions including at the beginning of a word.

Bilabial Dental Palatal Velar Glottal
Nasals m n ɲ ⟨ny⟩ ŋ ⟨ng⟩
voiceless p t ⟨ts, ty⟩ k ʔ -
voiced b d ⟨dy⟩ g
Fricatives s ʃ ⟨sy⟩ h
Laterals l lj ⟨ly⟩
Flaps r
Semivowels w j

Note: Consonants /d/ and /ɾ/ can sometimes interchange as they were once allophones.


Stress is phonemic in Botolan. Stress on words is very important, they differentiate words with the same spellings, but with different meanings, e.g. hikó (I) and híko (elbow).

Historical sound changes

Many words pronounced with /s/ and /ɡ/ in Tagalog have /h/ and /j/, respectively, in their cognates in Botolan. Compare hiko and bayo with the Tagalog siko and bago.

Sample texts

The Lord’s Prayer

Version from Matthew

Tatay nawen ya anti ha katatag-ayan,
Hay ngalan mo ay igalang dayi nin kaganawan.
Andawaten nawen ya tampol kayna dayin mag-arí.
Mangyari dayi ya kalabayan mo bayri ha babon lotá
Bilang ombayro ha katatag-ayan.
Hapa-eg ay biyan mo kayin pamamangan ya
angka-ilanganen nawen.
Patawaren mo kayi ha kawkasalanan
nawen bilang pamatawad nawen ha nakapagkasalanan konnawen.
Agmo kayi biyan ma-irap ya pagsobok boy
ipakarayó mo kayi koni Satanas.[4]

Philippine national proverb

Below is a translation in Botolan of the Philippine national proverb[5] “He who does not acknowledge his beginnings will not reach his destination,” followed by the original in Tagalog.

See also


  1. ^ Botolan at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015) (subscription required)
  2. ^ a b "Ethnologue".(subscription required)
  3. ^ Himes, Ronald S. (2012). "The Central Luzon Group of Languages". Oceanic Linguistics. 51 (2): 490–537. doi:10.1353/ol.2012.0013. JSTOR 23321866.
  4. ^ "Botolan Sambal". Archived from the original on 2007-09-29. Retrieved 2007-09-22.
  5. ^ "National Philippine Proverb in Various Philippine Languages". Carl Rubino's homepage.