[Many of the languages listed here are not classified as North Vanuatu in their articles, and do not link back here]

North Vanuatu
Northern Vanuatu
Northern Vanuatu
Linguistic classificationAustronesian

The North Vanuatu languages form a linkage of Southern Oceanic languages spoken in northern Vanuatu.


Clark (2009)

Clark (2009)[1] provides the following classification of the North Vanuatu languages, divided into two main geographic areas (Torres–Banks–Maewo–Ambae–Pentecost and Santo). Outlier (aberrant) languages identified by Clark (2009) are in italics.[2]

François (2015)

The following list of 9 "Penama" North Vanuatu languages (that is, the North Vanuatu languages excluding the Torres–Banks and Espiritu Santo languages) is from François (2015:18-21).

No. Language Other names Speakers Ethnologue ISO 639-3 Region
18 Sungwadia Marino, North Maewo 500 mrb mrb Maewo
19 Sungwadaga Central Maewo 1400 mwo mwo Maewo
20 Baetora South Maewo, Sungaloge 1330 btr btr Maewo
21 East Ambae Lolovoli, Aoba 5000 omb omb Ambae
22 West Ambae Duidui 8700 nnd nnd Ambae
23 Raga Hano 6500 lml lml Pentecost
24 Apma 7800 app app Pentecost
25 Ske Seke 300 ske ske Pentecost
26 Sa Saa 3900 sax sax Pentecost


  1. ^ Clark, Ross (2009). Leo Tuai: A comparative lexical study of North and Central Vanuatu languages. Canberra: Pacific Linguistics.
  2. ^ The language names used by Clark have often been superseded by other names; in that case, the glottonym used by Clark is indicated in brackets.