Espiritu Santo
Santo
Geographic
distribution
Espiritu Santo Island in northern Vanuatu
Linguistic classificationAustronesian
Glottologespi1234

The Espiritu Santo languages (alternatively Santo languages) are a group of North Vanuatu languages spoken on Espiritu Santo Island in northern Vanuatu. Tryon (2010) considers the Espiritu Santo languages to be a coherent group.[1]

Languages

Two lists of Espiritu Santo languages from Tryon (2010) and François (2015) are provided below.

Tryon (2010)

Tryon (2010) recognizes 33 living languages and 2 extinct languages. They are:[1]

Language Speakers Area Villages
Valpei (Tavanlav) 300 North-West Santo Wunpuko, Valpei, Petani, Matalip, Pwar, Molpoe, Hakua, Maroa, Pwat, Pwatmwel (Onmwertev), Mwalovuko, Wunapak
Nokuku (Vevatot) 250 North-West Santo Olpoe, Nokuku, Lajmoli, Vunon, Penaoru, Petawota
'Oa 300 North-West Santo Tasmate, Sulesal, Vasalea
Vunapu 250? North-West Santo Vunapu, Pesena
Piamatsina 250? North-West Santo Piamatsina, Piamaeto, Peavot
Tolomako (Big Bay) 900 North-West Santo Jureviu, Tuturu, Tavunamalo, Peavot, Vasi, Pialulup, Matantas
Kula 350 West Santo Wusi, Kerepua, Elia 1
Bura 300 West Santo Linduri, Putonro, Saktui, Maram, Patiare, Mapten, Nukupospos
Kene 300 West Santo Vuimele, Navura, Papaisale, Arumalate, Latavoa, Pilipili, Lepurpuri, Potlavaisevu
Akei 4000 West Santo Toramaori, Lalaolo, Tovotovo, Kerevinumbu, Tasiriki, Ukoro, Malovira, Tasmalum
Daruru 100? West Santo Pelmol
Retlatur 100 South Santo Tanovusivusi
Ale 500 South Santo Fimele, Wailapa
Aje 10 South Santo Patunmevu, Nambaka, Wunamoli
Ande 500 South Santo Tanmet, Lotunai, Ipayato, Tasmalum, Morouas
Araki 10 South Santo Araki Island
Movono 370 South Santo Tangoa Island
Farsav 400 South Santo Nambel, Tanovoli, Narango, Funafosi, Nambauk
Tiale / Merei 400 Central Santo Tavuimoli, Nazaraka, Mataipevu, Patuitano, Morokari, Angoru, Tombet, Navele, Vusvogo
Kiai 450 Central Santo Wailapa, Fortsenale, Namoru
Ko / Mores (Farmores) 200? Central Santo Tanmet, Lemben, Tsarailan, Namafun, Patmarifu, Sarete, Mavunlif
Moiso 100 Central Santo Moriuli
Toksiki / Soisoru 200 Central Santo Morkriv, Pilnuri, Bengie
Tamambo 4000 East Santo Malo
Aore extinct East Santo Aore
Biliru 3 East Santo Tambotalo, Belnatsa, Beleru, Belembut, Lambue
Farafi 300? East Santo Butmas, Tur, Maniok, Shark Bay, Naturuk
Ngen 250 East Santo Vanafo (Tanafo), Mon Exil, Palon, Shark Bay
Ati (Meris / Miris) 85 East Santo Fumbak, Naturuk, Nambauk
Se 20 East Santo Vanafo, Butmas
Atin (Farnanatin) 120 East Santo Nambauk (Patunfarambu), Fumatal
Farnanto 100 East Santo Nambauk, Tanmet, Tafua
Mavea (Lonavu) 500 East Santo Mavea, Aissi, Tutuba
Nethalp extinct East Santo Lorediakarkar
Nekep 4000 East Santo Hog Harbour, Port Olry, Kole 1

François (2015)

The following list of 38 Espiritu Santo languages is from Alexandre François (2015:18-21).

No. Language Other names Speakers Ethnologue ISO 639-3 Region
27 Tolomako Bigbay 900 tlm tlm Espiritu Santo
28 Piamatsina 250 ptr ptr Espiritu Santo
29 Vunapu 380 vnp vnp Espiritu Santo
30 Valpei 300 vlp vlp Espiritu Santo
31 Nokuku 250 nkk nkk Espiritu Santo
32 Meri Tasmate, Oa 300 tmt tmt Espiritu Santo
33 Wusi Kula 350 wsi wsi Espiritu Santo
34 Bura 300 Espiritu Santo
35 Merei Tiale, Lametin 400 lmb, mnl lmb, mnl Espiritu Santo
36 Mores Ko 200 mrp mrp Espiritu Santo
37 Ande Morouas 500 Espiritu Santo
38 Toksiki Soisoru, Roria 200 rga rga Espiritu Santo
39 Kiai Fortsenal 450 frt frt Espiritu Santo
40 Moiso 100 Espiritu Santo
41 Kene 300 Espiritu Santo
42 Daruru 100 Espiritu Santo
43 Akei Tasiriki 4000 tsr tsr Espiritu Santo
44 Retlatur 100 Espiritu Santo
45 Wailapa Ale 500 wlr wlr Espiritu Santo
46 Farsaf Narango, Nambel 400 nrg nrg Espiritu Santo
47 Varavara Amblong, Aje 300 alm alm Espiritu Santo
48 Narmoris 220 plb plb Espiritu Santo
49 Biliru Tambotalo 3 tls tls Espiritu Santo
50 Atin 120 Espiritu Santo
51 Ati Polonombauk, Meris 85 Espiritu Santo
52 Farnanto 100 Espiritu Santo
53 Se Fanafo 20 Espiritu Santo
54 Sinia Navut 520 nsw nsw Espiritu Santo
55 Butmas-Tur Ati, Farafi 520 bnr bnr Espiritu Santo
56 Ngen Shark Bay 450 ssv ssv Espiritu Santo, Litaro
57 Tholp Nethalp 0 lnn lnn Espiritu Santo
58 Sakao Hog Harbour, Nkep 4000 sku sku Espiritu Santo
59 Mavea Mav̋ea, Mafea 34 mkv mkv Espiritu Santo, Mavea
60 Tutuba 500 tmi tmi Espiritu Santo, Tutuba
61 Aore 0 aor aor Espiritu Santo, Aore
62 Tamambo Malo, Tamabo 4000 mla mla Espiritu Santo, Malo
63 Tangoa Movono 370 tgp tgp Espiritu Santo, Tangoa
64 Araki 8 akr akr Espiritu Santo, Araki

Lynch (2019)

John Lynch (2019)[2] proposes the following classification scheme for the Espiritu Santo languages, with the development of bilabial consonants to linguolabials as the primary marker of the "Nuclear Santo" group:

References

  1. ^ a b Tryon, Darrell. 2010. The languages of Espiritu Santo, Vanuatu. In John Bowden and Nikolaus P. Himmelmann and Malcolm Ross (eds.), A journey through Austronesian and Papuan linguistic and cultural space: papers in honour of Andrew K. Pawley, 283-290. Canberra: Research School of Pacific and Asian Studies, Australian National University.
  2. ^ Lynch, John (December 2019). "The Bilabial-to-Linguolabial Shift in Southern Oceanic: A Subgrouping Diagnostic?". Oceanic Linguistics. 58 (2): 292–323. doi:10.1353/ol.2019.0010. Retrieved January 16, 2022.