(dark green, north) The Kavalanic languages: Basai, Ketagalan, and Kavalan
Basay was a Formosan language spoken around modern-day Taipei in northern Taiwan by the Basay, Qauqaut, and Trobiawan peoples. Trobiawan, Linaw, and Qauqaut were other dialects (see East Formosan languages).
Basay data is mostly available from Erin Asai's 1936 field notes, which were collected from an elderly Basay speaker in Shinshe, Taipei, as well as another one in Yilan who spoken the Trobiawan dialect (Li 1999). However, the Shinshe informant's speech was heavily influenced by Taiwanese, and the Trobiawan informant, named Ipai, had heavy Kavalan influence in her speech.
Li (1992) mentions four Basaic languages: Basay, Luilang, Nankan, Puting. Nankan and Puting are close to Kavalan, whereas Luilang is divergent.
There are four optional case markers in Basay (Li 1999:646).
Some function words include (Li 1999):
Trobiawan negators include (Li 1999):
Yes-no questions are marked by u ~ nu (Li 1999:657).
Basay verbs, like Kavalan verbs, distinguish between agent-focus (AF) and patient-focus (PF) verbs (Li 1999:650). The perfective prefixes na- and ni- are allomorphs.
|Type of prefix||Neutral||Perfective||Future|
|Agentive focus (AF)||-um-, m-||na-mi-||-um- ... -a, m- ... -a|
|Patient focus (PF)||–||ni-||-au|
|Locative focus (LF)||-an||ni- ... -an||-ai|
The Basay pronouns below are from Li (1999:639).
|1st person||singular||yaku||kaku, -ku||maku-, -aku; naku, -ak||yakuan, kuan, kuanan|
|plural||excl.||yami||-mi||yami, -ami; nami, -am||yamian, mian, mianan|
|incl.||mita||kita, -ita||mita, -ita; nita, -ta||... , ... , tianan|
|2nd person||singular||isu||kisu, -su||misu, -isu; nisu, -su ~ -is||isuan, suan, isuanan, suanan|
|plural||imu||kimu, -mu||-imu; nimu, -im||imuan, ... , imuanan|