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Teochew
Chaozhou
潮州話/潮汕話/潮語
Native toChaozhou
RegionEastern Guangdong (Chaozhou), Southern Fujian (Zhao'an)
EthnicityTeochew people
Language codes
ISO 639-3(tws is proposed[1])
Glottologchao1238
Linguasphere79-AAA-ji
This article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode characters. For an introductory guide on IPA symbols, see Help:IPA.
Teochew dialect
Traditional Chinese潮州話
Simplified Chinese潮州话

Teochew (Chinese: 潮州話; pinyin: Cháozhōuhuà, Chinese: 潮汕話; pinyin: Cháoshànhuà, Chinese: 潮語; pinyin: Cháoyǔ,[2] Chaozhou dialect: Diê⁵ziu¹ uê⁷, Shantou dialect: Dio⁵ziu¹ uê⁷) is a dialect of Chaoshan Min, a Southern Min language, that is spoken by the Teochew people in the Chaoshan region of eastern Guangdong and by their diaspora around the world. It is sometimes referred to as Chiuchow, its Cantonese rendering, due to the English romanisation by colonial officials and explorers. It is closely related to some dialects of Hokkien, as it shares some cognates and phonology with Hokkien. The two are mutually unintelligible, but it is possible to understand some words.[3]

Teochew preserves many Old Chinese pronunciations and vocabulary that have been lost in some of the other modern varieties of Chinese. As such, Teochew is described as one of the most conservative Chinese languages.[4]

Languages in contact

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Mandarin

In China, Teochew children are introduced to Standard Chinese as early as in kindergarten; however, the Teochew language remains the primary medium of instruction. In the early years of primary education, Mandarin becomes the sole language of instruction, but students typically continue to speak to one another in Teochew. Mandarin in widely understood by the Teochew youth, but the elderly may have difficulty with Mandarin due to growing up speaking Teochew.

Chaozhou accent in Mandarin

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Native Teochew-speakers find the neutral tone in Mandarin the most difficult tone to master. Teochew has lost the alveolar nasal ending [-n] and so Teochew-speakers often replace it with the velar nasal [-ŋ] when they speak Mandarin. The southern Min dialects all have no front rounded vowel and so a typical Teochew accent supplants the unrounded counterpart [i] for [y]. Teochew, like its ancient ancestor, lacks labio-dentals and so its speakers use [h] or [hu] instead of [f] when they speak Mandarin. Teochew has no retroflex consonants in its northern dialects and so [ts], [tsʰ], [s], and [z] replace [tʂ], [tʂʰ], [ʂ] and [ʐ] in the Teochew accent in Mandarin.[original research?]

Hakka

Since Chao'an, Raoping, and Jieyang border the Hakka-speaking region in the north, some people there speak Hakka but they can usually speak Teochew as well. Teochew people have historically had a great deal of contact with the Hakka people, but Hakka has had little, if any, influence on Teochew. Similarly, in Dabu and Fengshun, where the Teochew- and the Hakka-speaking regions meet, Teochew is also spoken, but Hakka remains the primary form of Chinese spoken there.

Cantonese

Because of the strong influence of Hong Kong soap operas, Guangdong provincial television programs and Cantonese pop songs, many young Chaoshan peoples can understand quite a lot of Cantonese even if they cannot speak it with much fluency.[citation needed]

Hmong-Mien languages

In the mountainous area of Fenghuang (鳳凰山), the She language, an endangered Hmong–Mien language, is spoken by the She people, who are an officially recognised non-Han ethnic minority. They predominantly speak Hakka (Shehua) and Teochew; only about 1,000 She still speak their eponymous language.

Thai

The majority of Thai Chinese are Teochew; Teochew is known to have provided a number of loanwords into Thai: Thai language § Vocabulary.

Khmer (Cambodian)

The majority of Chinese Cambodians are Teochew; Teochew is known to have provided a number of loanwords into Khmer.[5]

Cambodian Teochew also incorporates a number of loanwords from Khmer, including a function word pi (Khmer: ពី).[5]

Phonetics and phonology

Consonants

Prenasalization of voiced plosives and lateral in Teochew Voicelessly prenasalised voiced stops and lateral (0:01) "buy geese to eat"bhoi2 gho5 lai7 ziah8 [ᵐ̥boi ᵑ̊ɡo ⁿ̥ɺai tsiaʔ] Problems playing this file? See media help.

Teochew, like other Southern Min varieties, is one of the few modern Sinitic languages which have voiced obstruents (stops, fricatives and affricates); however, unlike Wu and Xiang Chinese, the Teochew voiced stops and fricatives did not evolve from Middle Chinese voiced obstruents, but from nasals. The voiced stops [b] and [ɡ] and also [l] are voicelessly prenasalised [ᵐ̥b], [ᵑ̊ɡ], [ⁿ̥ɺ], respectively. The voiced affricate dz, initial in such words as 字 (dzi˩), 二 (dzi˧˥), 然 (dziaŋ˥), 若 (dziak˦) loses its affricate property with some younger speakers abroad, and is relaxed to [z].

Southern Min dialects and varieties are typified by a lack of labiodentals, as illustrated below:

Teochew consonants
Bilabial Alveolar Velar Glottal
Voiced
(no frictions)
nasal m

b

n

l 來/內

ŋ

g 鵝/牙

plosive or lateral
Voiceless stops aspirated
plain p t k ʔ
Voiceless affricates aspirated tsʰ 菜/樹
plain ts 書/指/食
Fricatives s 士/速 h 海/系
(d)z 爾/貳

Syllable

Syllables in Teochew contain an onset consonant, a medial glide, a nucleus, usually in the form of a vowel, but can also be occupied by a syllabic consonant like [ŋ], and a final consonant. All the elements of the syllable except for the nucleus are optional, which means a vowel or a syllabic consonant alone can stand as a fully-fledged syllable.

Onsets

All the consonants except for the glottal stop ʔ shown in the consonants chart above can act as the onset of a syllable; however, the onset position is not obligatorily occupied.

Finals

Teochew finals consist maximally of a medial, nucleus and coda. The medial can be i or u, the nucleus can be a monophthong or diphthong, and the coda can be a nasal or a stop. A syllable must consist minimally of a vowel nucleus or syllabic nasal.

Nucleus -a- -- -- -ə- -i- -u- -ai- -au- -oi- -ou- -ui- -iu- ∅-
Medial ∅- i- u- ∅- u- ∅- i- ∅- ∅- ∅- ∅- u- ∅- ∅- ∅- i- ∅- ∅-
Coda -∅ a ia ua e ue o io ɨ i u ai uai au ou iou ui iu
-◌̃ ã ĩã ũã ũẽ ĩõ ɨ̃ ĩ ãĩ ũãĩ ãũ õĩ õũ ũĩ ĩũ
-ʔ iaʔ uaʔ ueʔ ioʔ auʔ oiʔ
-m am iam uam im
-ŋ iaŋ uaŋ ioŋ əŋ ŋ̩
-p ap iap uap ip
-k ak iak uak ek ok iok ək ik uk

Tones

Citation tones

Teochew, like other Chinese varieties, is a tonal language. It has a set of eight distinct sounds, but only six of them are considered unique tones. This discrepancy occurs because two of the eight sounds are reduced to stopped syllables, despite already sharing the same pitch as the six main tones. Additionally, depending on the position of a word in a phrase, the tones can change and adopt extensive tone sandhi.

Teochew tones
Tone
number
Tone name Pitch
contour
Description Sandhi
1 yin level (陰平) ˧ (3) mid 1
2 yin rising (陰上) ˥˨ (52) falling 6
3 yin departing (陰去) ˨˩˧ (213) low rising 2 or 5
4 yin entering (陰入) ˨̚ (2) low checked 8
5 yang level (陽平) ˥ (5) high 7
6 yang rising (陽上) ˧˥ (35) high rising 7
7 yang departing (陽去) ˩ (1) low 7
8 yang entering (陽入) ˦̚ (4) high checked 4

As with sandhi in other Min Nan dialects, the checked tones interchange. The yang tones all become low. Sandhi is not accounted for in the description below.

Grammar

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The grammar of Teochew is similar to other Min languages, as well as some southern varieties of Chinese, especially with Hakka, Yue and Wu. The sequence 'subject–verb–object' is typical, like Standard Mandarin, although the 'subject–object–verb' form is also possible using particles.

Morphology

Pronouns

Personal pronouns

The personal pronouns in Teochew, like in other Chinese languages, do not show case marking, therefore [ua] means both I and me and 伊人 [iŋ] means they and them. The southern Min dialects, like some northern dialects, have a distinction between an inclusive and exclusive we, meaning that when the addressee is being included, the inclusive pronoun [naŋ] would be used, otherwise [ŋ]. No other southern Chinese variety has this distinction.

Personal Pronouns in Teochew
  Singular Plural
1st person ua˥˨ I / me Inclusive naŋ˥˨ we / us
Exclusive uaŋ˥˨ (uŋ˥˨ / ŋ˥˨) we / us
2nd person lɨ˥˨ you niŋ˥˨ you (plural)
3rd person he/she/it/him/her 伊人 iŋ˧ (i˧ naŋ˥) they/them
Possessive pronouns

Teochew does not distinguish the possessive pronouns from the possessive adjectives. As a general rule, the possessive pronouns or adjectives are formed by adding the genitive or possessive marker [kai5] to their respective personal pronouns, as summarised below:

Possessive Pronouns in Teochew
  Singular Plural
1st person 我個 ua˥˨ kai˥ my / mine Inclusive 俺個 naŋ˥˨ kai˥ our / ours
Exclusive 阮個 uaŋ˥˨ (uŋ˥˨ / ŋ˥˨) kai˥ ours / ours
2nd person 汝個 lɨ˥˨ kai˥ your / yours 恁個 niŋ˥˨ kai˥ your / yours (plural)
3rd person 伊個 i˧ kai˥ his / his; her / hers; its / its 伊人個 iŋ˧ (i˧ naŋ˥) kai˥ their / theirs

puŋ˥˨

tsɨ˧

si˧˥

ua˥˨

kai˥

本 書 是

puŋ˥˨ tsɨ˧ si˧˥ ua˥˨ kai˥

The book is mine.

As [kai˥] is the generic measure word, it may be replaced by other more appropriate classifiers:

ua˥˨

tiou˥

kuŋ˥

ua˥˨ tiou˥ kuŋ˥

my skirt

Demonstrative pronouns

Teochew has the typical two-way distinction between the demonstratives, namely the proximals and the distals, as summarised in the following chart:

The Teochew Demonstratives
  Proximal Distal
General Singular 之個 [tsi˥˨ kai˥] this 許個 [hɨ˥˨ kai˥] that
Plural 之撮 [tsi˥˨ tsʰoʔ˦] these 許撮 [hɨ˥˨ tsʰoʔ˦] those
Spatial 之塊 [tsi˥˨ ko˨˩˧] here 許塊 [hɨ˥˨ ko˨˩˧] there
之內 [tsi˥˨ lai˧˥] inside 許內 [hɨ˥˨ lai˧˥] inside
之口 [tsi˥˨ kʰau˩] outside 許口 [hɨ˥˨ kʰau˩] outside
Temporal 之陣 / [tsi˥˨ tsuŋ˥ / təŋ˨˩˧] now; recently 許陣 / [hɨ˥˨ tsuŋ˥ / təŋ˨˩˧] then
Adverbial 這生 [tse˥˨ sẽ˧] like this 向生 [hia˥˨ sẽ˧] like that
Degree 之樣 [tsĩõ˨˩˧] this 向樣 [hĩõ˨˩˧] that
Type 者個 [tsia˥˨ kai˥] this kind 向個 [hia˥˨ kai˥] that kind
Interrogative pronouns
The Teochew Interrogative Pronouns
who / whom (底)珍 [ti tiaŋ]
底人 [ti naŋ]
what 乜個 [miʔ kai]
what (kind of) + noun + N [miʔ]
which + NUM + CL + (N) [ti]
底個 [ti kai]
where 底塊 [ti ko]
when 珍時 [tiaŋ si]
how manner 做呢 [tso ni]
state 在些(樣) [tsai sẽ ĩõ]
乜些樣 [miʔ sẽ ĩõ]
什乜樣 [si miʔ ĩõ]
how many + CL + N [kui]
若多 + (CL) + (N) [dzieʔ tsoi]
how much 若多 [dzieʔ tsoi]
why 做呢 [tso ni]

Numerals

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Teochew numeral system
Pronunciation Financial Normal Value Notes
liŋ5 0 〇 is an informal way to represent zero, but 零 is more commonly used, especially in schools.
also 空 [kang3]
tsek8 1 also [tsek8] (original character)
also 弌 (obsolete)
also [ik4] as the last digit of a 2-or-more-digit number e.g. 二十一 [dzi6 tsap8 ik4]
or days of a month e.g. 一號 [ik4 ho7]
or as an ordinal number e.g. 第一 [tõĩ6 ik4]
also 么(T) or 幺(S) [iou1] when used in phone numbers etc.
no6 (T) 2 also 弍 (obsolete)
also (T)
also [dzi6] as the last digit of a 2-or-more-digit number e.g. 三十二 [sã1 tsap8 dzi6]
or days of a month e.g. 二號 [dzi6 ho7]
or as an ordinal number e.g. 第二 [tõĩ6 dzi6].
sã1 (T) 3 also 弎 (obsolete)
also 參 [sã1].
si3 4  
ŋou6 5  
lak8 6  
tsʰik4 7  
poiʔ4 8  
kau2 9  
tsap8 10 Although some people use 什, It is not acceptable because it can be written over into 伍.

Note: (T): Traditional characters; (S): Simplified characters.

Ordinal numbers are formed by adding [tõĩ˧˥] in front of a cardinal number.

Voice

In Teochew passive construction, the agent phrase by somebody always has to be present, and is introduced by either [kʰoiʔ˦] (some speakers use [kʰəʔ] or [kʰiəʔ] instead) or [puŋ˧], even though it is in fact a zero or indefinite agent as in:

puŋ˧

naŋ˥

tʰai˥

掉。

tiou˩

刣 掉。

puŋ˧ naŋ˥ tʰai˥ tiou˩

S/he was killed (by someone).

While in Mandarin one can have the agent introducer ; bèi or ; gěi alone without the agent itself, it is not grammatical to say

*

 

kai˥

pue˧

puŋ˧

kʰa˧

掉。

tiou˩

* 個 杯 敲 掉。

{} kai˥ pue˧ puŋ˧ kʰa˧ tiou˩

The cup was broken.

cf. Mandarin 杯子給打破了; bēizi gěi dǎ pòle)

Instead, we have to say:

kai˥

pue˧

puŋ˧

naŋ˥

kʰa˧

掉。

tiou˩

個 杯 分 人 敲 掉。

kai˥ pue˧ puŋ˧ naŋ˥ kʰa˧ tiou˩

The cup was broken.

Even though this [naŋ˥] is unknown.

The agent phrase 分人 [puŋ˧ naŋ˥] always comes immediately after the subject, not at the end of the sentence or between the auxiliary and the past participle like in some European languages (e.g. German, Dutch)

Comparison

Comparative construction with two or more nouns

Teochew uses the construction "X ADJ [kue˨˩˧] Y", which is believed to have evolved from the Old Chinese "X ADJ (yú) Y" structure[citation needed] to express the idea of comparison:

ŋia˥˨

kue˨˩˧

汝。

lɨ˥˨

伊 雅 過 汝。

i˧ ŋia˥˨ kue˨˩˧ lɨ˥˨

She is more beautiful than you.

Cantonese uses the same construction:

Keoi5

leng3

gwo3

你。

nei5.

佢 靚 過 你。

Keoi5 leng3 gwo3 nei5.

She is more beautiful than you.

However, due to modern influences from Mandarin, the Mandarin structure "X Y ADJ" has also gained popularity over the years. Therefore, the same sentence can be re-structured and becomes:

pi˥˨

lɨ˥˨

雅。

ŋia˥˨

伊 比 汝 雅。

i˩ pi˥˨ lɨ˥˨ ŋia˥˨

She is more beautiful than you.

cf. Mandarin 她比你漂亮; tā bǐ nǐ piàoliang
Comparative construction with only one noun

The - or -construction must involve two or more nouns to be compared; an ill-formed sentence will be yielded when only one is being mentioned:

* 伊雅過 (?)

Teochew is different from English, where the second noun being compared can be left out ("Tatyana is more beautiful (than Lisa)". In cases like this, the -construction must be used instead:

i1

iou6

雅。

ŋia2

伊 夭 雅。

i1 iou6 ŋia2

She is more beautiful.

The same holds true for Mandarin and Cantonese in that another structure needs to be used when only one of the nouns being compared is mentioned. Teochew and Mandarin both use a pre-modifier (before the adjective) while Cantonese uses a post-modifier (after the adjective).

比較

bǐjiào

漂亮

piàoliang

她 {比較} 漂亮

tā bǐjiào piàoliang

keoi5

leng3

di1

佢 靚

keoi5 leng3 di1

There are two words which are intrinsically comparative in meaning, i.e. [ĩã5] "better" and [su1] "worse". They can be used alone or in conjunction with the -structure:

tsi2

nĩã2

kuŋ5

su1

(過)

kue3

2

領。

nĩã2

只 領 裙 輸 (過) 許 領。

tsi2 nĩã2 kuŋ5 su1 kue3 hɨ2 nĩã2

This skirt is not as good as that one.

ua2

lai6

kai7

tiaŋ6

nau2

ĩã5

i1

kai7

hoʔ2

多。

tsoi7

我 內 個 電 腦 贏 伊 個 好 多。

ua2 lai6 kai7 tiaŋ6 nau2 ĩã5 i1 kai7 hoʔ2 tsoi7

My computer (at home) is far better than his.

Note the use of the adverbial 好多 [hoʔ2 tsoi7] at the end of the sentence to express a higher degree.

Equal construction

In Teochew, the idea of equality is expressed with the word [pẽ5] or 平樣 [pẽ5 ĩõ7]:

tsi2

puŋ2

tsɨ1

kaʔ4

2

puŋ2

pẽ5

重。

taŋ6

只 本 書 佮 許 本 平 重。

tsi2 puŋ2 tsɨ1 kaʔ4 hɨ2 puŋ2 pẽ5 taŋ6

This book is as heavy as that one.

i1

no6

naŋ5

pẽ5

pẽ5

樣。

ĩõ7

伊 兩 人 平 平 樣。

i1 no6 naŋ5 pẽ5 pẽ5 ĩõ7

They are the same. (They look the same./They're as good as each other./They're as bad as each other.) lit. The two people are the same same way.

Superlative construction

To express the superlative, Teochew uses the adverb [siaŋ5] or 上頂 [siaŋ5 teŋ2]. 上頂 is usually used with a complimentary connotation.

tsi2

kõĩ1

mueʔ8

siaŋ5

teŋ2

ho2

食。

tsiaʔ8

只 間 物 上 頂 好 食。

tsi2 kõĩ1 mueʔ8 siaŋ5 teŋ2 ho2 tsiaʔ8

This (restaurant) is (absolutely) the most delicious.

i1

naŋ5

tui3

ua2

siaŋ5

好。

ho2

伊 人 對 我 上 好。

i1 naŋ5 tui3 ua2 siaŋ5 ho2

They treat me best. lit. The people treat me very well.

Vocabulary

The vocabulary of Teochew shares a lot of similarities with Cantonese because of their continuous contact with each other.[ambiguous] Like Cantonese, Teochew has a great deal of monosyllabic words.[6][7] However, ever since the standardisation of Modern Standard Chinese, Teochew has absorbed a lot of Putonghua vocabulary, which is predominantly polysyllabic.[citation needed] Also, Teochew varieties in Singapore, Malaysia and Indonesia have also borrowed extensively from Malay.[citation needed]

Archaic vocabulary

Teochew and other Southern Min varieties, such as Hokkien, preserve a good deal of Old Chinese vocabulary, such as [mak] eye (Chinese: 眼睛; pinyin: yǎnjīng, Hokkien: 目 ba̍k), [ta] dry (Chinese: ; pinyin: gān, Hokkien: 焦 ta), and [kʰəŋ] hide (cf. Chinese: ; pinyin: cáng; Hokkien: 囥 khǹg).

Romanisation

Main articles: Peng'im and Pe̍h-ūe-jī

Teochew was romanised by the Provincial Education Department of Guangdong in 1960 to aid linguistic studies and the publication of dictionaries, although Pe̍h-ūe-jī can also be used because Christian missionaries invented it for the transcription of varieties of Southern Min.

Initials

Initial consonants of Teochew, are represented in the Guangdong Romanization system as: B, BH, C, D, G, GH, H, K, L, M, N, NG, P, R, S, T, and Z.

Examples:

Finals

Vowels

Vowels and vowel combinations in the Teochew dialect include: A, E, Ê, I, O, U, AI, AO, IA, IAO, IO, IU, OI, OU, UA, UAI, UE, and UI.

Examples:

Many words in Teochew are nasalized. This is represented by the letter "n" in the Guangdong Pengim system.

Example (nasalized):

Ending

Ending consonants in Teochew include M and NG as well as the stops discussed below.

Examples:

Teochew retains many consonant stops lost in Mandarin. These stops include a labial stop: "b"; velar stop: "g"; and glottal stop: "h".

Examples:

See also

References

  1. ^ "Change Request Documentation: 2021-045". 31 August 2021. Retrieved 30 May 2022.
  2. ^ "學潮語,埋下愛的種子". Sin Chew. 2021-01-09.
  3. ^ "My China Roots". www.mychinaroots.com. Retrieved 2022-04-13.
  4. ^ Yap, Foong Ha; Grunow-Hårsta, Karen; Wrona, Janick, eds. (2011). Nominalization in Asian Languages: Diachronic and typological perspectives. John Benjamins Publishing Company. p. 11. ISBN 978-9027206770.
  5. ^ a b McFarland, Joanna Rose (2021-09-01). Language Contact and Lexical Changes in Khmer and Teochew in Cambodia and Beyond. Brill. doi:10.1163/9789004473263_005. ISBN 978-90-04-47326-3.
  6. ^ Li, David C. S.; Wong, Cathy S. P.; Leung, Wai Mun; Wong, Sam T. S. (2016-01-01). "Facilitation of transference: The case of monosyllabic salience in Hong Kong Cantonese". Linguistics. 54 (1): 1–58. doi:10.1515/ling-2015-0037. ISSN 1613-396X.
  7. ^ Zhang, Xi; Cross, Ian (2021-08-08). "Analysing the relationship between tone and melody in Chaozhou songs". Journal of New Music Research. 50 (4): 299–311. doi:10.1080/09298215.2021.1974490. ISSN 0929-8215.

Sources

Further reading